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North Pole, Alaska

North Pole is a small city in the Fairbanks North Star Borough, United States. It is part of the Fairbanks metropolitan statistical area; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 2,117, up from 1,570 in 2000. Despite its name, the city is about 1,700 miles south of Earth's geographic North Pole and 125 miles south of the Arctic Circle; the name "North Pole" is applied to the entire area covered by its zip code, 99705. This area stretches between Fort Wainwright and Eielson Air Force Base, between the Chena River and the Tanana River, including subdivisions off of Badger Road, a loop road connecting the eastern edge of Fairbanks city limits with North Pole city limits, in the nearby census-designated place of Moose Creek. Despite the name, the city is about 1,700 miles south of Earth's geographic North Pole and 125 miles south of the Arctic Circle; the city is a summertime attraction for tourists visiting nearby Fairbanks and, due to its location on the Richardson Highway, those traveling to and from the Alaska Highway and Valdez.

North Pole was home to two oil refineries, the town's major industry aside from tourism, but closed because of sulfolane contamination in groundwater. The larger refinery, operated by Flint Hills Resources, was a major source of jet fuel for Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport. Tanker car traffic on the Alaska Railroad and leaving the refinery bisects the city. North Pole's biggest attraction is a gift shop named Santa Claus House, the modern-day incarnation of a trading post established in the town's early days; the Santa Claus House is known for the world's largest fiberglass statue of Santa Claus outside. A small group of domesticated Reindeer are just outside. Prior to Christmas each year, the USPS post office in North Pole receives hundreds of thousands of letters to Santa Claus, thousands more from people wanting the town's postmark on their Christmas greeting cards to their families, it advertises the ZIP code 99705 as the ZIP code of Santa. A community program responds to letters addressed to 1 Santa Claus Lane.

Christmas-themed streets in North Pole include Santa Claus Lane, St. Nicholas Drive, Snowman Lane, Kris Kringle Drive. Street lights in the city are decorated in a candy cane motif, many local businesses have similar decorations; the city's firetrucks and ambulances are all red, while the police cars are green and white. The city has an all-female flat-track Roller Derby league, the North Pole Babes in Toyland whose athletes have Christmas and North Pole-inspired Skater names. North Pole has some of the least expensive residential real estate in Alaska; the Richardson Highway south of Fairbanks led to an assortment of subdivided and unsubdivided homesteads between Ladd Field and 26 Mile Field in the 1940s and 1950s. The area that formed the central city of North Pole was homesteaded in 1944 by Bon V. and Bernice Davis. Their son, T. Neil Davis, wrote Battling Against Success in 1997, a fictionalized account of homestead life; the Alaska Railroad established a siding on the Davis homestead as part of its branch line to Eielson Air Force Base, naming the siding Davis.

This name would temporarily become associated with the fledgling settlement. In 1952, Dahl and Gaske Development Company purchased the Davis homestead, subdivided it, renamed it North Pole, in hopes of attracting a toy manufacturer to the area; the City of North Pole was incorporated on January 15, 1953 from portions of the Davis homestead and the adjacent homestead of James Ford. Ford was named the first mayor, with Everett Dahl serving on the first city council. Another member of that first council was Conrad B. Miller. Miller, who came to Fairbanks in 1949, opened a trading post along the highway in 1952; the business became known as the Santa Claus House, has evolved over the years into the current roadside attraction. The business was home to North Pole's first post office, serving in that capacity for 20 years. Another trading post in the community was operated by Lucius Cunningham and his family; the town's economy depended on these two businesses until the 1970s, when the current four-lane Richardson Highway was built, bypassing Davis Subdivision, its downtown.

The Earth Resources refinery began operations in August 1977. It is connected to the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System by several feeder pipelines operated by Golden Valley Electric Association following along the Laurence Road section line; the years which followed the pipeline's construction saw the construction of the North Pole Plaza, a large enclosed shopping mall along the Richardson Highway. A standalone high school and increased subdivision development in rural areas outside of the city would follow before the real estate market temporarily collapsed during the 1980s. An interchange was constructed along the Richardson, where the highway intersects with the eastern end of Badger Road and the northern end of Santa Claus Lane, during the early 1990s. In the late 2000s, the northern portion of Santa Claus Lane was rebuilt to accommodate three consecutive roundabouts, serving the interchange and a nearby frontage road intersection. Another interchange was constructed on the Richardson at Dawson Road, at the far eastern edge of city limits.

These improvements eliminated a number of at-grade access points to the Richardson, which had accumulated a decades-long history of serious accidents. On April 22, 2006, police arrested several students at North Pole Middle School for plotting a school shooting, much along the lines of the Columbine High School massacre. Death in

2007–08 New Jersey Devils season

The 2007–08 New Jersey Devils season was the team's 26th in the National Hockey League since the franchise relocated to New Jersey. It was the first season the team had played home games anywhere other than Continental Airlines Arena, as the Devils relocated to the newly built Prudential Center in Newark, New Jersey; the season was Brent Sutter's first as head coach. The Devils were shut out a league-high 11 times during the regular season. Divisions: AT – Atlantic, NE – Northeast, SE – Southeast bold – qualified for playoffs, y – division winner, z – placed first in conference Record: 4–6–1, they were the third team in the East to clinch a spot in the playoffs, finished fourth in the Eastern Conference with 99 points. This was their 11th consecutive trip to the playoffs, their 18th overall since making the playoffs for the first time during the 1987–88 season; the New Jersey Devils played the New York Rangers in the Eastern Conference Quarter-finals, losing the series 4–1, including three losses at their home arena in Newark.

This was the fifth meeting between the two clubs. The Rangers took the first three series, winning 4 games to 3 in the 1992 Patrick Division Semi-finals, 4–3 again in the 1994 Eastern Conference Finals, 4–1 in the 1997 Eastern Conference Semi-finals. Most the Devils swept the Rangers in the 2006 Eastern Conference Quarter-finals. * If necessary Television coverage was on FSN New York with Mike Emrick and Chico Resch providing play-by-play with Steve Cangialosi and former Devil Ken Daneyko as color commentators. FSN New York, owned by Cablevision which at the time owned MSG Network, was re-branded MSG Plus the following season. Radio coverage was still on WFAN 660 with Sherry Ross. ScoringGoaltending ScoringGoaltendingNote: GP = Games played. New Jersey's picks at the 2007 NHL Entry Draft in Ohio. 2007–08 NHL season

Dillingham Flaw

The Dillingham Flaw is a phenomenon of faulty logic when nativists misinterpret and react negatively to the presence of immigrants in their midst. The term was coined by U. S. sociologist Vincent N. Parrillo to identify the centuries-old phenomenon. Parrillo drew the name from a special commission created in 1907 by President Theodore Roosevelt to look into the “immigration problem.” Named after its chairman, U. S. Senator William P. Dillingham of Vermont, the Dillingham Commission over a 4-year period listened to testimony from civic leaders, social scientists, social workers and made on-site visits to Ellis Island and New York City’s Lower East Side. In 1911, the Commission issued a 41-volume report of its findings; the report was flawed in its interpretation of the data that the Commission had so tirelessly collected. The Commission erred in its use of simplistic categories for diverse immigrant groups and in making an unfair comparison of “old” and “new” immigrants, despite the changed structural conditions and longer time interval that previous immigrants had to assimilate and to achieve some measure of economic security.

The Dillingham Flaw refers to inaccurate comparisons of immigrant groups based on simplistic categorizations and anachronistic observations. Parrillo argued that this erroneous thinking can occur in assessments of the past, present, or future. Applying modern classifications or sensibilities to a time when they did not exist, or, if they did, had a different form or meaning, is one version of the Dillingham Flaw. For example, today's term British refers collectively to the people of the United Kingdom. However, in the 18th century, British had the much narrower meaning for only the English, for good reason; the English, Welsh and Scots-Irish may have all been English-speaking, but significant cultural and religious differences existed among them and they did not view each other as “similar.” Anyone who presumes that the colonial British just the colonial English, were a single cohesive entity, thus the 13 English colonies were homogeneous, would fall victim to the Dillingham Flaw. A similar trap is speaking about either African slaves or Native Americans as single, monolithic entities generations ago.

Such ethnocentric generalizations fail to acknowledge that these groups consisted of diverse peoples with distinctive languages and behavior patterns. European immigrants were not alike, despite their collective groupings by mainstream society. Instead, all of these groups—African American, Native American, immigrant—were diverse peoples with many distinctions that set them apart from one another. Similar misconceptions can, do, occur in one's own time. Working from a false premise about past rapid assimilation and cultural homogeneity, some individuals employ what they believe is an objective comparison with the present scene, which they find troubling in its heterogeneity and non-assimilating groups. Like the 1907 Dillingham Commission, they may be susceptible to mistaken impressions about a “threat” posed by recent immigrants whose presence and behavior they view as different from earlier immigrants; the most common examples are expressed views that today's immigrant minorities present an unprecedented challenge to an integrative society.

Reacting to the increasing presence—even in many nonurban settings—of nonwhite newcomers speaking a foreign tongue, including many from a non-Judeo-Christian background, nativists view with alarm these demographic changes. Such fears are echoes of those raised about earlier groups, such as the racist responses to the physical appearance of southern Europeans or the anti-Semitic reactions to eastern European Jews. In reality, studies reveal rapid English language acquisition among all immigrants groups and higher naturalization rates among non-Westerners. Using oversimplified categorizations and imposing present-day sensibilities—the essence of the Dillingham Flaw—also can occur when individuals engage in demographic projections. For example, the U. S. Census Bureau projects that Hispanics will comprise about 30 percent of the total U. S. population in 2050. Given past patterns and current trends, however, we cannot be certain that today's group categories, such as Hispanic, will still be valid by then.

Most white Americans bear witness to mixed European ancestry, but two generations ago, Americans of southern and eastern European backgrounds were far more to be of a single national lineage and religion. Their single-group identities evolved into multiple-group identities, as large-scale intermarriages generated such a blending of peoples that “whites” and “European Americans” became synonymous. Further, their mixed heritage is now more to be passively acknowledged, except for occasional symbolic celebrations, it is no longer an element of subcultural participation, or minority status. Each succeeding year shows greater numbers of exogamous marriages among ethnic and religious groups. Therefore, it is not unreasonable, for example, to suggest—given the annual increase in Hispanics marrying non-Hispanics—that in two generations many of the descendants of today's Hispanic Americans will claim a mixed heritage Hispanic and non-Hispanic. Projections that the mid-21st century will find the United States with a Hispanic population totaling 30 percent suggests a demographic categorization by today's realities that may well not fit the reality then.

A similar argument could be made for other groups, as racial intermarriages continue to create a growing multiracial population. Using today's categories for Americans living in 2050 can be another unwitting application of the Dillingham Flaw

So Soon We Change

So Soon We Change is a 1979 album from Temptations singer David Ruffin. It was his first album for Warner Bros. Records after years of being with Motown. Side One "Let Your Love Rain Down on Me" "Break My Heart" "I Get Excited" "Chain on the Brain" Side Two "Morning Sun Looks Blue" "Let's Stay Together" "So Soon We Change" "Sexy Dancer" David Ruffin - vocals Bruce Nazarian, Dennis Coffey, Norman Warner, Robert Troy - guitar Anthony Willis, Steven Hairston - bass Arnold Ingram, Michael Amitin, Ruby Robinson - keyboards Jerry Jones - drums Larry Fratangelo - percussion Mike Iacopelli - ARP syndrum Sam Peake - saxophone Terry Harrington - alto saxophone Patrick Adams - string and horn arrangements

Donald McCurdy

Donald Mervyn McCurdy is an American politician from Pennsylvania who served as a Republican member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives for the 165th district from 1967 to 1974. McCurdy was born in Philadelphia and graduated from Upper Darby High School, he received an A. B. degree from Dickinson College in 1952 and a LL. B. from Dickinson Law School in 1955. He served as a helicopter pilot in the United States Navy from 1955 to 1959. McCurdy was a lawyer and worked as a member of the 11th Ward of the Upper Darby junior Committee from 1960 to 1962, he worked as Special Assistant Deputy District Attorney for the Pennsylvania Office of the Attorney General from 1963 to 1966. He was the chair of the Delaware County Citizens for Nixon-Agnew in 1967, he was elected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives for the 165th district in 1966 and served 3 more consecutive terms until 1974. He lost to Thomas J. Stapleton, he was appointed to the Pennsylvania State Ethics Commission and served from 2001 to 2006

Mario Ruspoli, 2nd Prince of Poggio Suasa

Mario dei Principi Ruspoli was an Italian prince, son of Emanuele Ruspoli, 1st Prince of Poggio Suasa and first wife Princess Caterina Vogoride-Conachi. He was the 2nd Prince of Poggio Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, he was responsible for the brief development of Chatsworth, New Jersey as a resort in the early 20th century. He married in Paris, September 25, 1890 Pauline Marie Palma de Talleyrand-Périgord, daughter of the Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, the 4th Duke of Dino and Elizabeth Beers-Curtis, great-great-great-niece of Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, by whom he had five children: Costantino Carlo Michele Agostino dei Principi Ruspoli, married in Brussels, December 29, 1923 Elisabeth Catherine Adrienne Marie Anne Comtesse van der Noot d'Assche, by whom he had three sons: Marcantonio Mario Dimitri Ruspoli, 3rd Prince of Poggio Suasa Edoardo Eugenio Bosone dei Principi Ruspoli and without issue Marescotti Giovanni dei Principi Ruspoli, married firstly Yvonne Masse, by whom he had two sons, secondly at Chelsea, September 6, 1963 Diana Baronesse d'Orville van der Hoop, by whom he had three daughters: Francesco dei Principi Ruspoli and without issue Alexis dei Principi Ruspoli and had issue: Livia dei Principi Ruspoli, married Jean-Pierre Tasiaux, had issue Serena dei Principi Ruspoli and without issue Dáphne Barbara Philippa dei Principi Ruspoli, married civilly at Uccle, May 29, 1998 and religiously at Èze, June 27, 1998 François, Comte Didisheim, had issue Marescotti dei Principi Ruspoli, married in Rome, June 10, 1935 Virginia dei Marchesi Patrizi Naro Montoro, whose mother was English, by whom he had a son and a daughter: Eugenio dei Principi Ruspolii, married in Paris, May 2, 1960 Catherine Carolus-Barré, by whom he had a daughter and a son: Smeralda dei Principi Ruspoli and without issue Marescotti Carlo dei Principi Ruspoli and had issue Francesca Patrizia Palma Rita Maria Raimonda Carla dei Principi Ruspoli, married in Rome, July 12, 1969 Eriprando Visconti di Modrone, Count of Vico Modrone, had a son and a daughter, both unmarried and without issue Alessandro Edmondo Eugenio dei Principi Ruspoli, married in Paris, August 28, 1924 Marthe-Marie de Pineton de Chambrun, by whom he had one son and two daughters: Mario Giovanni Battista Pietro dei Principi Ruspoli, married firstly in Paris, April 8, 1947 and divorced Claude Delmas, by whom he had two sons, secondly on April 4, 1974 Dominique Rivolier, without issue: Stefano dei Principi Ruspoli, married firstly in Paris, 1978 Laurence Allix, by whom he had an only daughter, secondly in Paris Annie Nataf, without issue: Léonore dei Principi Ruspoli Fabrizio dei Principi Ruspoli and without issue Giacinta Palma Margherita Maria dei Principi Ruspoli and without issue Palma Maria dei Principi Ruspoli, married... di Maio Emanuele Costantino dei Principi Ruspoli, married Teresa Tomassetti, by whom he had two son: Carlo Maurizio dei Principi Ruspoli, married in Rome Iolanda Padovano, by whom he had three daughter: Gioia dei Principi Ruspoli Smeralda dei Principi Ruspoli Margherita dei Principi Ruspoli Camillo dei Principi Ruspoli Carlo Maurizio Giuseppe Edgardo dei Principi Ruspoli, married firstly in Venice, September 12, 1927 Marina dei Conti Volpi di Misurata, by whom he had an only daughter, secondly in Rome Luisa Maria Camperio, by whom he had an only son: Smeralda Giovanna Amelia Palma Maria dei Principi Ruspoli, married in Rome Giancarlo Sbragia Costantino Filippo Maria dei Principi Ruspoli, who by Maria Consuelo Child-Villiers of the Earls of Jersey, whose mother was Italian, a former niece by marriage of Virginia Cherrill and paternal granddaughter of George Child Villiers, 8th Earl of Jersey, aunt of actor and producer William Villiers, had an only son: Mr. Bartolomeo Sebastian Ruspoli, actor Rotary Club of New York.

Ruspoli