Altes Land is an area of reclaimed marshland straddling parts of Lower Saxony and Hamburg. The region is situated downstream from Hamburg on the southwestern riverside of the Elbe around the towns of Stade, Buxtehude and the Samtgemeinde of Lühe. In Hamburg it includes the quarters of Neuenfelde, Cranz and Finkenwerder. Altes Land is one of the Elbe Marshes; the region – the biggest contiguous fruit-producing region in North Europe – extends over 143 km2. 76.8% of the trees are apples, 12.7% are cherries. The areas closest to the Elbe are those with the highest population, they include the most fertile marshlands. The fertile land led to the development of a culture dominated by farming; the villages are known as Marschhufendörfer, a special kind of village where the farmyards are set along a street with the land directly behind them. A characteristic feature is the richly decorated half-timbered farmhouses with their elaborate gateways; the region's official standard German name is Altes Land, which means "old country".
However, Altes Land is a mistranslation of the original Low Saxon Olland, which had nothing to do with "old": It stems from the term Holland - itself derived from Holtland meaning "Wooded Land". This is colonisation by Dutch settlers; the first colonisation agreement goes back to 1113 and was drawn up during the time of Archbishop Friedrich I of Bremen. One of the municipalities of the Altes Land is a name which comes from Holländer. However, the mistranslation of Olland as Altes Land has now come full circle, since most Low Saxon speakers today refer to the region as dat Ole Land. There is an eponymous periodical; the Altes Land is divided into three "miles". These miles are zones along the banks of the Lower Elbe river; the first mile, between the rivers Schwinge and Lühe, was first dyked and settled in around 1140. The second mile is the area east of the first between the Lühe and the Este, an area, dyked at the end of the 12th century; the third mile, called Terra Nova, between the Este and the Elbe, was only dyked at the end of the 15th century when the area was hard-hit by storm tides.
As of 2008 tourism plays a major role in the local economy during the cherry blossom and apple blossom seasons. However, parts of the orchard plantations are being displaced by residential developments. Many of these new homes are sold or rented to commuters who work in nearby Hamburg. 3 Meilen vor Hamburg - official web site of the Altes Land tourism association
The Oder is a river in Central Europe and Poland's third-longest river after the Vistula and Warta. It rises in the Czech Republic and flows 742 kilometres through western Poland forming 187 kilometres of the border between Poland and Germany as part of the Oder–Neisse line; the river flows into the Szczecin Lagoon north of Szczecin and into three branches that empty into the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea. The Oder is known by several names in different languages, but the modern ones are similar: English and German: Oder. Ptolemy knew the modern Oder as the Συήβος, a name derived from the Suebi, a Germanic people. While he refers to an outlet in the area as the Οὐιαδούα Ouiadoua, this was the modern Wieprz, as it was said to be a third of the distance between the Suebos and Vistula; the name Suebos may be preserved in the modern name of the Świna river, an outlet from the Szczecin Lagoon to the Baltic. In the Old Church Slavonic language, the name of the river is Vjodr; the Oder is 840 kilometres long: 112 km in the Czech Republic, 726 km in Poland and is the third longest river located within Poland, second longest river overall taking into account its total length, including parts in neighbouring countries.
It drains a basin of 119,074 square kilometres, 106,043 km2 of which are in Poland, 7,246 km2 in the Czech Republic, 5,587 km2 in Germany. Channels connect it to the Havel, Vistula system and Kłodnica, it flows through Silesian, Lower Silesian and West Pomeranian voivodeships of Poland and the states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Germany. The main branch empties into the Szczecin Lagoon near Poland; the Szczecin Lagoon is bordered on the north by the islands of Wolin. Between these two islands, there is only a narrow channel going to the Bay of Pomerania, which forms a part of the Baltic Sea; the largest city on the Oder is Wrocław, in Lower Silesia. The Oder is navigable over a large part of its total length, as far upstream as the town of Koźle, where the river connects to the Gliwice Canal; the upstream part of the river is canalized and permits larger barges to navigate between the industrial sites around the Wrocław area. Further downstream the river is free flowing, passing the towns of Eisenhüttenstadt and Frankfurt upon Oder.
Downstream of Frankfurt the river Warta forms a navigable connection with Poznań and Bydgoszcz for smaller vessels. At Hohensaaten the Oder–Havel Canal connects with the Berlin waterways again. Near its mouth the Oder reaches the city of a major maritime port; the river reaches the Baltic Sea through the Szczecin Lagoon and the river mouth at Świnoujście. Under Germania Magna the river was known to the Romans as the Viadrus or Viadua in Classical Latin, as it was a branch of the Amber Road from the Baltic Sea to the Roman Empire. In Germanic languages, including English, it was and still is called the Oder, written in medieval Latin documents as Odera or Oddera. Most notably, it was mentioned in the Dagome iudex, which described territory of the Duchy of Poland under Duke Mieszko I in A. D. 990, as a part of duchy's western frontier. Before Slavs settled along its banks, the Oder was an important trade route and towns in Germania were documented along with many tribes living between the rivers Albis and Vistula.
Centuries after Germanic tribes, the Bavarian Geographer specified the following West Slavic peoples: Sleenzane, Opolanie and Golensizi in Silesia and Wolinians with Pyrzycans in Western Pomerania. A document of the Bishopric of Prague mentions Zlasane, Trebovyane and Dedositze in Silesia. In the 13th century, the first dams were built to protect agricultural lands; the Finow Canal, first built in 1605, connects the Havel. After completion of the more straight Oder–Havel Canal in 1914, its economic relevance decreased; the earliest important undertaking with a view to improving the waterway was initiated by Frederick the Great, who recommended diverting the river into a new and straight channel in the swampy tract known as Oderbruch near Küstrin. The work was carried out in the years 1746–53, a large tract of marshland being brought under cultivation, a considerable detour cut off and the main stream confined to a canal. In the late 19th century, three additional alterations were made to the waterway: The canalization of the main stream at Breslau, from the confluence of the Glatzer Neisse to the mouth of the Klodnitz Canal, a distance of over 50 miles.
These engineering works were completed in 1896. During 1887–91 the Oder–Spree Canal was made to connect the two rivers; the deepening and regulation of the mouth and lower course of the stream. By the Treaty of Versailles, navigation on the Oder became subject to International Commission of the Oder. Following the articles 363 and 364 of the Treaty Czechoslovakia was entitled to lease in Stettin its own section in the harbour called Tschechoslowakische Zone im Hafen Stettin; the contract of lease between Czechoslovakia and German
East Frisia or Eastern Friesland is a coastal region in the northwest of the German federal state of Lower Saxony. It is the middle section of Frisia between West Frisia in the Netherlands and North Frisia in Schleswig-Holstein. Administratively Ostfriesland belongs to three districts, namely Aurich, Wittmund and to the city of Emden. There are 465,000 people living in an area of 3,144.26 square kilometres. There is a chain of islands off the coast, called the East Frisian Islands; these islands are Borkum, Norderney, Langeoog and Wangerooge. The geographical region of East Frisia was inhabited in Paleolithic times by reindeer hunters of the Hamburg culture. There were Mesolithic and Neolithic settlements of various cultures; the period after prehistory can only be reconstructed from archaeological evidence. Access to the early history of East Frisia is possible in part through archaeology and in part through the studying of external sources such as Roman documents; the first proven historical event was the arrival of a Roman fleet under Drusus in 12 BC.
The earlier settlements, known through material remnants but whose people's name for themselves remains unknown, led up to the invasion of Germanic tribes belonging to the Ingvaeonic group. Those were Chauci mentioned by Tacitus, Frisians; the region between the rivers Ems and Weser was thereupon inhabited by the Chauci. They were displaced by Frisian expansion after about 500, were partially absorbed into the Frisian society. Saxons settled the region and the East Frisian population of medieval times is based on a mixture of Frisian and Saxon elements; the Frisian element is predominant in the coastal area, while the population of the higher Geest area expresses more Saxon influence. Historical information becomes clearer by early Carolingian time, when a Frisian kingdom united the whole area from present-day West Frisia throughout East Frisia up to the river Weser, it was ruled by kings like the famous Radbod whose known names were still mentioned in folk tales until recent times. Frisia was a short-lived kingdom, it was crushed by Pippin of Herstal in 689.
East Frisia became part of the Frankish Empire. Charles the Great divided East Frisia into two counties. At this time, Christianization by the missionaries Liudger and Willehad started. With the decay of the Carolingian empire, East Frisia lost its former bindings, a unity of independent self-governed districts was established, their elections were held every year to choose the "Redjeven", who had to be judges as well as administrators or governors. This system prevented the establishment of a feudalistic system in East Frisia during medieval times. Frisians regarded themselves as free people not obliged to any foreign authority; this period is called the time of the "Friesische Freiheit" and is represented by the still well-known salute "Eala Frya Fresena" that affirmed the non-existence of any feudality. Frisian representatives of the many districts of the seven coastal areas of Frisia met once a year at the Upstalsboom, located at Rahe. In the early Middle Ages, people could only settle on the higher situated Geest areas or by erecting in the marsh-areas "Warften", artificial hills to protect the settlement, whether a single farming estate or a whole village, against the North Sea floods.
In about 1000 AD the Frisians started building large dikes along the North Sea shore. This had a great effect on establishing a feeling of national independence; until the late Middle Ages Ostfriesland resisted the attempts of German states to conquer the coasts. During the 14th century adherence to the Redjeven constitution decayed. Catastrophes and epidemics such as pestilence intensified the process of destabilization; this provided an opportunity for influential family-clans to establish a new rule. As chieftains they took control over villages and regions in East Frisia. Instead, the system implemented in Frisia was a system of followship which has some similarity to older forms of rule known from Germanic cultures of the North. There was a specific relation of dependence between the inhabitants of the ruled area and the chieftain, but the people retained their individual freedom and could move where they wanted; the Frisians threatened the ships coming down the river. For this reason the state of Oldenburg made several attempts to subjugate East Frisia during the 12th century.
Thanks to the swampy terrain, the Frisian peasants defeated the Oldenburgian armies every time. In 1156 Henry the Lion failed to conquer the region; the conflicts lasted for the next few centuries. In the 14th century Oldenburg gave up on plans to conquer Ostfriesland, restricting their attacks to irregular invasions, killing livestock leaving; the East Frisian chieftains used to provide shelter for pirates such as the famous Klaus Störtebeker and Goedeke Michel, who were a threat to the ships of the powerful Hanseatic League which they attacked and robbed. In 1400 a punitive expedition of the Hanseatic League against East Frisia succeeded; the chieftains had to promise to discontinu
Aeolian processes spelled eolian or æolian, pertain to wind activity in the study of geology and weather and to the wind's ability to shape the surface of the Earth. Winds may erode and deposit materials and are effective agents in regions with sparse vegetation, a lack of soil moisture and a large supply of unconsolidated sediments. Although water is a much more powerful eroding force than wind, aeolian processes are important in arid environments such as deserts; the term is derived from the name of the keeper of the winds. Wind erodes the Earth's surface by abrasion. Regions which experience intense and sustained erosion are called deflation zones. Most aeolian deflation zones are composed of desert pavement, a sheet-like surface of rock fragments that remains after wind and water have removed the fine particles. Half of Earth's desert surfaces are stony deflation zones; the rock mantle in desert pavements protects the underlying material from deflation. A dark, shiny stain, called desert varnish or rock varnish, is found on the surfaces of some desert rocks that have been exposed at the surface for a long period of time.
Manganese, iron oxides and clay minerals form most varnishes and provide the shine. Deflation basins, called blowouts, are hollows formed by the removal of particles by wind. Blowouts are small, but may be up to several kilometers in diameter. Wind-driven grains abrade landforms. In parts of Antarctica wind-blown snowflakes that are technically sediments have caused abrasion of exposed rocks. Grinding by particles carried in the wind creates grooves or small depressions. Ventifacts are rocks which have been cut, sometimes polished, by the abrasive action of wind. Sculpted landforms, called yardangs, are up to tens of meters high and kilometers long and are forms that have been streamlined by desert winds; the famous Great Sphinx of Giza in Egypt may be a modified yardang. Major global aeolian dust movements thought to influence and/or be influenced by weather and climate variation: From Sahara averaged 182 million tons of dust each year between 2007 and 2011 and carry it past the western edge of the Sahara at longitude 15W.
Variation: 86%. Destination: 132 mln tons cross the Atlantic, 27.7 mln tons fall in Amazon Basin, 43 mln make it to the Caribbean. Texas and Florida receive the dust. Events have become far more common in recent decades. Source: NASA's Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation data. Harmattan winter dust storms in West Africa occur blowing dust to the ocean. Gobi Desert to Korea, Japan and Western USA. See Asian dust. Thar Desert pre-monsoon towards Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Indo-Gangetic Plain. See 2018 Indian dust storms. Shamal June–July winds blowing dust in north to south in Saudi Arabia, Iraq, UAE, parts of Pakistan. Haboob dust storms in Sudan, Arizona associated with monsoon. Khamsin dust from Libya and Levant in Spring associated with extratropical cyclones. Dust Bowl event in USA, carried sand eastward. 5500 tons were deposited in Chicago area. Sirocco sandy winds from Africa/Sahara blowing north into South Europe. Kalahari Desert blowing east to southern Indian Ocean and Australia.
Particles are transported by winds through suspension and creeping along the ground. Small particles may be held in the atmosphere in suspension. Upward currents of air support the weight of suspended particles and hold them indefinitely in the surrounding air. Typical winds near Earth's surface suspend particles less than 0.2 millimeters in diameter and scatter them aloft as dust or haze. Saltation is downwind movement of particles in a series of skips. Saltation lifts sand-size particles no more than one centimeter above the ground and proceeds at one-half to one-third the speed of the wind. A saltating grain may hit other grains; the grain may hit larger grains that are too heavy to hop, but that creep forward as they are pushed by saltating grains. Surface creep accounts for as much as 25 percent of grain movement in a desert. Aeolian turbidity currents are better known as dust storms. Air over deserts is cooled when rain passes through it; this cooler and denser air sinks toward the desert surface.
When it reaches the ground, the air is deflected forward and sweeps up surface debris in its turbulence as a dust storm. Crops, people and even climates are affected by dust storms; some dust storms are intercontinental, a few may circle the globe, they may engulf entire planets. When the Mariner 9 spacecraft entered its orbit around Mars in 1971, a dust storm lasting one month covered the entire planet, thus delaying the task of photo-mapping the planet's surface. Most of the dust carried by dust storms is in the form of silt-size particles. Deposits of this windblown silt are known as loess; the thickest known deposit of loess, 335 meters, is on the Loess Plateau in China. This same Asian dust is blown for thousands of miles, forming deep beds in places as far away as Hawaii. In Europe and in the Americas, accumulations of loess are from 20 to 30 meters thick; the soils developed on loess are highly productive for agriculture. Aeolian transport from deserts plays an important role in ecosystems globally, e.g. by transport of minerals from the Sahara to the Ama
Periglaciation describes geomorphic processes that result from seasonal thawing of snow in areas of permafrost, the runoff from which refreezes in ice wedges and other structures. "Periglacial" suggests an environment located on the margin of past glaciers. However and thaw cycles influence landscapes outside areas of past glaciation. Therefore, periglacial environments are anywhere that freezing and thawing modify the landscape in a significant manner. Tundra is a common ecological community in periglacial areas. Periglaciation became a distinct subject within the study of geology after Walery Łoziński, a Polish geologist, introduced the term in 1909. Łoziński drew upon the early work of Johan Gunnar Andersson. According to Alfred Jahn, his introduction of his work at the 1910 International Geological Congress held in Stockholm caused significant discussion. In the field trip to Svalbard that followed the congress participants were able to observe the phenomena reported by Łoziński, directly.
Łoziński published his contribution to the congress in 1912. From 1950 to 1970, periglacial geomorphology developed chiefly as a subdiscipline of climatic geomorphology, current in Europe at the time; the journal Biuletyn Peryglacjalny, established in 1954 by Jan Dylik, was important for the consolidation of the discipline. Albeit the definition of what a periglacial zone is not clear-cut, a conservative estimate is that a quarter of Earth's land surface has periglacial conditions. Beyond this quarter an additional quarter or fifth or Earth's land surface had periglacial conditions at some time during the Pleistocene. In the northern hemisphere larger swathes of northern Asia and northern North America are periglaciated. In Europe parts of Fennoscandia, northern European Russia and Svalbard. In addition Alpine areas in the non-arctic northern hemisphere might be subject to periglaciation. A major outlier in the northern hemisphere is the Tibetan Plateau that stands out by its size and low-latitude location.
In the southern hemisphere parts of the Andes, the ice-free areas of Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands are periglaciated. Since Carl Troll introduced the concept of periglacial climate in 1944 there have various attempts to classify the diversity of periglacial climates. Hugh M. French’s classification recognizes six climate types existing in the present: High Arctic climates Continental climates Alpine climates Climate of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau Climates of low annual temperature range Climate of dry unglaciated areas of Antarctica Latitude – temperatures tend to be higher towards the equator. Periglacial environments tend to be found in higher latitudes. Since there is more land at these latitudes in the north, most of this effect is seen in the northern hemisphere. However, in lower latitudes, the direct effect of the sun's radiation is greater so the freeze-thaw effect is seen but permafrost is much less widespread. Altitude – Air temperature drops by 1 °C for every 100 m rise above sea level.
This means that on mountain ranges, modern periglacial conditions are found nearer the Equator than they are lower down. Ocean Currents – Cold surface currents from polar regions, reduce mean average temperatures in places where they exert their effect so that ice caps and periglacial conditions will show nearer to the Equator as in Labrador for example. Conversely, warm surface currents from tropical seas increases mean temperatures; the cold conditions are found only in more northerly places. This is apparent in western North America, affected by the North Pacific current. In the same way but more markedly, the Gulf Stream affects Western Europe. Continentality – Away from the moderating influence of the ocean, seasonal temperature variation is more extreme and freeze-thaw goes deeper. In the centres of Canada and Siberia, the permafrost typical of periglaciation goes deeper and extends further towards the Equator. Solifluction associated with freeze-thaw extends into somewhat lower latitudes than on western coasts.
Periglaciation results in a variety of ground conditions but those involving irregular, mixed deposits created by ice wedges, gelifluction, frost creep and rockfalls. Periglacial environments trend towards stable geomorphologies. Coombe and head deposits – Coombe deposits are chalk deposits found below chalk escarpments in Southern England. Head deposits are more common below outcrops of granite on Dartmoor. Patterned Ground – Patterned ground occurs where stones form circles and stripes. Local topography affects. A process called. Solifluction lobes – Solifluction lobes are formed when waterlogged soil slips down a slope due to gravity forming U shaped lobes. Blockfields or Felsenmeer – Blockfields are areas covered by large angular blocks, traditionally believed to have been created by freeze-thaw action. A good example of a blockfield can be found in Wales. Blockfields are common in the unglaciated parts of the Appalachian Mountains in the northeastern United States, such as at the River of Rocks or Hickory Run Boulder Field, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania.
Other landforms include: Bratschen Palsa Pingo Rock glacier Thermokarst Many areas of periglaciation have low precipitation—otherwise, they would be glaciated—and low evapotranspiration. Which makes their average river discharge rates low. However, rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean adjacent to northern Canada and Siberia are prone to erosion resulting from earlier thawing of snow pack in the upper, more southerly reaches of their drainage basins, which leads to flooding downstream, owing to obstructing river ice in the still-