North Downs

The North Downs are a ridge of chalk hills in south east England that stretch from Farnham in Surrey to the White Cliffs of Dover in Kent. Westerham Heights, at the northern edge of the North Downs, near Bromley, South London, is the highest point in London at an elevation of 245 m; the North Downs lie within two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, the Surrey Hills and the Kent Downs. The North Downs Way National Trail runs along the North Downs from Farnham to Dover.'Downs' is from Old English dun, amongst other things, "hill". The word acquired the sense of "elevated rolling grassland" around the 14th century; the name contains "North" to distinguish them from a similar range of hills – the South Downs – which runs parallel to them but some 50 km to the south. The narrow spine of the Hog's Back between Farnham and Guildford forms the western extremity of the North Downs, whilst the cliffs between Folkestone and Deal terminate the ridge in the east. There are two distinct aspects, the steep south-facing escarpment and the gentle north-facing dip slope.

The southern boundary is defined by the foot of the escarpment which gives way to the flat, broad clay lands between the Downs and Greensand Ridge known as the Vale of Holmesdale. The northern boundary is less apparent but occurs where the chalk submerges below the more recent Paleocene deposits; the Downs are highest near the Kent–Surrey border reaching heights in excess of 200 m above sea level at the crest of the escarpment. The highest point is Botley Hill in Surrey at 269 m; the County top of Kent at Betsom's Hill, with a height of 251 m is located nearby, the highest point in Greater London, Westerham Heights, at 245 m is on the northern side of the same hill. East of the Medway Valley the Downs become broader and flatter, extending as far as the Isle of Thanet; the ridge is intersected by the valleys of a series of rivers: the Wey, Darent and Stour rivers. These drain much of the Weald to the south; the western rivers are tributaries of the Thames. In addition to existing rivers, the Downs are crossed by a number of wind gaps – prehistoric river valleys no longer occupied by rivers – including those at Farnham, Caterham and Hawkinge.

Except for the river valleys and wind gaps, the crest of the escarpment is continuous along its length. The dip slope is dissected by many small dry valleys, in the broad eastern part in Kent, by further river valleys such as that of the Little Stour. Leith Hill is sometimes incorrectly referred to as part of the North Downs, but it is located on the parallel Greensand Ridge and does not consist of chalk; the Downland of the North Downs consists of distinct lithostratigraphic units: The more level tops of the Downs are covered by acidic strata including a layer of Clay-with-Flints, a sandy clay with many flints, or various sands and gravels. The Chalk Group, composed entirely of chalk, a kind of soft fine-grained limestone, it is formed of three parts, the Upper Chalk, which has many flints, the Middle Chalk, with fewer flints, the Lower Chalk or Coombe Rock, with few flints. The chalk is most exposed on slopes or as cliffs, where the overlying acidic strata have been quarried or washed away.

The buried upper surface of the chalk beneath the acidic strata is eroded into pipes and pinnacles, sometimes visible in road cuttings and quarries. The Upper Greensand Formation, a whitish, limy sandstone used for building, for which it has been mined from beneath the chalk; the Upper Greensand of the North Downs is a thin bed of one or two metres thickness, it is visible at the surface. The Upper Greensand marks the southern edge of the Downs, being underlain by: The Gault Formation of stiff blue clay; the Lower Greensand Formation of the Lower Cretaceous period, containing greensand, a glauconite sand or sandstone, as well as a certain amount of silts, clays and limestone. The topography of the North Downs consists of the Chalk Group, the rock strata of the Upper Cretaceous period which in certain areas is overlain by superficial deposits of gravels or clay-with-flints. Citing Dr D. T. Aldiss of the British Geological Survey: The Greensand Ridge is separate from the Downs. Again, one has to be aware of the distinction between'greensand' and'the Greensand', a lithostratigraphic term which refers to the Lower Greensand Group.

The Lower Greensand does contain some greensand, but much silt and limestone: most of it is neither green nor sand. It forms a distinct layer below the Gault Formation and the Upper Greensand Formation which directly underlie the Chalk Group. The'Greensand Ridge' refers to one of a series of escarpments formed by the Lower Greensand. In Surrey, the Upper Greensand is thin and is not separately marked by rising ground, but elsewhere it too forms an escarpment; these groups and formations each occur in separate layers. In Surrey these dip northwards at an angle of 2 degrees or less but increasing to as much as 55 degrees in the Hog's Back area, west of Guildford; the North Downs support several important habitats. The most distinctive of these is chalk grassland, limited to steep escarpment and valley slopes; this semi-natural habitat is maintained through sheep and rabbit grazing


Håland is a former municipality in Rogaland county, Norway. It was part of the traditional district of Jæren, just west of the city of Stavanger; the municipality existed from 1838 until its dissolution in 1930 when it was split into the two municipalities of Sola and Madla. Håland included all of the present-day municipality of Sola and the borough of Madla in the city of Stavanger; the 85-square-kilometre municipality included the land surrounding the Hafrsfjorden. The historic parish of Haaland had included churches located in Sola, Tananger and Madla. On 1 January 1838, the parish of Haaland was established as a municipality. Håland municipality existed until 1930, when it was split to form the two new municipalities of Madla and Sola. Madla was merged with the city of Stavanger and it now makes up the borough of Madla

Government of Tasmania

The Government of Tasmania referred to as the Tasmanian Government, is the executive authority of the state of Tasmania, Australia. The leader of the party or coalition with the confidence of the Tasmanian House of Assembly, the lower house of the Parliament of Tasmania, is invited by the Governor of Tasmania to form the Government of Tasmania; the head of the Government is the Premier of Tasmania. Since the 20 January 2020, the Premier of Tasmania has been Peter Gutwein, leader of the Liberal Party; the current ministry of Tasmania is the Gutwein Ministry, formed on 20 January 2020 and comprising eight of the 14 Liberal members in both Houses of Parliament. Tasmania is governed according to the principles of the Westminster System, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. Legislative power rests with the bicameral Parliament of Tasmania, which consists of the Governor of Tasmania, the two Houses, the Tasmanian Legislative Council and the Tasmanian House of Assembly.

Executive power rests formally with the Executive Council, which consists of the Governor and senior ministers, informally called the Cabinet. In practice, executive power is exercised by the Premier of Tasmania and the Cabinet, who are appointed by the Governor, but who hold office by virtue of their ability to command the support of a majority of members of the House of Assembly. Judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court of Tasmania and a system of subordinate courts, but the High Court of Australia and other federal courts have overriding jurisdiction on matters which fall under the ambit of the Australian Constitution; the current ministry of Tasmania is the Gutwein Ministry, formed on 20 January 2020 and comprising eight Liberal members, all of whom sit in the House of Assembly: The Tasmanian Government delivers services, determines policy and regulations, including legal interpretation, by a number of agencies grouped under areas of portfolio responsibility. Each portfolio is led by a Secretary, who reports to one or more government ministers, a member of the Parliament.

As of April 2016 there were eight government departments: Department of Education Department of Health and Human Services Department of Justice Department of Police and Emergency Management Department of Premier and Cabinet Department of Primary Industries, Parks and Environment Department of State Growth Department of Treasury and Finance. A range of other agencies support the functions of these departments; the Government of Tasmania owns and operates a number of state-owned companies: Aurora Energy: electricity and gas retailer. Forestry Tasmania: the manager of public forests and plantations for logging and woodchipping. Hydro Tasmania: a large generator of electricity, management of hydroelectric schemes. Owns a mainland Australian energy retailer, Momentum Energy. Irrigation Tasmania: tasked with the planning and maintenance of the Tasmanian Irrigation Schemes culminating pipes and pumping stations. Metro Tasmania: a public transportation company, running busses in the metropolitan areas of the state.

Motor Accidents Insurance Board: public insurance resulting from car accidents. Port Arthur Historic Site Management Authority: operates the tourism venture at Port Arthur, maintains the ruins of the gaol and historic site. Public Trustee: an independent trustee organisation. Tascorp: management of the other public companies' finances and government investment. Tasmanian Rail: freight transportation, railway management. TasNetworks: electricity transmission and distribution. TasPorts: port management and stevedoring. Tasracing: the operator of Tasmania's horse and dog racing venues, management of betting. TT-Line Company: operates the Bass Strait ferries; as a state of Australia, Tasmania is represented in the House of Representatives and Australian Senate. Tasmania has five representative in the federal House of Representatives in the divisions of Bass, Denison and Lyons. Tasmania has twelve Senators in line with other states. Local Government elections are conducted under the Local Government Act using the Hare-Clark voting system of multi-member proportional representation.

Elections for Mayor, Deputy Mayor and half the councillor positions are held during September and October in each uneven numbered year. Tasmania has twenty-nine local government areas; these include twenty-three municipalities. The largest council is City of Launceston and the smallest council is Municipality of Flinders List of Tasmanian government agencies Local government in Tasmania Government of Tasmania website The Constitution of Tasmania in AustLII Constitution Act 1934 as enacted