Coaster (commuter rail)
Coaster is a commuter rail service that operates in the central and northern coastal regions of San Diego County, United States. The service is operated by Bombardier Transportation on contract with North County Transit District; the service has eight stops and operates during weekday peak periods, with additional weekend and holiday service. The North San Diego County Transit Development Board was created in 1975 to consolidate and improve transit in northern San Diego County. Planning began for a San Diego–Oceanside commuter rail line - called Coast Express Rail - in 1982. Funding for right-of-way acquisition and construction costs came from TransNet, a 1987 measure that imposed a 0.5% sales tax on San Diego County residents for transportation projects. The Board established the San Diego Northern Railway Corporation - a nonprofit operating subsidiary - in 1994. SDNR purchased 41 miles of the Surf Line plus the 22-mile Escondido Branch from the Santa Fe Railway that year. COASTER service began on February 27, 1995.
NCTD contracted Amtrak to provide personnel for Coaster trains. In July 2006, TransitAmerica Services took over the day-to-day operation of the commuter train, based on a five-year, $45 million contract with NCTD. In 2016, Bombardier Transportation replaced TransitAmerica as COASTER's operator. San Diego County voters extended the TransNet sales tax through 2038, which includes funding for rail track upgrades. By the early 2010s, numerous improvements such as added double track and bridge replacements were in various stages of construction and design; as part of the broader North Coast Corridor project $1 billion is planned to be spent on new segments of double track between San Diego and Orange County. NCTD plans to extend COASTER service north to Camp Pendleton The agency plans to build limited-use stations at the Convention Center and the Del Mar Racetrack for use during major events. More than 20 COASTER trains run on weekdays, with additional service on the weekends; as of the April 3, 2017 schedule, COASTER added Friday Night service with trains running until a quarter after midnight.
More weekend services operate during summer months and when there are special events The COASTER connects with Amtrak's Pacific Surfliner at Oceanside, Solana Beach, Old Town Transit Center, Santa Fe Depot in San Diego. The COASTER connects with the Metrolink rail system at Oceanside, providing connecting service to Orange, Los Angeles and San Bernardino counties, it connects to the San Diego MTS buses at the Old Town Transit Center. The COASTER connects with BREEZE buses at all North San Diego County station stops; the cost of COASTER tickets is based upon the number of zones traveled. Fare collection is based on a proof-of-payment system: tickets must be purchased before boarding and are checked by roving fare inspectors. Monthly passes are available. All tickets and passes include transfer agreements with NCTD BREEZE buses and monthly passes include transfer with the Metropolitan Transit System buses and Trolleys. On January 20, 2011, the NCTD implemented a fare reduction – the fare reduction led to increased ridership on the COASTER and so was made a permanent fare reduction in September 2011.
As of January 2012, regular one-way fares are as follows: Within one zone: $4 Within two zones: $5 Within three zones: $5.50With proof of eligibility, senior citizens, people with disabilities, Medicare cardholders receive a 50% discount on the above fares. Riding the COASTER without a valid ticket may result in a penalty fare of up to $250. Riders cannot purchase tickets on board the train. In September 2008, SANDAG introduced a new contactless "Compass Card", made possible by Cubic Transportation Systems, Inc; the "Compass Card" allows passengers from MTS and NCTD to store regional transit passes and cash value on a rewritable RFID card. Customers can add cash value on the Internet or at any ticket vending machine. Prior to boarding a train, customers tap their Compass Cards on the ticket validator located on the train platform; the LED display on the validator lights up with lights resembling that of a stoplight, the LCD display shows text regarding the passenger's fare account. The COASTER carried about 514,450 passengers during its first year of operation, ridership rose in the years that followed.
In 2012, COASTER ridership was 1.6 million people, with an average number of 5,600 weekday boardings. 40% of weekday commuters detrain at Sorrento Valley. In June 2018, the North County Transit District Board of Directors approved the purchase of five Siemens Charger locomotives to replace their existing five F40PHM-2C locomotives that were remanufactured by Morrison-Knudsen. Deliveries are expected in the first half of 2021, with $10.5 million of the estimated $53.9 million cost earmarked from statewide gas tax and vehicle registration fees. In August 2018, NCTD announced that they were seeking public opinions and input on a re-brand of the agency; this included two new paint scheme ideas for COASTER, along with the existing scheme being used as a third option. The new COASTER livery will be decided upon by agency officials depending on the public input and will be painted on the new Siemens Chargers and passenger cars in 2021. NCTD maintains two rail storage yards for the COASTER; the main
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl
Bombardier Transportation is the rail equipment division of the Canadian firm Bombardier Inc. Bombardier Transportation is one of the world's largest companies in the rail vehicle and equipment manufacturing and servicing industry. Bombardier Transportation is headquartered in Berlin. There are many regional offices and development facilities worldwide. Bombardier Transportation produces a wide range of products including passenger rail vehicles, bogies and controls. Danny Di Perna is the chief operating officer of Bombardier Transportation. In February 2019, the company had 40,650 employees, 63 manufacturing locations around the world. Bombardier Transportation's first order for mass transit rolling stock was in 1974 for the Société de transport de Montréal to build metro trains for the Montreal Metro; the core of the Transportation group was formed with the purchase of Montreal Locomotive Works in 1975. With the 1975 purchase, Bombardier acquired MLW's LRC tilting train design which it produced in the 1980s.
In 1987, Bombardier bought the assets of US railcar manufacturers Pullman-Standard. In the late 1980s Bombardier Transportation gained a manufacturing presence in Europe with the acquisition of a 45% share in BN Constructions Ferroviaires et Métalliques in 1986, the acquisition of ANF-Industries in 1989. In 1990, Procor Engineering Ltd. of Horbury near Wakefield, UK. In 1991 the group purchased Urban Transportation Development Corporation from the Government of Ontario, which had acquired Hawker Siddeley Canada. MLW was sold to General Electric in 1988. GE ended railcar operations in Canada in 1993. Bombardier Transportation continues to operate the railcar operations in Thunder Bay. In 1991 the grouping Bombardier Eurorail was formed consisting of the company's European subsidiaries. In 1992, the company acquired Mexico's largest railway rolling-stock manufacturer, from the Mexican government. In 1995 Waggonfabrik Talbot KG in Aachen, in 1998, Deutsche Waggonbau AG, Ateliers de Constructions Mécaniques de Vevey in Vevey, were acquired.
DWA encompassed the major portion of the railway equipment industry of the former East Germany, had its principal sites in Bautzen and Görlitz. In 2001 Bombardier Transportation acquired Adtranz from DaimlerChrysler, became by many measurements the Western world's largest rail-equipment manufacturer; the takeover was approved by the EU competition commission subject to a number of minor clauses including the divestment of Bombardier's stake in Adtranz/Stadler joint venture Stadler Pankow GmbH, an agreement to retain Kiepe as a supplier, ELIN as a partner for a number of years after the acquisition. The addition of ADtranz made Bombardier a manufacturer of locomotives along with its existing product lines of passenger carriages, multiple-unit trains, trams. With the acquisition of ADtranz, Bombardier gained competence in the electrical propulsion components business. After the Adtranz acquisition in 2001, Bombardier Transportation moved its core manufacturing strategy for Europe with a few legacy plants in North America for the smaller North American market: three sites for bogie manufacture were to be at Siegen in Germany, at the former ANF plant in Crespin.
Vehicle body manufacturing was to be done at Bautzen and Görlitz, at the former Kalmar Verkstad plant, at the Bombardier's Derby carriage plant, the former BN Constructions Ferroviaries et Métalliques in Brugge. For final assembly, the company chose the former Waggonfabrik Talbot plant in Aachen and the former LEW Hennigsdorf in Germany, the former Sorefame plant in Amadora and its plants in Derby, Brugge and Pratteln, Switzerland. Additionally a number of plants would have specialised manufacturing roles, including Česká Lípa and the Pafawag facility in Poland which would supply parts and welded structures, sites in Vienna and Bautzen which would specialise in light rail vehicle manufacture whilst double deck trains for the German market would be manufactured in Görlitz. Other sites were closed. In 2004 due to overcapacity in the European passenger train industry, Bombardier announced a restructuring program resulting in the closure of several plants. In late 2012 Bombardier announced the closure of the Bombardier Talbot plant in Aachen, a reduction in workforce in the transportation division of 1,200 people.
The company obtained two major orders in 2014: San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District ordered an additional 365 rail cars from Bombardier in early 2014, to be assembled at Bombardier's plant in Plattsburgh, New York. In May 2014 Bombardier extended its presence in Australia by purchasing a 100% stake in Rail Signalling Service, an Australian comp
Paratransit is recognized in North America as special transportation services for people with disabilities provided as a supplement to fixed-route bus and rail systems by public transit agencies. Paratransit services may vary on the degree of flexibility they provide their customers. At their simplest they may consist of a taxi or small bus that will run along a more or less defined route and stop to pick up or discharge passengers on request. At the other end of the spectrum—fully demand responsive transport—the most flexible paratransit systems offer on-demand call-up door-to-door service from any origin to any destination in a service area. In addition to public transit agencies, Paratransit services are operated by community groups or not-for-profit organizations, for-profit private companies or operators. Minibuses are used to provide paratransit service. Most paratransit vehicles are equipped with wheelchair ramps to facilitate access. In the United States, private transportation companies provide paratransit service in cities and metropolitan areas under contract to local public transportation agencies.
Transdev, First Transit and MV Transportation are among the largest private contractors of paratransit services in the United States and Canada. "Definition: any type of public transportation, distinct from conventional transit, such as flexibly scheduled and routed services such as airport limousines, etc. Etymology: para-'alongside of' + transit" The use of "paratransit" has evolved and taken on two somewhat separate broad sets of meaning and application; the more general meaning involved projects starting in the early 1970s, documented by the Urban Institute in the 1974 book Para-transit: Neglected options for urban mobility, followed a year by the first international overview, Paratransit: Survey of International Experience and Prospects. Robert Cervero's 1997 book, Paratransit in America: Redefining Mass Transportation, embraced this wider definition of paratransit, arguing that America's mass transit sector should enlarge to include micro-vehicles and shared-taxi services found in many developing cities.
Paratransit, as an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed routes or schedules, are common and offer the only mechanized mobility options for the poor in many parts of the developing world. Since the early 1980s in North America, the term began to be used to describe the second meaning: special transport services for people with disabilities. In this respect, paratransit has become a business in its own right; the term paratransit is used outside of North America. In 2013, the Canadian Urban Transit Association compared the eligibility requirements of paratransit services in Canada and the United States. Annually, the Canadian Urban Transit Association publishes a fact book providing statistics for all of the Ontario specialized public transit services as of 2015 there were 79 in operation. Before passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, paratransit was provided by not-for-profit human service agencies and public transit agencies in response to the requirements in Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
Section 504 prohibited the exclusion of the disabled from "any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance". In Title 49 Part 37 of the Code of Federal Regulations, the Federal Transit Administration defined requirements for making buses accessible or providing complementary paratransit services within public transit service areas. Most transit agencies did not see fixed route accessibility as desirable and opted for a flexible system of small paratransit vehicles operating parallel to a system of larger, fixed-route buses; the expectation was that the paratransit services would not be used, making a flexible system of small vehicles a less expensive alternative for accessibility than options with larger, fixed-route vehicles. This however ended up not being the case. Paratransit services were being filled up to their capacity. In some cases, leaving individuals who were in need of the door to door service provided by paratransit unable to utilize it due to the fact that disabled people who could use fixed-route vehicles found themselves using these paratransit services.
With the passage of the ADA, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act was extended to include all activities of state and local government. Its provisions were not limited to programs receiving federal funds and applied to all public transit services, regardless of how the services were funded or managed. Title II of the ADA more defined a disabled person's right to equal participation in transit programs, the provider's responsibility to make that participation possible. In revisions to Title 49 Part 37, the Federal Transit Administration defined the combined requirements of the ADA and the Rehabilitation Act for transit providers; these requirements included "complementary" paratransit to destinations within 3/4 mile of all fixed routes and submission of a plan for complying with complementary paratransit service regulations. Paratransit service is an unfunded mandate. Under the ADA, complementary paratransit service is required for passengers who are 1) Unable to navigate the public bus system, 2) unable to get to a point from which they could access the public bus system, or 3) have a temporary need for these services because of injury or some type of limited duration cause of disability.
Title 49 Part 37 details the eligibility rules along with requirements governing how the service must be provided and managed. In the United States, paratransit service is now
San Diego Trolley
The San Diego Trolley is a light rail system operating in the metropolitan area of San Diego. It is known colloquially as "The Trolley"; the Trolley's operator, San Diego Trolley, Inc. is a subsidiary of the San Diego Metropolitan Transit System. The Trolley began service on July 26, 1981, making it the oldest of the "second-generation" light rail systems in the United States; the entire Trolley network serves 53 stations, comprises 53.5 miles of route, three primary lines named the Blue Line, the Orange Line, the Green Line, as well as a supplementary heritage streetcar downtown circulator known as the Silver Line that operates on select weekdays and holidays. In Q4 2014, the Trolley was the 5th most-ridden light rail system in the United States, with an average of 119,800 riders per weekday; the San Diego Trolley is operated by MTS, one of the oldest transit systems in Southern California dating back to the 1880s. Although its operating names have changed over the years, the two modes of transportation and trolleys, have remained consistent over most of the past 125 years.
San Diego Trolley used the same German-built Siemens–Duewag U2 vehicles as the Edmonton Light Rail Transit system in Edmonton and the C-Train in Calgary, Alberta and the Frankfurt U-Bahn in Frankfurt, Germany. The fleet has since been expanded to include Siemens SD-100 vehicles, most Siemens S70 vehicles. Although electric rail service in San Diego traces its roots back to 1891 when John D. Spreckels incorporated the San Diego Electric Railway, today's operating company, San Diego Trolley Incorporated, was not founded until 1980 when the Metropolitan Transit Development Board began planning a light-rail service along the Main Line of the San Diego and Arizona Eastern Railway, purchased by MTDB from Southern Pacific Railroad in 1979. Service began on July 19, 1981, with revenue collection beginning on July 26, 1981. 14 trains operated on a single line between Centre City or Downtown San Diego and San Ysidro, with stops in the cities of San Diego, National City, Chula Vista. On March 23, 1986, SDTI opened an extension east from Centre City San Diego to Euclid Avenue, along the La Mesa Branch of the SD&AE Railway – this new second line of the Trolley was called the East Line.
Service was extended along the same line to Spring Street on May 12, 1989 serving Lemon Grove, to La Mesa and on to El Cajon on June 23, 1989. Service from El Cajon to Santee, which does not operate along the old SD&AE right-of-way, began on August 26, 1995; the "Bayside" extension of the Trolley in Centre City San Diego opened on June 30, 1990. The first phase of the Old Town extension, from C Street to Little Italy in Centre City San Diego, opened on July 2, 1992; the second phase of that extension, running from Little Italy to Old Town, opened on June 16, 1996. The "Mission Valley West" SDTI extension from Old Town to Mission San Diego commenced service on November 23, 1997 – it was at this time that the former South Line and East Line of the system were renamed the Blue Line and the Orange Line, respectively; the "Mission Valley East" extension from Mission San Diego to La Mesa began operating on July 10, 2005, with the inauguration of the third line of the San Diego Trolley system, the Green Line.
The planning for the San Diego Trolley began in 1966 under the auspices of the Comprehensive Planning Organization, an intergovernmental agency of 13 cities and San Diego County. San Diego's streetcar system had been replaced with buses in 1949. In 1966 the local bus company, San Diego Transit, was facing public takeover; the CPO developed a mass-transit plan to address the long-range transportation issues of the metropolitan area. Little progress was made in the decade 1966–1975. CPO continued to research options for addressing the region's transportation needs. Several prominent stakeholders submitted their own mass-transit master plans for the region; the alternatives studied in the decade included: Restoration of the 1949 streetcar system for $1.3 billion BART-like system featuring 417 stations on a system of 284 miles for $2–5 billion Elevated system featuring automatic rapid transit vehicles for $1 billion Short demonstration light-rail line, for $20 million Express bus system on freewaysThe debate between rail rapid transit and light rail was conducted without reference to any specific right-of-way or railroad tracks.
The CPO's 1975 Regional Comprehensive Plan described a $1.5 billion rail-rapid transit system in San Diego featuring a system of 58 miles and 11 lines. However, by this time, it was acknowledged by public officials that the BART-like system would be much more expensive than light rail. Rail rapid plans were stalled due to high costs. Proponents of the rail rapid system were concerned about the low speed of at-grade streetcar systems. Operating deficits were a concern. A 1974 CPO study concluded that a streetcar system would incur operating deficits of $1.9 million annually. It was understood that any BART-like system would incur substantial deficits; the creation of the Metropolitan Transit Development Board in 1976 with a stated mission did not resolve differences between the many stakeholders. However, MTDB did analyze previous transit studies, determined that the guideway system should satisfy the following principles: Corridor should extend a long distance and offer high-speed operation Low capital cost designs should be adopted, to keep the costs within an affordable range Construction should be at-grade with exclusive right-of-way Operating deficits should be minimizedA feasibility study completed in 1975 identified
Public transport is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, that charge a posted fee for each trip. Examples of public transport include city buses, trolleybuses and passenger trains, rapid transit and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines and intercity rail. High-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world. Most public transport systems run along fixed routes with set embarkation/disembarkation points to a prearranged timetable, with the most frequent services running to a headway. However, most public transport trips include other modes of travel, such as passengers walking or catching bus services to access train stations. Share taxis offer on-demand services in many parts of the world, which may compete with fixed public transport lines, or compliment them, by bringing passengers to interchanges. Paratransit is sometimes used for people who need a door-to-door service.
Urban public transit differs distinctly among Asia, North America, Europe. In Asia, profit-driven, privately-owned and publicly traded mass transit and real estate conglomerates predominantly operate public transit systems In North America, municipal transit authorities most run mass transit operations. In Europe, both state-owned and private companies predominantly operate mass transit systems, Public transport services can be profit-driven by use of pay-by-the-distance fares or funded by government subsidies in which flat rate fares are charged to each passenger. Services can be profitable through high usership numbers and high farebox recovery ratios, or can be regulated and subsidised from local or national tax revenue. Subsidised, free of charge services operate in some towns and cities. For geographical and economic reasons, differences exist internationally regarding use and extent of public transport. While countries in the Old World tend to have extensive and frequent systems serving their old and dense cities, many cities of the New World have more sprawl and much less comprehensive public transport.
The International Association of Public Transport is the international network for public transport authorities and operators, policy decision-makers, scientific institutes and the public transport supply and service industry. It has 3,400 members from 92 countries from all over the globe. Conveyances designed for public hire are as old as the first ferries, the earliest public transport was water transport: on land people walked or rode an animal. Ferries appear in Greek mythology—corpses in ancient Greece were buried with a coin underneath their tongue to pay the ferryman Charon to take them to Hades; some historical forms of public transport include the stagecoach, traveling a fixed route between coaching inns, the horse-drawn boat carrying paying passengers, a feature of European canals from their 17th-century origins. The canal itself as a form of infrastructure dates back to antiquity – ancient Egyptians used a canal for freight transportation to bypass the Aswan cataract – and the Chinese built canals for water transportation as far back as the Warring States period which began in the 5th century BCE.
Whether or not those canals were used for for-hire public transport remains unknown. The omnibus, the first organized public transit system within a city, appears to have originated in Paris, France, in 1662, although the service in question failed a few months after its founder, Blaise Pascal, died in August 1662; the omnibus was introduced to London in July 1829. The first passenger horse-drawn railway opened in 1806: it ran between Swansea and Mumbles in southwest Wales in the United Kingdom. In 1825 George Stephenson built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in northeast England, the first public steam railway in the world; the first successful electric streetcar was built for 12 miles of track for the Union Passenger Railway in Richmond, Virginia in 1888. Electric streetcars could carry heavier passenger loads than predecessors, which reduced fares and stimulated greater transit use. Two years after the Richmond success, over thirty two thousand electric streetcars were operating in America.
Electric streetcars paved the way for the first subway system in America. Before electric streetcars, steam powered subways were considered. However, most people believed that riders would avoid the smoke filled subway tunnels from the steam engines. In 1894, Boston built the first subway in the United States, an electric streetcar line in a 1.5 mile tunnel under Tremont Street’s retail district. Other cities such as New York followed, constructing hundreds of miles of subway in the following decades. Aerial lift Aerial tramway Funifor Chairlift Detachable chairlift Funitel Gondola lift Maritime transport Ferry Cable ferry Reaction ferry Water taxi Land transport Personal public transport Bicycle-sharing system Carsharing Personal rapid transit Rail transport Inter-city rail High-speed rail Maglev Urban rail transit Airport rail link Atmospheric railway Automated guideway transit Cable car Cable railway Commuter rail Elevated railway Funicular Inclined elevator Light rail Medium-capacity rail system Mono
Carlsbad is a city in North County, San Diego County, United States. The city is 87 miles south of Los Angeles and 35 miles north of downtown San Diego and is part of the San Diego-Carlsbad, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Referred to as "The Village by the Sea" by locals, Carlsbad is a tourist destination; the city's estimated 2014 population was 112,299. Among the nation's top 20 wealthiest communities, Carlsbad is the 5th richest city in the state of California with a median household income close to US$105,000. Carlsbad's history began with the Luiseño people. Nearly every reliable fresh water creek had at least one native village, including one called Palamai; the site is located just south of today's Agua Hedionda Lagoon. The first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition of 1769, met native villagers while camped on Buena Vista Creek. During the Mexican period, in 1842, the southern portion of Carlsbad was granted as Rancho Agua Hedionda to Juan María Marrón.
In the 1880s a former sailor named. He began offering his water at the train station and soon the whistle-stop became known as Frazier's Station. A test done on a second fresh-water well discovered the water to be chemically similar to that found in some of the most renowned spas in the world, the town was named after the famed spa in the Bohemian town of Karlsbad. To take advantage of the find, the Carlsbad Land and Mineral Water Company was formed by a German-born merchant from the Midwest named Gerhard Schutte together with Samuel Church Smith, D. D. Wadsworth and Henry Nelson; the naming of the town followed soon after, along with a major marketing campaign to attract visitors. The area experienced a period of growth, with businesses sprouting up in the 1880s. Agricultural development of citrus fruits and olives soon changed the landscape. By the end of 1887, land prices fell throughout San Diego County. However, the community survived on the back of its fertile agricultural lands; the site of John Frazier's original well can still be found at Alt Karlsbad, a replica of a German Hanseatic house, located on Carlsbad Boulevard.
In 1952, Carlsbad was incorporated to avoid annexation by Oceanside. The single-runway Palomar Airport opened in 1959 after County of San Diego officials decided to replace the Del Mar Airport; the airport was annexed to the City of Carlsbad in 1978 and renamed McClellan-Palomar Airport in 1982 after a local civic leader, Gerald McClellan. The first modern skateboard park, Carlsbad Skatepark, was built in March 1976, it was located on the grounds of Carlsbad Raceway and was designed and built by inventors Jack Graham and John O'Malley. The site of the original Carlsbad Skatepark and Carlsbad Raceway was demolished in 2005 and is now an Industrial Park. However, two skateparks have since been developed. In March 1999, Legoland California Resort, LLC was opened, it was the first Legoland theme park outside of Europe and is operated by Merlin Entertainments. Merlin Entertainments owns 70 percent of the shares, the remaining 30 percent is owned by the LEGO group and Kirkbi A/S. Carlsbad is home to the nation's largest desalination plant.
Construction of the US$1 billion Carlsbad Desalination Plant at the Encina Power Plant was completed in December 2015. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 39.1 square miles of which 37.7 square miles are land and 1.4 square miles are water, the majority of, contained within three lagoons and one lake. The northern area of the city is part of a tri-city area consisting of northern Carlsbad, southern Oceanside and western Vista; the ocean-side cliffs fronting wide white-sand beaches and mild climate attract vacationers year-round. Carlsbad has a semi-arid Mediterranean climate and averages 263 sunny days per year. Winters are mild with periodic rain. Frost sometimes occurs in inland valleys in December and January. Summer is rain free, but sometimes overcast and cool with fog off the Pacific. While most days have mild and pleasant temperatures, hot dry Santa Ana winds bring high temperatures on a few days each year in the fall. Carlsbad has Coaster and Amtrak rail service at its two stations, Carlsbad Village station and Carlsbad Poinsettia station.
North County Transit District provides public transportation services in Carlsbad. They operate bus service under SPRINTER light rail service. Interstate 5 and California State Route 78 either border the city of Carlsbad. McClellan–Palomar Airport is located about seven miles southeast of downtown Carlsbad, allows general aviation and limited commercial service to the city. For city planning and growth management purposes, Carlsbad is divided into four distinct quadrants; the northwest quadrant of Carlsbad includes the downtown "Village," the Barrio, "Old Carlsbad." It was the first part of Carlsbad to be settled. Homes bungalows to elegant mansions on the hill overlooking the ocean, it is home to Hosp Grove Park, a grove of trees untouched by development and now designated by the city for recreational use, in addition to the Buena Vista and Agua Hedionda Lagoons. It is located west of north of Palomar Airport Road. "The Barrio" area is near downtown Carlsbad bordered by Carlsbad Village Drive to the north, Tamarack Avenue to the south, Interstate 5 to the east and the railroad tracks to the west.
It was settled by Latinos in the early 20th century. It is the site of the