Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field. One of the two codes of rugby, it originated in Northern England in 1895 as a split from the Rugby Football Union over the issue of payments to players, its rules progressively changed with the aim of producing a faster, more entertaining game for spectators. In rugby league, points are scored by carrying the ball and touching it to the ground beyond the opposing team's goal line; the opposing team attempts to stop the attacking side scoring points by tackling the player carrying the ball. In addition to tries, points can be scored by kicking goals. After each try, the scoring team gains a free kick to try at goal with a conversion for further points. Kicks at goal may be awarded for penalties, field goals can be attempted at any time. Rugby league is the national sport of Papua New Guinea, is a popular sport in Northern England, the states of Queensland and New South Wales in Australia, South Auckland in New Zealand, southwest France and Lebanon.
The Super League and the National Rugby League are the premier club competitions. Rugby league is played internationally, predominantly by European and Pacific Island countries, is governed by the Rugby League International Federation; the first Rugby League World Cup was held in France in 1954. Rugby league football takes its name from the bodies that split to create a new form of rugby, distinct from that run by the Rugby Football Unions, in Britain and New Zealand between 1895 and 1908; the first of these, the Northern Rugby Football Union, was established in 1895 as a breakaway faction of England's Rugby Football Union. Both organisations played the game under the same rules at first, although the Northern Union began to modify rules immediately, thus creating a new faster, stronger paced form of rugby football. Similar breakaway factions split from RFU-affiliated unions in Australia and New Zealand in 1907 and 1908, renaming themselves "rugby football leagues" and introducing Northern Union rules.
In 1922, the Northern Union changed its name to the Rugby Football League and thus over time the sport itself became known as "rugby league" football. In 1895, a schism in Rugby football resulted in the formation of the Northern Rugby Football Union. Although many factors played a part in the split, including the success of working class northern teams, the main division was caused by the RFU decision to enforce the amateur principle of the sport, preventing "broken time payments" to players who had taken time off work to play rugby. Northern teams had more working class players who could not afford to play without this compensation, in contrast to affluent southern teams who had other sources of income to sustain the amateur principle. In 1895, a decree by the RFU banning the playing of rugby at grounds where entrance fees were charged led to twenty-two clubs meeting at the George Hotel, Huddersfield on 29 August 1895 and forming the "Northern Rugby Football Union". Within fifteen years of that first meeting in Huddersfield, more than 200 RFU clubs had left to join the rugby revolution.
In 1897, the line-out was in 1898 professionalism introduced. In 1906, the Northern Union changed its rules, reducing teams from 15 to 13 a side and replacing the ruck formed after every tackle with the play the ball. A similar schism to that which occurred in England took place in Australia. There, on 8 August 1907 the New South Wales Rugby Football League was founded at Bateman's Hotel in George Street. Rugby league went on to displace rugby union as the primary football code in New South Wales and Queensland. On 5 May 1954 over 100,000 spectators watched the 1953–54 Challenge Cup Final at Odsal Stadium, England, setting a new record for attendance at a rugby football match of either code. In 1954 the Rugby League World Cup, the first for either code of rugby, was formed at the instigation of the French. In 1966, the International Board introduced a rule that a team in possession was allowed three play-the-balls and on the fourth tackle a scrum was to be formed; this was increased to six tackles in 1972 and in 1983 the scrum was replaced by a handover.
1967 saw. The first sponsors, Joshua Tetley and John Player, entered the game for the 1971–72 Northern Rugby Football League season. Television would have an enormous impact on the sport of rugby league in the 1990s when Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation sought worldwide broadcasting rights and refused to take no for an answer; the media giant's "Super League" movement saw big changes for the traditional administrators of the game. In Europe, it resulted in a move from a winter sport to a summer one as the new Super League competition tried to expand its market. In Australasia, the Super League war resulted in long and costly legal battles and changing loyalties, causing significant damage to the code in an competitive sporting market. In 1997 two competitions were run alongside each other in Australia, after which a peace deal in the form of the National Rugby League was formed; the NRL has since become recognised as the sport's flagship competition and since that time has set record TV ratings and crowd figures.
The objective in rugby league is to score more points through tries and field goals than the opposition within the 80 minutes of play. If after two halves of play, each consisting of forty minutes, the two teams are drawing, a draw may be declar
2008 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup
The 2008 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup is the first women's football U-17 World Cup in FIFA history. It was held in New Zealand from 28 October to 16 November 2008, it is the recognized world championship for women's under-17 national football teams. This was the first women's world youth championship organized by FIFA with the age limit of 17. Matches were played in four New Zealand cities: The Auckland conurbation, New Zealand's largest metropolitan area, hosted the final and 3rd place playoff; the designated host stadium is located in North Shore City. Hamilton hosted two of the quarter-finals. Wellington, New Zealand's capital city, hosted two of the quarter-finals. Christchurch, the only host city in the South Island, hosted the semi-finals. Pool matches were spread evenly among these cities; the host nation, New Zealand, was based in Auckland but played one pool match in Wellington. All times local All times local Dzsenifer Marozsán of Germany won the Golden Shoe award for scoring six goals. In total, 113 goals were scored with two of them credited as own goals.
6 goals 5 goals 4 goals 3 goals 2 goals 1 goal Own goal FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup New Zealand 2008, FIFA.com FIFA Technical Report
Türk Telekom Stadium
Türk Telekom Stadium is a football stadium serving as the home ground of the Süper Lig club Galatasaray S. K.. It is located in the Seyrantepe quarter of the Sarıyer district, on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey; the all-seater stadium has the capacity to host 52,223 spectators during football games. Türk Telekom Stadium was the first stadium in Turkey that met the UEFA Euro 2016 requirements during the country's bid to host the European Championship. In 2011, Türk Telekom Stadium was one of the six nominees for the Venue of the Year and New Venue categories of the Stadium Business Awards. Galatasaray SK won the Süper Lig in the first season at Türk Telekom Stadium. Türk Telekom Stadium and Galatasaray SK were mentioned in the first chapter of Tom Clancy's 2012 novel Threat Vector. Football was first played in Istanbul by some British players in a field known as Papazın Çayırı in the area, now the site of Fenerbahçe's Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadium. With the opening of the Taksim Stadium in 1921, it was this new stadium that became the new football headquarters.
In the urban development of 1939, the military barracks in which the Taksim Stadium was located was demolished in 1940. The stadium was thus lost. In this period, Fenerbahçe bought the land encompassing Papazın Çayırı and built the Fenerbahçe Stadium, while the Beşiktaş Club moved into the Şeref Stadium, located in the area where today’s Çırağan Palace Hotel stands, it was Galatasaray. The first steps to overcome this problem were taken in the initial years of the 1930s; the first initiative to acquire a plot of land for Galatasaray was in 1933, when the president of the club Ali Haydar Barşal showed an interest in a mulberry orchard in Mecidiyeköy. In the period between 1933 and 1935, negotiations with the government resulted in the allocation of a plot of land outside of the city limits in Mecidiye Köyü for a stadium to be built for Galatasaray. Excavations for the construction began in 1936; the President of the Turkish Sports Organization at the time, Adnan Menderes, provided financial assistance for the project.
However, the efforts were left in the excavation stage. In 1940, the matter of the stadium came up again under the presidency of Tevfik Ali Çınar; the same plot of land was leased to Galatasaray for a term of 30 years at a symbolic yearly rental fee of 1 lira. Galatasaray thus acquired the right to the use of the land. In leasing the land, Galatasaray committed to building a modern stadium as well as a bicycle velodrome; the construction could not start, due to limited funds and the general atmosphere of the war years. In 1943, Osman Dardağan led an initiative to build a modest stadium that would answer the immediate need. In the atmosphere of war, only a small open tribune was allowed in the stadium, set on a field of earth and inaugurated under the presidency of Muslihittin Peykoğlu in 1945. However, its distance from the city center in those days, its inaccessibility by public transportation, the rough winds that characterized the district were factors that contributed to a long period in which the stadium would lay idle and football games never took place.
When the İnönü Stadium in the center of the city was opened in that period, Galatasaray abandoned the stadium building project in Mecidiyeköy, putting the project aside before fruition. In 1955, 30 more years were added to the right of utilization agreement, which at the time had 22 years to go, extending the terms until 2007; when the Club failed to undertake the building of the Stadium, the project was taken on by the Physical Education General Directorate. The construction started in 1959. In 1961, during the presidency of Refik Selimoğlu, a new agreement was signed with the Physical Education General Directorate whereby the utilization rights of the newly completed stadium were explicitly given to Galatasaray; the stadium was opened on an eventful December 20, 1964. In the midst of the extreme crowds present, panic broke out, resulting in the death of one spectator and the injury of 80 others. In 1965, the stadium was illuminated for the first time. Despite this, not many night games were played.
At the beginning of the 1970s, the stadium was abandoned for another period during which the İnönü Stadium began to be used again. In the 1970s, the stadium was used by Galatasaray for training sessions. In those years, it remained in a squalid state of neglect. In 1981, grass was planted on the field and the stadium was opened again; the lighting system was renewed in 1993. In the same year, the system of combined tickets was initiated in Turkey at the Ali Sami Yen Stadium. In the same year, the stadium was furnished with seats to replace the old benches; the capacity of the stadium was thus reduced from 35,000 to an all-seater capacity of 22,000. In 1997, the Galatasaray administration assigned a Canadian architectural firm for the task of designing Turkey's first multi-function, modern stadium to be built in place of the Ali Sami Yen Stadium, planned to be torn down. On 10 December 2013, a UEFA Champions League match between Galatasaray and Juventus had to be abandoned due to heavy snow in the 32nd minute with the score 0–0, the remaining minutes of the match were played the next day.
The new stadium project was launched in 1998 and it attracted wide interest. During the promotion of the modern loge system, the entire loge section was sold at a symbolical fee; the proposed capacity was 40,484. However, the mayor and the state did not allow of a stadium to be built. Over the period of 2001–2002
Forsyth Barr Stadium
The Forsyth Barr Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Dunedin, New Zealand. At various stages of development it was known as Dunedin Stadium or Awatea Street Stadium, or its non-commercial official name during the 2011 Rugby World Cup and 2015 FIFA U-20 World Cup, Otago Stadium, it is known colloquially as'the glasshouse' due to its resemblance to a horticultural hothouse. The stadium was opened by New Zealand Prime Minister John Key on 5 August 2011, replacing Carisbrook as the home stadium of the Highlanders team in Super Rugby and the Otago Rugby Football Union team in the domestic ITM Cup; the stadium hosted four matches of the 2011 Rugby World Cup, has hosted major music tours, starting in November 2011 with Elton John. The stadium is located in Dunedin North, close to the outflow of the Water of Leith into Otago Harbour, its site is close to several other major sports venues. Logan Park lies to the north, the University Oval and the Caledonian Ground are nearby to the north of the stadium.
To the north of the stadium is Logan Point quarry, at the foot of Signal Hill. To the west, the stadium's near neighbours include Otago Polytechnic and the University of Otago College of Education; the main campus of the University of Otago lies one kilometre to the west. The stadium's construction required the shifting of New Zealand State Highway 88, the main road between the CBD to the West Harbour Suburbs and the port facilities, which prior to stadium construction followed Anzac Avenue as part of its route, turning northeast at Logan Park before following the harbour's edge past Ravensbourne; the highway was diverted onto a new stretch of road alongside the railway line, 200 metres east of Anzac Avenue. Several roads located close to the mouth of the Leith were either covered over by the new construction or had their routes altered. A new street, Neptune Street, was built to link remaining stretches of Magnet and Parry Streets, connects with SH88 at a newly built roundabout to the east of the stadium.
The stadium was designed by Populous and Jasmax in a joint venture, is the world's first enclosed grassed stadium since the original grass field of the Astrodome in Houston was replaced in 1966 with what would be known as AstroTurf. The stadium roof was constructed with a clear ETFE roof supplied and installed by the firm Vector Foiltec, the same material as used at Allianz Arena in Munich and the Water Cube in Beijing; the stadium was designed as a versatile venue, is expected to be able to host a range of events including sports, trade fairs and other large-scale events. The use of relocatable seating allows for flexibility to suit a range of event requirements. Due to size constraints, some sports are unable to use the stadium, it has a maximum seated capacity of 30,748 in a full sports mode, capacity in excess of 36,000 for concerts. There are permanent stands in the South and North with removable seating in East and West Stand areas; the West Stand Area called the Mitre 10 Mega Stand, is known as the Zoo and is popular with the student population.
Internal roof height at centre line: 37 metres Highest observed rugby kick 29.4m External roof height 47 metres Football goal posts: 16 metres The roof is covered with 20,500m2 of ETFE transparent roofing material. This roof should have been angled to face north to optimise sun in Southern Hemisphere winter, however it was constructed facing a north-east direction. Rainwater is recycled to irrigate the pitch; the roof, supported by 5 steel trusses each spanning 105 metres, is capable of supporting the weight of a car. The main truss weighs 390 tonnes, it can be retracted as needed. Real grass is strengthened by synthetic grass fibres injected deep into the soil; this increases the hard-wearing capability. The turf is serviced by 15 km of irrigation and 40 automated sprinkler heads, it consists of three different types of seed, 3200m3 of sand and compost in three different layers. Due to the perceived high cost of maintaining the turf, proposals have been made to replace the grass/artificial turf with a 100% artificial turf, which would limit the attractiveness of the venue for high earning events like rugby test matches.
Hawkins Construction began work on the site during May 2009. It was completed in August 2011. During construction, 609 piles were driven to support stadium structure, 1840m3 concrete poured in North and South stand seating areas. Construction work produced 22,000m3 of excavated fill – much from buildings demolished to make way for the stadium. Over 3,200 tonnes of structural steel and 2,000 tonnes of reinforced steel were used; the stadium contains 260 metres of urinals. It houses beverage stalls; the grounds are lighted by 220 two-kilowatt sports lights. At least 600 people were employed in new jobs fit out. Changes to State Highway 88 proposed prior to the stadium proposal were amended to accommodate the proposed new structure. Construction of the revamped highway was completed in mid-2011; the Forsyth Barr Stadium project was met with significant opposition within Dunedin, with object
Hasely Crawford Stadium
The Hasely Crawford Stadium the National Stadium, is located in Port of Spain and Tobago. It was inaugurated and formally opened by Prime Minister George Chambers on 12 June 1982. On 30 December 1996, Prime Minister Basdeo Panday designated it "The Hasely Crawford Stadium", after the first person from Trinidad and Tobago to win an Olympic gold medal; the stadium, sometimes used by the Trinidad and Tobago national football team, hosted the final of the 2001 FIFA U-17 World Championship. It hosted games at the 2010 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup; the stadium has a capacity of 22,575 with the installation of individual seats however on 19 November 1989 Trinidad and Tobago played the USA in a winner takes all WC qualifying match in front of somewhere between 30,000 - 40,000 fans. Its theatre-style VIP Room holds 250. "Trinidad and Tobago Football Federation". Archived from the original on 19 December 2005. Retrieved 11 June 2006. Hasley Crawford Stadium Panoramic image from the Trinidad and Tobago Computer Society
New Zealand national football team
The New Zealand national football team represents New Zealand in international association football. The team is controlled by the governing body for football in New Zealand New Zealand Football, a member of the Oceania Football Confederation; the team's official nickname is the All Whites. New Zealand is a five-time OFC champion; the team represented New Zealand at the FIFA World Cup tournaments in 1982 and 2010, the FIFA Confederations Cup tournaments in 1999, 2003, 2009 and 2017. Because most New Zealand football clubs are semi-professional rather than professional, most professional New Zealand footballers play for clubs in English-speaking countries such as England, the United States and Australia. New Zealand's first international football match was played in Dunedin at the old Caledonian Ground on 23 July 1904 against a team representing New South Wales. New Zealand lost by the game's only goal, but drew with the same team 3–3 in a game at Athletic Park, Wellington seven days later; the following year the team played a Wellington representative side on 10 June before embarking on a tour of Australia, during which they played eleven representative sides, including three "test matches" against New South Wales.
Of these three matches they won one, lost one, drew one. A New Zealand national team did not play again until 1921, when New Zealand played three official full internationals against Australia, played at Carisbrook in Dunedin, Athletic Park in Wellington, Auckland Domain; the results were a 1 -- 1 draw in Wellington. Since the 1990s, United States college soccer has played a significant role in the development of New Zealand players; this influence began when former Scotland international Bobby Clark returned to the U. S. after his 1994–96 stint as New Zealand head coach to take the head coaching job at Stanford University. Clark began recruiting in New Zealand, former New Zealand national players Ryan Nelsen and Simon Elliott played for him at Stanford; the trend that Clark started has continued to the present. S. A common next step in these players' career paths is a stint in Major League Soccer. S. squad. However, Latham's speculation did not prove true, as only one MLS player made the New Zealand squad for the World Cup.
New Zealand competed against Australia for top honours in the OFC. However, after Australia left to join the AFC in 2006, New Zealand were left as the only seeded team in the OFC. New Zealand qualified for the 2010 FIFA World Cup though exited the competition after the first round despite being the only team not to lose a game during the tournament; the tournament featured one of New Zealand's most notable results, a 1–1 draw with the world champions Italy. New Zealand drew their other two pool games with Slovakia and Paraguay and finished above Italy, who placed last, in the group. New Zealand finished third in their group. New Zealand were the only undefeated team in the entire tournament thanks to Spain's defeat to Switzerland. In August 2014, Anthony Hudson was appointed manager of the All Whites. Hudson's first game in charge of the national team was a 3–1 defeat away to Uzbekistan in September 2014; as a result of the All Whites playing “just three matches” in the previous year, “the least of any country in world football”, having “seven months without a match” the All Whites dropped to 161 in the FIFA world rankings.
The All Whites went on to win the 2016 OFC Nations Cup, winning four matches with the final being won via a penalty shootout after a 0–0 draw against Papua New Guinea, conceding only 1 goal, from a penalty, in the process. New Zealand’s victory saw them crowned Oceania champions making New Zealand the most successful national team in the competition's history, having won the tournament five times, saw them qualify for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup in Russia; the All Whites moved up 54 places in the world rankings in July and achieved 88th in the FIFA world rankings, the highest ranking in three years, on the back of the OFC Nations Cup victory that qualified them for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup. After a disappointing tournament at the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup where they finished bottom of their group which featured Russia and Portugal, the national team fell 27 places to 122nd. In September 2017, New Zealand won the OFC Final against the Solomon Islands with an aggregate score of 8–3 to qualify for the inter-continental play-off qualifier against Peru, the fifth-ranked nation from the South America's qualifiers.
After holding Peru off in the first leg, they would go to lose 2-0 in the second leg to be eliminated from competition as Peru became the last team to qualify for the 2018 FIFA World Cup. New Zealand's long time rivals are Trans-Tasman neighbors Australia; the two teams' history dates back to 1922. The rivalry between the Socceroos and the All Whites is part of a wider friendly rivalry between the geographical neighbours Australia and New Zealand, which applies not only to sport but to the culture of the two countries; the rivalry was intensified when Australia and New Zealand were both members of the OFC competing in OFC Nations Cup finals and in FIFA World Cup qualifications, where only one team from the OFC progressed to the World Cup. Since Australia left the OFC to join the AFC in 2006, competition between the two teams has been less frequent. However, the riva
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.