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North German Confederation

The North German Confederation was the German federal state which existed from July 1867 to December 1870. Although de jure a confederacy of equal states, the Confederation was de facto controlled and led by the largest and most powerful member, which exercised its influence to bring about the formation of the German Empire; some historians use the name for the alliance of 22 German states formed on 18 August 1866. In 1870–1871, the south German states of Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, Württemberg and Bavaria joined the country. On 1 January 1871, the country adopted a new constitution, written under the title of a new "German Confederation" but gave it the name "German Empire" in the preamble and article 11; the federal constitution established a constitutional monarchy with the Prussian king as the bearer of the Bundespräsidium, or head of state. Laws could only be enabled with the consent of the Federal Council. During the four years of the North German Confederation, a conservative-liberal cooperation undertook important steps to unify Germany with regard to law and infrastructure.

The political system remained the same in the years after 1870. The North German Confederation had nearly 30 million inhabitants, of whom eighty percent lived in Prussia. For the most of 1815–1848, Austria and Prussia worked together and used the German Confederation as a tool to suppress liberal and national ambitions in the German population. In 1849, the National Assembly in Frankfurt elected the Prussian king as the Emperor of a Lesser Germany; the king refused and tried to unite Germany with the Erfurt Union of 1849–1850. When the union parliament met in early 1850 to discuss the constitution, the participating states were only those in Northern and Central Germany. Austria and the southern German states Württemberg and Bavaria forced Prussia to give up its union plans in late 1850. In April and June 1866, Prussia proposed a Lesser Germany again. Corner stone of the proposal was the election of a German parliament based on universal male suffrage; the proposal explicitly mentioned the Frankfurt election law of 1849.

Otto von Bismarck, the minister-president of Prussia, wanted to gain sympathy within the national and liberal movement of the time. Austria and its allies refused the proposal. In summer 1866 Austria and Prussia fought with their respective allies in the Austro-Prussian War. Prussia and Austria signed a final peace treaty of Prague. Austria affirmed the Prussian view. Prussia was allowed to create a "closer federation" in Germany north of the river Main. Bismarck had agreed on this limitation with the French emperor Napoleon III prior to the peace talks; the liberals in the Prussian parliament favored a wholesale annexation of all North German territories by Prussia. In a similar way, Sardinia–Piemont had created the kingdom of Italy, but Bismarck chose a different approach. Prussia did only incorporate the former military opponents Hannover, Hesse-Kassel, Hesse-Nassau, the free city of Frankfurt. Schleswig and Holstein became a Prussian province. On 18 August 1866, Prussia and a larger number of North and Central German states signed a Bündniß.

The treaty created a military alliance for one year. It affirmed that the states wanted to form a federal state based on the Prussian proposals of June 1866, they agreed to have a parliament elected to discuss a draft constitution. In 1866, other states joined the treaty. Saxony and Hesse-Darmstadt, former enemies in the war of 1866, had to agree their accession to the new federation in their respective peace treaties. Bismarck sought advice from conservative and democratic politicians and presented a draft constitution to the other state governments, it was his intention to make the new federal state look like a confederation in the tradition of the German Confederation. This explains several provisions in the draft constitution. Bismarck wanted to make the federal state more attractive to southern German states which might join. At the same time, in late 1866, Prussia and the other states prepared the election of a North German parliament; this konstituierender Reichstag was elected in February 1867 based on state laws.

The konstituierender Reichstag gathered from February to April. In close talks with Bismarck it altered the draft constitution in some significant points; the konstituierender Reichstag was not a parliament but only an organ to discuss and accept the draft constitution. After that, the state parliaments ratified it. In August, the first Reichstag of the new federal state was elected. During the four years of the North German Confederation its major action existed in legislation unifying Northern Germany; the Reichstag decided on laws concerning, for example: free movement of citizens within the territory of the Confederation a common postal system common passports equal rights for the different religious denominations unified measures and weights penal code The North German Confederation became a member of the Zollverein, the German customs union of 1834. The North German Constitution of 16 April 1867 created a national parliament with universal suffrage, the Reichstag. Another important

John Rushby

John Rushby is a British computer scientist now based in the United States and working for SRI International. He taught and did research for Manchester University and Newcastle University. John Rushby was brought up in London, where he attended Dartford Grammar School, he studied at Newcastle University in the United Kingdom, gaining his computer science BSc there in 1971 and his PhD in 1977. From 1974 to 1975, he was a lecturer in the Computer Science Department at Manchester University. From 1979 to 1982, he was a research associate in the Department of Computing Science at the Newcastle University. Rushby joined SRI International in Menlo Park, California in 1983, he is Program Director for Formal Methods and Dependable Systems in the Computer Science Laboratory at SRI. He developed the Prototype Verification System, a theorem prover. Rushby was the recipient of the 2011 Harlan D. Mills Award from the IEEE Computer Society. Official homepage Personal homepage

Sacred Heart Cathedral (Gallup, New Mexico)

Sacred Heart Cathedral is a cathedral church located at 415 East Green Avenue in Gallup, New Mexico, United States. It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Gallup; the first Sacred Heart church was built by Father George Julliard in 1899. Part of the building collapsed in 1916 and a new structure on Hill Street between 4th and 5th Streets replaced it the following year; when the Diocese of Gallup was established in 1939, Sacred Heart Church became its cathedral. The present cathedral dates from 1955 and replaced the 1917 sanctuary at a cost of $500,000. Franciscan Friars served the parish until July 1, 1981, when the first diocesan priest, the Rev. Alfred Tachias, became pastor and cathedral rector. List of Catholic cathedrals in the United States List of cathedrals in the United States Official Cathedral Site Roman Catholic Diocese of Gallup Official Site