The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Richard Caswell was the first and fifth governor of the U. S. State of North Carolina, serving from 1776 to 1780 and from 1785 to 1787, he was major general over all North Carolina militia in 1780 and from 1781 to 1783. He was born on August 3, 1729, in Joppa, one of the eleven children of Richard Caswell and Christian Dallam Caswell; the younger Richard Caswell departed Maryland for the New Bern area of North Carolina in 1745. While a member of the North Carolina colonial assembly, a post he held for seventeen years, he introduced a bill in 1762 establishing the town of Kingston, changed to Kinston, NC after the Revolutionary War; as an officer in the local militia, Caswell fought against the Regulators in the Battle of Alamance in 1771 during the War of the Regulation. According to some sources, he commanded the right wing of Governor William Tryon's forces at Alamance. A lawyer and surveyor by training, Caswell represented North Carolina in the Continental Congress of 1774 and 1775; when the Revolutionary War broke out, Caswell was the commander of the district of New Bern, NC Minutemen.
As a Patriot officer in the American Revolutionary War, Caswell led North Carolina militiamen in the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge. In 1780 he was commissioned as a major general of all North Carolina militia troops. At the Battle of Camden, his troops fled after the Virginia militia broke and fled in a panic exposing Caswell's militia to attack without greater defense, leaving the Continentals behind to suffer defeat. After the Battle of Camden, Caswell returned home with some unnamed illness; the North Carolina General Assembly appointed William Smallwood of Maryland as his replacement over all North Carolina militia. However, they forgot to inform General Caswell, so he resigned on October 21, 1780; when Smallwood went back to Maryland in January of 1781, the General Assembly again appointed Caswell as Major General over all North Carolina militia and he retained this position through the end of the war in 1783. Military service record:: Colonel over the New Bern District Minutemen Brigadier General over the New Bern District Brigade of militia Major General over all North Carolina militia His son, Richard Caswell, Jr. was an officer during the American Revolution in the Dobbs County Regiment of the North Carolina militia.
As a colonel, he commanded the 2nd North Carolina Regiment of militia. Caswell was president of the provincial congress that wrote the first North Carolina Constitution in 1776; as the congress adjourned, it elected Caswell as acting governor. He took the oath of office on January 16, 1777. Under the new constitution, the state Legislature re-elected him as the first Governor in April 1777, he stepped down in 1780. He assumed command of all of North Carolina's militia, which he commanded at the American defeat at Camden, August 16, 1780, he served as the state's comptroller and as a member of the North Carolina Senate between his two gubernatorial terms. Caswell was chosen to be one of North Carolina's delegates to the United States Constitutional Convention of 1787, but he did not attend. Caswell was a prosperous farmer, land speculator and Grand Master Mason of North Carolina, he had training in surveying and was appointed deputy surveyor for the colony in 1750. At the time of his death in 1789, he had returned once again to the North Carolina General Assembly, this time serving as Speaker of the Senate.
Caswell died in Fayetteville, North Carolina, on November 10, 1789. According to tradition, his body was returned to Kinston for burial in the family cemetery, near where a memorial and museum stands today. Among his many accomplishments was his proposal to use the reimbursement funds for aid rendered to the Crown during the French and Indian war for erecting and establishing a free school in every county in North Carolina, his "Address to the General Assembly" in 1760 on this topic was used for many years by other politicians in favor of public education, he wrote the proposal into the first state constitution in 1776. Caswell County, North Carolina, Fort Caswell were named for him; the Richard Caswell Memorial and museum is established in Kinston, NC. Samuel A. Ashe, Biographical History of North Carolina, vol. 3. Connor, R. D. W.. “Richard Caswell," in Revolutionary Leaders of North Carolina, 79–101. 1916. Richard Caswell Papers, 1776–1914; the Richard Caswell Papers, #145-z, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
The collection is correspondence relating to North Carolina and United States military and political issues of the Revolutionary and post-Revolutionary periods. Topics include Revolutionary preparations including the arrival of French military officers and the difficulties of funding and arming the militia. After the Revolution, correspondence discusses political news. Correspondents include Thomas Burke, John Penn, Rawlins Lowndes, Henry Laurens, John Baptista Ashe, James Iredell, William Sharpe, Abner Nash, his son, William Caldwell, among others. Other items include a commission, 1777, for the negotiation of boundaries and peace with the Cherokee Indians. Caswell's Congressional biography Richard Caswell Memorial
Colorado State Treasurer
The Treasurer of the State of Colorado is one of the five elected officials of the U. S. state of Colorado. The State Treasurer is responsible for managing the Colorado State Treasury and the Colorado Department of the Treasury, a principal department of the Colorado state government; the Colorado State Treasury manages a pool of investments worth about $6,000,000,000. The current Colorado State Treasurer, Dave Young, was elected on November 8, 2018 for a four-year term beginning on January 8, 2019. State of Colorado Law and Government of Colorado Colorado Department of the Treasury Treasurer of the State of Colorado
Lieutenant Governor of North Carolina
The Lieutenant Governor of North Carolina is the second highest elected official in the U. S. state of North Carolina and is the only elected official to have powers in both the legislative and executive branches of state government. The current Lieutenant Governor is a Republican; as of 2008, the administrative offices of the Lieutenant Governor are located in the historic Hawkins-Hartness House on N. Blount Street in Raleigh's Government District; the Lieutenant Governor maintains an office at the nearby North Carolina State Legislative Building. At one time, the Lieutenant Governor had an office in the North Carolina State Capitol; the office of Lieutenant Governor was created by the North Carolina Constitution of 1868. Just as the Vice President of the United States presides over the United States Senate, the lieutenant governor's primary responsibility is to preside over the North Carolina Senate; the position is now a full-time job. By virtue of the office, the lieutenant governor is a member of the Council of State, the North Carolina Board of Education, the North Carolina Capital Planning Commission, the North Carolina Board of Community Colleges, serves as the Chairman of the eLearning Commission.
From 1868 through 1977, the lieutenant governor, like the governor of North Carolina, was limited to a single four-year term. In 1977, the North Carolina Constitution was amended to allow both the governor and the lieutenant governor to serve two consecutive terms; the lieutenant governor is the first official in line to succeed the Governor of North Carolina, should that office be vacated. This has occurred five times in the history of the office. Lieutenant governors have run for governor, but few have been successful. Jim Hunt, elected governor in 1976, Beverly Perdue, elected governor in 2008, are the two most recent exceptions; the lieutenant governor is elected on a separate ballot from the governor. This has happened twice in North Carolina since the 1977 constitutional amendment, once from 1985 to 1989, during the present 2016 to 2020 term. Parties Democratic Republican Notes North Carolina Lieutenant Governor Elections: 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016 As of April 2018, six former lieutenant governors of North Carolina were alive, the oldest being Robert B.
Jordan, III. The most recent death of a former lieutenant governor of North Carolina was that of Hoyt Patrick Taylor Jr. on April 22, 2018. The most serving lieutenant governor to die was James C. Green, on February 4, 2000. Office of the Lieutenant Governor NC History Project
Jonathan Worth (governor)
Jonathan Worth was the 39th governor of the U. S. state of North Carolina from 1865 during the early years of Reconstruction. Jonathan Worth was born on November 18, 1802 in Randolph County, North Carolina to Dr. David Worth and Eunice Worth. A native of Guilford County, Worth settled in Randolph County and made his fame and fortune there as an attorney and legislator. A Quaker and protégé of Judge Archibald Murphey, Worth championed the cause of free public schools, though he belonged to the outnumbered Whig party, gained much stature for his practicality and vision. In 1830, he ran for a seat in the North Carolina House of Representatives from Randolph County, motivated in large part by a failing law practice, his major shortcoming, was his deficiency as a public speaker. His peers at the Bar persuaded him there was no better way to improve his oratory and achieve better rhetoric than to become a member of the North Carolina General Assembly, which thrives on "talk", he served two terms in the House, took a break from public service to build a lucrative law practice, was elected to the North Carolina Senate, ran twice for Congress, both times unsuccessfully.
In 1858, Worth was again elected to the State Senate, where he was made chairman of a committee to investigate the poorly run North Carolina Railroad. He pursued this official duty so relentlessly that the president of the Railroad a good friend, challenged Worth to a duel, which Worth declined. Worth was an avid opponent of North Carolina's secession from the Union. Though opposed to the Confederate stands on most issues, Worth remained loyal to North Carolina and refused to take part in several peace movements. In late 1862 or early 1863, the legislature elected him State Treasurer by acclamation. Worth had the unhappy duty of issuing bonds to finance the State's share of its war debt. Of the some $20 million in notes authorized by the State, Worth issued $8.5 million and $5.2 million were outstanding at the end of the war. War bonds totaling more than $13 million were issued. At the end of the war, all of the State's war debt was repudiated. Just before Raleigh was occupied by Sherman's conquering forces at the end of the war, Governor Zebulon B.
Vance charged Worth with the duty of safeguarding the State archives, which he did by evacuating them to Company Shops in Alamance County. Worth was so regarded that when William W. Holden was installed as the provisional governor, he requested Worth continue as the provisional treasurer. Worth held that title for five months until he resigned during his campaign against Gov. Holden in a special November 9, 1865 election. Worth is the only statewide North Carolina treasurer. Worth was nominated by the Conservative Party, a state coalition that included most Democrats and some former Whigs, to run for governor in North Carolina's first and only special election for the office. Worth had been associated with the Conservative Party since the beginning of the Civil War, his opponent was the incumbent Gov. William W. Holden, appointed by President Andrew Johnson and was running on the National Union Party ticket. Worth's strength was in the eastern part of the state, Holden carried the western counties which had opposed secession and the Civil War.
Worth won with 32,549 votes to Holden's 25,809 votes. Worth won with the support of many elements of the state; the 1865 election had been conducted according to the 1865 state constitution, rejected by the U. S. Congress. Worth was re-elected on October 18, 1866 for a term that started December 22, 1866, he won 34,250 votes to 10,759 votes for former U. S. Rep. Alfred Dockery, running on the National Union Party ticket. In both his gubernatorial campaigns, Worth emphasized that he had opposed secession and that he sought to heal state and national divisions, he expressed support for President Andrew Johnson. The major event of Worth's second term was the state constitutional convention, held in early 1868 to draft a constitution meeting the requirements of Congress. One of Worth's major interests was to restore North Carolina to the Union. Worth was disappointed with the new constitution and refused to run for re-election on the Conservative Party ticket in the election of 1868, he did not recognize the legitimacy of that election.
He wrote to Holden: "I surrender the office to you under what I deem Military duress."Worth died 14 months after leaving office as governor. He is buried in Historic Oakwood Cemetery, his younger brother, John M. Worth, was a successful politician and North Carolina State Treasurer from 1876 to 1885. On October 20, 1824, Jonathan Worth married a niece of Judge Archibald Murphey, they had eight children: Roxana Cornelia, Lucy Jane, David Gaston, Eunice Louisa, Elvira Evelyna, Sarah Corinne, Adelaide Ann and Mary Martitia. Famous descendants include grandsons Worth Bagley and David W. Bagley, granddaughter Addie Worth Bagley Daniels, her son, Jonathan Worth Daniels. Official Site of Dept. of State Treasurer
Steven Terner Mnuchin is an American investment banker, serving as the 77th United States Secretary of the Treasury as part of the Cabinet of Donald Trump. Mnuchin had been a hedge fund manager. After he graduated from Yale University in 1985, Mnuchin worked for investment bank Goldman Sachs for 17 years becoming its Chief Information Officer. After he left Goldman Sachs in 2002, he founded several hedge funds. Mnuchin was a member of Sears Holdings’s board of directors from 2005 until December 2016, before, on Kmart's board of directors. During the financial crisis of 2007–2008, Mnuchin bought failed residential lender IndyMac, he changed the name to OneWest Bank and rebuilt the bank sold it to CIT Group in 2015. Mnuchin joined Trump's presidential campaign in 2016, was named national finance chairman for the campaign. On February 13, 2017, Mnuchin was confirmed to be President Donald Trump's Secretary of the Treasury by a 53–47 vote in the U. S. Senate; as Secretary of the Treasury, Mnuchin has been a vocal supporter of proposed tax reform, is an advocate for reducing corporate tax rates.
In regards to regulatory policy, Mnuchin supports a partial repeal of Dodd-Frank, citing the complexity of the legislation. Mnuchin's use of government aircraft for personal usage has come under scrutiny from watchdog groups. Steven Mnuchin was born on December 21, 1962, in New York City, the second-youngest son in his family. Mnuchin's family is Jewish, he is the son of Robert E. Mnuchin of Washington and Elaine Terner Cooper of New York. Robert Mnuchin was a partner at Goldman Sachs in charge of equity trading and a member of the management committee, he is the founder of an art gallery in New York City, the Mnuchin Gallery. Mnuchin's great-grandfather, Aaron Mnuchin, a Russian-born diamond dealer who resided in Belgium, emigrated to the U. S. in 1916. Mnuchin attended Riverdale Country School in New York City, he graduated from Yale University in 1985 with a bachelor's degree. At Yale, Mnuchin was publisher of the Yale Daily News, was initiated into Skull and Bones in 1985. Mnuchin's first job was as a trainee at investment bank Salomon Brothers in the early 1980s, while still studying at Yale.
When Mnuchin studied at Yale University, he lived in the former Taft Hotel in New Haven, Connecticut together with businessman Edward Lampert and lawyer Salem Chalabi as roommates. After Mnuchin graduated from Yale in 1985, he started working for Goldman Sachs, where his father was still working, since 1957. Mnuchin started in the mortgage department, became a partner at Goldman in 1994; until he left the company in 2002, Mnuchin held the following positions as a partner: November 1994 – December 1998: Head of the Mortgage Securities Department December 1998 – November 1999: Overseeing mortgages, U. S. governments, money markets, municipals at Fixed Income and Commodities Division December 1999 – February 2001: Member of the Executive Committee and co-head of the Technology Operating Committee February 2001 – December 2001: Executive Vice President and co-Chief Information Officer December 2001 – 2002: Executive Vice President, member of the Management Committee, Chief Information OfficerMnuchin left Goldman Sachs in 2002 after 17 years of employment, with an estimated $46 million of company stock and $12.6 million in compensation that he received in the months prior to his departure.
After he left Goldman Sachs in 2002, Mnuchin worked as vice-chairman of hedge fund ESL Investments, owned by his Yale roommate Edward Lampert. The following year, he established the company SFM Capital Management together with financier George Soros. Mnuchin founded a hedge fund called Dune Capital Management, named for a spot near his house in The Hamptons, in 2004 with two former Goldman partners. After its founding, Mnuchin served as the CEO of the company; the firm invested in at least two Donald Trump projects, the Trump International Hotel and Tower in Honolulu and its namesake in Chicago. Dune Capital Management and other lenders to the skyscraper in Chicago were sued by Trump before a settlement was reached. Mnuchin was outbid by Lone Star Funds on a portfolio of residential mortgage-backed collateralized debt obligations being sold by Merrill Lynch during the financial crisis, which sold for $6.7 billion. Mnuchin has been criticized for his use of offshore entities for investment purposes as a hedge-fund manager, a common practice in the industry.
Mnuchin has stated: "In no way did I use to avoid U. S. taxes." In 2009, a group led by Mnuchin bought California-based residential lender IndyMac, in receivership by the FDIC and owned $23.5 billion in commercial loans and mortgage-backed securities. The purchase price was a $4.7 billion discount to its book value. Mnuchin's investment group included George Soros, hedge-fund manager John Paulson, former Goldman Sachs executive J. Christopher Flowers, Dell Computer founder Michael Dell; the FDIC agreed to retain some of the more problematic assets of the bank, signed a loss-sharing agreement. The FDIC was estimated to be required to pay $2.4 billion to IndyMac under the shared loss agreement. After purchasing IndyMac, renamed OneWest Bank, Mnuchin served as chairman. OneWest bought several other failed banks including First Federal Bank of California in 2009 and La Jolla Bank in 2010. Furthermore, OneWest bought a portfolio belonging to Citi Holdings for $1.4 billion. OneWest was profitable one year after Mnuchin had bought it, it became the largest bank of Southern California, with assets worth $27 billion.
In 2015, Mnuchin sold OneWest to CIT Group for $3.4 billion. After the acquisition by CIT, Mnuchin remained at OneWest
North Carolina Attorney General
The Attorney General of North Carolina is the elected head of the state's Department of Justice. The North Carolina Constitution provides for the election of the Attorney General to serve a four-year term. There is no limit on the number of terms; the current Attorney General, Democrat Josh Stein, assumed office on January 1, 2017. Attorney General's duties include providing legal advice to all state agencies; the parameters of that duty have been the subject of some debate, for example, U. S. Attorney General Eric Holder suggested that state Attorneys General should not squander their state's resources in defense of laws they know to be unconstitutional. By statute, in defense of the public interest, the Attorney General may initiate legal action or intervene in proceedings before any courts, regulatory officers, agencies or bodies — either state or federal — on behalf of the state's agencies and citizens; the Attorney General renders legal opinions, either formally or informally, upon all questions of law submitted by the General Assembly, the Governor, or any other state officer.
Attorney General opinions may be viewed online. The title "Attorney General" was used in colonial North Carolina as early as 1677, when George Durant was appointed by Governor John Jenkins. In theory, colonial Attorneys General represented the British Attorney General, who represented the Crown; the first North Carolina Constitution established the office of state Attorney General. Like the state Governor, the Attorney General was at that time elected by the legislature, the North Carolina General Assembly; the first Attorney General for the independent state of North Carolina was Waightstill Avery, who served from 1777 to 1779. Two of Avery's successors, James Iredell and Alfred Moore, both served on the United States Supreme Court. Since 1868, the Attorney General has been elected by the people. At the same time, the Attorney General became a voting member of the Council of State, rather than the legal advisor to the council; the North Carolina Department of Justice was created by the legislature in the early 1970s.
Occupants of the office run for Governor of North Carolina or U. S. Senator, some of them such as former Governor Mike Easley, former Senator Robert B. Morgan, the current Governor, Roy Cooper. Waightstill Avery, 1777–1779 James Iredell, 1779–1782 Alfred Moore, 1782–1791 John Haywood, 1792–1795 Blake Baker, 1795–1803 Henry Seawell, 1803–1808 Oliver Fitts, 1808–1810 William Miller, 1810 Hutchins Gordon Burton, 1810–1816 William P. Drew, 1816–1824 James F. Taylor, 1825–1828 Robert H. Jones, 1828 Romulus Mitchell Saunders, 1828–1834 John Reeves Jones Daniel, 1835–1841 Hugh McQueen, 1841–1842 Spier Whitaker, 1842–1846 Edward Stanly, 1846–1848 Bartholomew F. Moore, 1848–1851 William Eaton, Jr. 1851–1852 Matt Whitaker Ransom, 1853–1855 Joseph B. Batchelor, 1855–1856 William H. Bailey, 1857 William A. Jenkins, 1857–1862 Sion Hart Rogers, 1863–1868 William M. Coleman, 1868–1869 Lewis P. Olds, 1869–1870 William M. Shipp, 1870–1873 Tazewell L. Hargrove, 1873–1877 Thomas S. Kenan, 1877–1885 Theodore F. Davidson, 1885–1893 Frank I.
Osborne, 1893–1897 Zeb V. Walser, 1897–1900 Robert Dick Douglas, 1900–1901 Robert D. Gilmer, 1901–1909 Thomas Walter Bickett, 1909–1917 James S. Manning, 1917–1925 Dennis G. Brummitt, 1925–1935 Aaron A. F. Seawell, 1935–1938 Harry McMullan, 1938–1955 William B. Rodman, Jr. 1955–1956 George B. Patton, 1956–1958 Malcolm B. Seawell, 1958–1960 T. Wade Bruton, 1960–1969 Robert Burren Morgan, 1969–1974 James H. Carson, Jr. 1974–1975 Rufus L. Edmisten, 1975–1985 Lacy Thornburg, 1985–1993 Mike Easley, 1993–2001 Roy Cooper, 2001–2017 Josh Stein, 2017–present North Carolina Attorney General official website North Carolina Attorney General articles at Legal Newsline Legal Journal North Carolina Attorney General articles at ABA Journal News and Commentary at FindLaw North Carolina General Statutes at Law. Justia.com U. S. Supreme Court Opinions - "Cases with title containing: State of North Carolina" at FindLaw North Carolina Bar Association North Carolina Attorney General Roy Cooper profile at National Association of Attorneys General Press releases at North Carolina Attorney General