United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
South Holland is a province of the Netherlands with a population of just over 3.6 million as of 2015 and a population density of about 1,300/km2, making it the country's most populous province and one of the world's most densely populated areas. Situated on the North Sea in the west of the Netherlands, South Holland covers an area of 3,403 km2, of which 585 km2 is water, it borders North Holland to the north and Gelderland to the east, North Brabant and Zeeland to the south. The provincial capital is The Hague. Archaeological discoveries in Hardinxveld-Giessendam indicate that the area of South Holland has been inhabited since at least ca. 7,500 years before present by nomadic hunter-gatherers. Agriculture and permanent settlements originated around 2,000 years based on excavations near Vlaardingen. In the classical antiquity, South Holland was part of the Roman Province of Germania Inferior, the border of the Roman Empire ran along the Old Rhine and reached the North Sea near Katwijk; the Romans built fortresses along the border, such as Praetorium Agrippinae near modern-day Valkenburg, Matilo near modern-day Leiden, Albaniana near modern-day Alphen aan den Rijn.
A city was founded near Forum Hadriani. It was built according to the grid plan, facilitated a square, a court, a bathhouse and several temples. After the departure of the Romans, the area belonged to the Frisian Kingdom, after which it was conquered by the Frankish king Dagobert I in 636. In 690, the Anglo-Saxon monk Willibrord arrived near Katwijk and was granted permission to spread Roman Catholicism by the Frankish king Pepin II, he accordingly founded a church in Oegstgeest, after which the entire area was Christianised. The area was appointed to East Francia in the Treaty of Verdun in 843, after which the king granted lands to Gerolf, who had helped him claim the lands; this was the birth of the County of Holland. Gerolf was succeeded by Dirk I, who continued to rule Holland under the Frankish king. In 1248, count William II ordered the construction of the Ridderzaal, finished by his son and successor Floris V; the first city in South Holland to receive city rights was Dordrecht, which did so in 1220.
The city retained a dominant position in the area until it was struck by a series of floods in the late 14th century. The same century saw a series of civil wars, the Hook and Cod wars, concerning the succession of count William IV. Both his daughter Jacqueline and his brother John, the latter supported by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, claimed the throne; the conflict ended with John victorious. Overall, the area of South Holland remained agrarian throughout the late Middle Ages; this changed around 1500. During the Eighty Years' War, the area of South Holland was the scene of the Capture of Brielle, the Siege of Leiden and the assassination of William the Silent; the United Netherlands declared their independence in 1581, Holland emerged as the country's dominant province, with important trading cities such as Leiden, Delft and Dordrecht. In 1575, the Netherlands' first university was founded in Leiden by William the Silent; the Hague, which had originated around the castle of the counts of Holland, became its new political centre.
Both the States of Holland and the States General seated in the Binnenhof. The Dutch Golden Age blossomed in the 17th century; the south of Holland, back often referred to as the Zuiderkwartier, was the birthplace and residence of scientists such as Antoni van Leeuwenhoek and Christiaan Huygens, philosophers such as Baruch Spinoza and Pierre Bayle, painters such as Johannes Vermeer, Rembrandt van Rijn and Jan Steen. The province of South Holland as it is today has its origins in the period of French rule from 1795 to 1813; this was a time of bewildering changes to the Dutch system of provinces. In 1795, the Batavian Republic was proclaimed and the old order was swept away by a series of constitutional changes in the following years. In the Constitution enacted on 23 April 1798, the old borders were radically changed; the republic was reorganised into eight departments with equal populations. The south of Holland was split up into three departments; the islands in the south were merged with Zeeland and the west of North Brabant to form the Department of the Scheldt and Meuse.
The north of the area became the Department of the Delf. A small region in the east of the area became part of the Department of the Rhine, which spanned much of Gelderland and Utrecht. In 1801, the old borders were restored; the reorganisation had been short-lived, but it gave birth to the concept of a division of Holland, creating less dominant provinces. In 1807, Holland was reorganised once again; this time, the department was split in two. The south, what would become South Holland, was called the Department of Maasland; this did not last long. In 1810, all the Dutch provinces were integrated into the French Empire, Maasland was renamed Bouches-de-la-Meuse. After the defeat of the French in 1813, this organisation remained unchanged for a year or so; when the 1814 Constitution was introduced, most borders were restored to their situation before the French period. The north and south of Holland were reunited as the province of Holland. However, the division hadn't been undone. Since its re-establishment in 1814, Holland had always had two King's Commissioners, one for the north and one for the south.
Though the province had been reunited, the two areas were still treated differently in s
Water board (Netherlands)
Dutch water boards are regional government bodies charged with managing water barriers, water levels, water quality and sewage treatment in their respective regions. These regional water authorities are among the oldest forms of local government in the Netherlands, some of them having been founded in the 13th century. Around 26 percent of the area of the Netherlands is at or below sea level and several branches of the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta run through this small country. There always was a good deal of coastal and river flooding. Flood control in the Netherlands is a national priority, since about two thirds of the country is vulnerable to flooding, while at the same time it is one of the most densely populated areas on Earth. Natural sand dunes and man-made dikes and floodgates provide defense against storm surges from the sea. River dikes prevent flooding of land by the major rivers Rhine and Meuse, while a complicated system of drainage ditches and pumping stations keep the low-lying parts dry for habitation and agriculture.
Water boards are independent local government bodies responsible for maintaining this system. An Unie van Waterschappen promotes the interests of Dutch water boards at a national and international level. All 21 water boards are members of this association; the Unie van Waterschappen acts collaboratively with other appropriate bodies or institutions to pursue the Association's objectives. It is a member of the European Union of Water Management Associations; this method of controlling water emerged as the unpredictable water was tamed and the land drained for agriculture. The first dikes and water control structures were built and maintained by those directly benefiting from them farmers; as the structures got more extensive and complex, councils were formed from people with a common interest in control of water levels of their land. The first water boards were formed in the 13th century; these controlled only a small area, a single polder or dike. As these boards became better organised, the counts of Holland began granting charters to the boards.
They were granted the right to make their own bylaws. The ever-present threat of loss of life and land required short lines of communication between authorities and residents who maintained the infrastructure; the threat of flooding in a heerlijkheid was best dealt with by local authorities, so water boards were chaired by the local nobility. Local water boards were set up to maintain integrity of water defences around local polders, to maintain waterways inside polders and to control various water levels in and outside local polders; the mandate of these water boards was maintenance of dikes and waterways, control of water level and quality of all surface water. The original water boards varied much in organisation and area they managed; the differences were dictated by different circumstances, whether they had to defend a sea dike against a storm surge or keep water level in a polder within bounds. Hoogheemraadschappen were responsible for protecting the land against the sea and for regulating water levels of various canals and lakes into which water was pumped from polders and waterschappen.
Dikes were maintained by individuals who benefited from their existence, every farmer was designated a part of a dike to maintain, with a review every three years by the water board directors. The old rule was "Whom the water harms stops the water"; this meant that those living at the dike had to care for it. Those people could go bankrupt from having to repair a breached dike; those living further inland refused to pay for or assist upkeep of dikes though they were just as much affected by floods. This system led to haphazard maintenance and it is believed that many floods would be prevented or mitigated if dikes had been in better condition. Punishments meted out by water boards were fines for misdemeanors such as emptying waste in the nearest canal. In the 17th century there were many of these independent local bodies levying their own taxes and administering justice; this early form of local government played a role in the development of a political system in the Netherlands, decentralised and dependent on communal cooperation.
Widespread experience with decentralized government was a factor in the formation of the Dutch Republic in the 16th and 17th centuries. The mandate of Rijkswaterstaat, established in 1798 under French rule, was to centralise water control in the Netherlands. Local water boards refused to give up their autonomy however, so Rijkswaterstaat ended up working alongside the local water boards. Today Rijkswaterstaat has responsibility for major water control structures and other infrastructure like motorways. By 1850 there were about 3,500 water boards in the country. In modern times water boards merged. Mergers reduced the number to 25 water boards in 2011; the tasks of water boards remain unchanged. Having a rich history dating back to the Middle Ages, they are the oldest governing bodies and the oldest democratic institutions in the Netherlands. Dutch water boards have their own coat of arms, a colourful reminder of their importance in D
Noorderkwartier is a historical term referring to the part of the former Dutch province of Holland north of the river IJ, covering the regions Kennemerland, Zaanstreek and West Friesland and now part of the modern province of North Holland. Other historical terms for this area were "North Holland", "Noordeland", "Noorderland"
The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between the United Kingdom, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north, it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery; the sea is a popular destination for recreation and tourism in bordering countries and more has developed into a rich source of energy resources including fossil fuels and early efforts in wave power. The North Sea has featured prominently in geopolitical and military affairs in Northern Europe, it was important globally through the power northern Europeans projected worldwide during much of the Middle Ages and into the modern era. The North Sea was the centre of the Vikings' rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus access to the world's markets and resources.
As Germany's only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geographical features. In the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south, the coast consists of sandy beaches and wide mudflats. Due to the dense population, heavy industrialization, intense use of the sea and area surrounding it, there have been various environmental issues affecting the sea's ecosystems. Adverse environmental issues – including overfishing and agricultural runoff and dumping, among others – have led to a number of efforts to prevent degradation of the sea while still making use of its economic potential; the North Sea is bounded by the Orkney Islands and east coast of Great Britain to the west and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean.
In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, connects with the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the north-eastern part of the Atlantic; the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland and the Frisian Islands; the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea, including water from the Baltic Sea; the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed. Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some industrialized areas.
For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen, it has a maximum depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises to a mere 15 to 30 m below the surface; this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms; these great banks and others make the North Sea hazardous to navigate, alleviated by the implementation of satellite navigation systems. The Devil's Hole lies 200 miles east of Scotland; the feature is a series of asymmetrical trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long and two kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Fisher Bank and Noordhinder Bank; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows: On the Southwest.
A line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. On the Northwest. From Dunnet Head in Scotland to Tor Ness in the Island of Hoy, thence through this island to the Kame of Hoy on to Breck Ness on Mainland through this island to Costa Head and to Inga Ness in Westray through Westray, to Bow Head, across to Mull Head and on to Seal Skerry and thence to Horse Island. On the North. From the North point of the Mainland of the Shetland Islands, across to Graveland Ness in the Island of Yell, through Yell to Gloup Ness and across to Spoo Ness in Unst island, through Unst to Herma Ness, on to the SW point of the Rumblings and to Muckle Flugga all these being included in the North Sea area.
Johannes Wijnandus "Johan" Remkes is a retired Dutch politician of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy. Remkes van born in Groningen, he served as a member of the House of Representatives from 26 October 1993 to 3 August 1998, when he became State Secretary for Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment in the Second Kok cabinet, serving until 22 July 2002. He returned to the House of Representatives for two short periods serving from 23 May to 22 July 2002 and from 30 January to 27 May 2003, he became Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations and Deputy Prime Minister in the First Balkenende cabinet. After the fall of the cabinet, he remained Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations in the Second and Third Balkenende cabinets but was replaced as Deputy Prime Minister by VVD Leader Gerrit Zalm, he served as Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations from 22 July 2002 until 22 February 2007 and as Deputy Prime Minister from 22 July 2002 to 27 May 2003. He returned as a member of the House of Representatives after the inauguration of the Fourth Balkenende cabinet, serving from 30 November 2006 to 17 June 2010.
On 1 July 2010, he became the Queen's Commissioner of North Holland. In 2018, he made known he would step down from the position in January 2019 to retire from politics, he will be succeeded by former Haarlemmermeer alderman Arthur van Dijk. Official J. W. Remkes Parlement & Politiek
West Friesland (region)
Not to be confused with the West Friesland Dutch dialect. West Friesland is a contemporary region in the Northwest of the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland; the River Vlie, is an extension of the IJssel branch of the Rhine River. The river divides the northern Netherlands into the western and the eastern part. In the eleventh century, heavy rainfall caused the river to flood over large parts of the land; the Zuiderzee bay was formed. In the Middle Ages, the Westflinge area of West Friesland became an island, bordered on the north by the Medem and Zijpe inlets, to the south by various interconnecting lakes that were connected with the Zuiderzee; because of this, the toponym "West Friesland" was applied more to the Westflinge area than to the original West Friesland. For 300 years, West Friesland operated as an autonomous area as the West Frisians did not wish to be vassals of lords from Holland. Floris V, Count of Holland, attempted to unite Holland and West Friesland during his reign and he succeeded in annexing West Frisia.
It was his successor, John I, who achieved ultimate victory over the West Frisians in 1297. West Friesland formed a united province with Holland in the Dutch Republic, though it was recognized an autonomous region, the parliament of said province known as Holland, was formally known as the States of Holland and West Friesland. During the time of the United Provinces, West Friesland had its own independent Admiralty of the Northern Quarter. Any admiral serving within this admiralty or the two other Hollandic admiralties had the title of Admiral of Holland and West Frisia; the West Frisian language has disappeared from the region and the West Frisian dialects are now disappearing. Although these dialects are subdialects of Hollandic Dutch, they were influenced in vocabulary and grammar by a West Frisian substratum; the first inhabitants of Alkmaar, St Pancras settled along the high beach ridges of the Vroonermeer in the 9th century AD. Better known as Vroonen, this settlement subsequently grew into a village.
In the late 13th century, when the Dutch conquered West Frisians, the victors crossed the village and set it on fire. The few surviving inhabitants fled the region. After a long time, people returned to Vroonen and a chapel was built; the village of St Pancras was founded around this church. Vroonermeer was drained in 1561; the reclamation of the North Holland lakes was a purely private business affair intended for the establishment of new tracts of fertile land. Investors leased their new land to farmers; the exact location of West Friesland is not defined, but it has been suggested that it comprised the area north of an imaginary line through Hoorn and Alkmaar. Within this historical region is the contemporary region of West Friesland, a smaller area based on a dyke system on the Westfriese Omringdijk that lay in West Friesian district of Westflinge; the area between the rivers Vlie and IJ consists of the present-day municipalities of Alkmaar, Beemster, Castricum, Den Helder, Edam-Volendam, Heerhugowaard, Hollands Kroon, Koggenland, Langedijk, Purmerend, Opmeer, Stede Broec, Uitgeest, Waterland, Wognum and Zaanstad.
The region covers an area of about 800 km2, delineated by the Westfriese Omringdijk. It consists of the following municipalities: Major cities include Hoorn and Alkmaar; the traditional dialect of the region is the West Frisian dialect of Hollandic Dutch. The contemporary region is similar in size and location to the historical district of Westflinge which itself was a part of a much larger historical region of West Friesland. Frisia Frisian Islands The region website