click links in text for more info

North Queensland Cowboys

The North Queensland Cowboys are an Australian professional rugby league football club based in Townsville, the largest city in North Queensland. They compete in the National Rugby League. Since their foundation in 1995, the club has appeared in three grand finals winning in 2015, has reached the finals ten times; the team's management headquarters and home ground, North Queensland Stadium known as Queensland Country Bank Stadium due to sponsorship rights, are located in the suburb of South Townsville. The Cowboys were admitted to the premiership for the 1995 ARL season, they played in the breakaway Super League competition in 1997 before continuing to compete in the re-unified National Rugby League competition the following year. After running into financial trouble in 2001, the club was taken over by News Limited. In 2007, the team was sold by News Limited to the Cowboys Leagues Club. In 2015, the Cowboys played in the first all-Queensland Grand Final, defeating the Brisbane Broncos 17–16 in golden point to win their first premiership.

With the success of the Broncos in 1988, speculation intensified as to if the NSWRL would admit a new team based in North Queensland. In 1993, the NSWRL announced that North Queensland would enter the competition in 1995, along with three other new sides. One of the major difficulties that faced the club in their early years was attracting followers from the more established Queensland-based Winfield Cup side, the Brisbane Broncos; this was exacerbated by an initial lack of onfield stability. In their first two seasons, the Cowboys had eight different captains and finished last in their inaugural season. After much court action in 1995 and 1996, a ten team Super League competition was held in 1997; the Cowboys competed in this competition, their squad was bolstered by a number of new signings including Ian Roberts and Steve Walters. However, they were unable to improve on the club's results in previous years, for the second time in three seasons they were to finish the season in last place; the Cowboys first game of the Super League season, a 24–16 win over new team the Adelaide Rams played on 1 March at Stockland Stadium in front of 17,738 fans was the first game of the Super League's competition.

In 1998 the Super League and Australian Rugby League competitions merged to form the National Rugby League. The Cowboys began their first season in this competition and after six rounds they were in equal first place. Although they fell away in the season, they were to record the largest come-back to date in an Australian first grade rugby league match, defeating the Penrith Panthers 36–28 after trailing 26–0 at half-time. 1998 saw the Cowboys record their largest loss to date, being defeated 62–0 by the North Sydney Bears in the last round of the home and away season. The Cowboys signed their eleventh captain in Noel Goldthorpe. Paul Bowman was to serve in that role during the season. Although their on-field performances were not spectacular, continuing high attendance figures saw aggregate attendances exceed one million spectators; this season the Cowboys provided their first State of Origin representative when Paul Green was selected as Queensland's halfback for game 2 of the 1999 State of Origin series.

In the years 2000 through to 2002 the Cowboys continued to struggle with off-field dramas and poor on-field performances. After finishing last in 2000, season 2001 began slowly. Tim Sheens resigned on 25 May and was replaced by his assistant Murray Hurst. 4 straight losses in the opening rounds of 2002 led to Hurst being replaced early in the 2002 season, by former Illawarra Steelers and Leeds Rhinos coach Graham Murray. Murray stamped his authority and coaching prowess on the club and the NQ Cowboys looked far more competitive towards the end of the 2002 season; the Cowboys spent much of the 2003 season in the top eight with much improved performances from a host of players, including local talents Matt Bowen and Josh Hannay. The 2003 season ended with the Cowboys four points adrift of a top eight play-off position. After a slow start to the season that saw them at 13th on the ladder with just one win and five losses, the Cowboys turned it around in the second half of the season to finish with 12 wins and 11 losses and 7th spot, giving the club their first top eight appearance.

The Cowboys fairytale year continued when they upset the 2nd place Bulldogs away from home in the first week of the finals, 30–22, thanks to hat-trick hero Matt Sing. The following week the Cowboys defeated their state rivals the Brisbane Broncos at home, 10–0, in the club's most famous victory, they ended up falling one game short of the grand final, losing to the Sydney Roosters, 19–16. The Cowboys would go one better in 2005. With the help of new recruits Carl Webb and Johnathan Thurston, the side finished in 5th spot and with back-to-back finals appearances, they would lose the grand final to the Wests Tigers. In his first year with the club, Johnathan Thurston won the Dally M Medal and made his State of Origin debut for Queensland. In 2006, the Cowboys started the year with a 6-game winning streak and looked destined for another finals appearance, before ending the season with just 5 wins from 19 games and finishing in 9th position; the 2007 season saw their first top 4 finish. They faced the Bulldogs in Townsville in week 1 of the finals.

The following week, they defeated the Warriors at home by 37 points. They fell one game short of the grand final again, this time losing to Manly, 28–6. 2007 saw the retirement of club legend Paul Bowman, who took up a coachi

SOS Children's Villages UK

SOS Children's Villages UK, is a child sponsorship charity based in Cambridge in the United Kingdom. It is part of the international group SOS Children's Villages – the largest international charity group dedicated to the care of orphaned and abandoned children; the charity is registered under the working names "SOS Children" and "World Orphan Week" with the Charity Commission. Internationally, SOS Children's Villages works in 134 countries and territories, of which it provides services in 125, its slogan is "A loving home for every child". Programmes include SOS Children's Villages which are communities that offer a new family home for orphaned and abandoned children, family strengthening services which foster community development and help to prevent child abandonment; the charity is non-denominational and works in the spirit of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Since 1995, SOS Children's Villages has worked with the United Nations to help governments and organisations support children who have lost or are at risk of losing parental care.

In 2009, the charity worked with other experts to develop the UN Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children. In 1969 chairman of SOS Children's Villages UK, Dickson Mabon attempted to arrange the construction of Children's Villages in Scotland. However, he was refused permission to build the Villages on planning grounds by the local authorities concerned. Supporters include Stephen Hawking, Alexander McCall Smith, Anyika Onuora, Richard Attenborough, Kate Humble and Wayne Rooney. International Ambassador, as of April 2014, is Belgian footballer Vincent Kompany. Angelina Jolie is a long-term supporter and has visited SOS Children's Villages in Haiti and Jordan. Nelson Mandela was a supporter of SOS Children's Villages work in South Africa and opened the SOS Children's Village in Cape Town. Upon his death in December 2013, SOS Children's Villages joined in memorials to celebrate his life; the Dalai Lama supports SOS Children the SOS Children's Villages in North India, which provide a home for child refugees from Tibet.

In 2005 SOS Children's Villages UK founded a campaign which runs annually. The project aims to raise awareness about the large number of children missing one or both parents around the world; the campaign works with schools, individuals and community groups to hold events on a local and national scale to raise awareness and funds for the organisation. In 2018 World Orphan Week will be held on 3–10 February. In 2011 SOS Children's Villages UK created a new web site "Our Africa" which won the New Media category of the One World Media Awards. Our Africa is an educational site with many short videos and articles created to celebrate 40 years of SOS Children's Villages work in Africa. Many of the videos are filmed by children across Africa. Since 2006, SOS Children's Villages UK has produced an offline selection from Wikipedia, based around the UK national curriculum and targeted at a school-age audience; the project was aimed at schools in the developing world, where internet access is limited, but has proved popular in developed countries as well.

This is because all content is checked to ensure suitability for children and relevance to the classroom, making it safe for use in schools. As well as being an offline resource available on request, it is available online, it was last updated in 2013. Current trustees are Mary Cockcroft, George Windsor, Earl of St Andrews, Michael Brewer, Graham Budd, Ayesha Khan, Matthew de Villiers, Thomas Bauer


Altungulata or Pantomesaxonia is an invalid clade of ungulate mammals comprising the perissodactyls and tethytheres The name "Pantomesaxonia" was introduced by Franz 1924, a German zoologist and racial theorist. It was resurrected by Fischer 1986 by including sirenians and excluding South American ungulates and meniscotheriids from the original concept; the name "Altungulata", introduced by Prothero & Schoch 1989 and revised by McKenna & Bell 1997, was erected as an alternative because the updated concept of "Pantomesaxonia" was regarded too deviant from the original concept. Both names are still in use, and, to add to the confusion, various authors assign different ranks to the involved taxa. For example, according to Thewissen & Domning 1992, Phenacodonta and Pantomesaxonia are sister groups together making up the superorder Paenungulata. Altungulata is not supported by molecular evidence unless perissodactyls are excluded, the validity of the following uniting synapomorphies remain disputed: bilophodonty, two lophs or crests running transversally across the crown of the tooth large third molars molarization of posterior premolars elongated thoracic region with at least 19 vertebrae clavicle absent similar development of fetal membranesRecent studies on Abdounodus showcase that dental synapomorphies between both groups arose independently, further discrediting the Altungulata hypothesis.

The classification below is from Rose 2006, p. 242. Paenungulata together with Macroscelidea and the lipotyphlan families Tenrecidae and Chrysochloridae compose Afrotheria. With the exclusion of the better known Radinskya and Minchenella from Phenacolophidae, their affinities to Embrithropoda are suspect, they were regarded as Altungulata incertae sedis by Mao et al.. Altungulata Prothero and Schoch 1989 †Radinskya, †Olbitherium †Phenacolophidae Zhang 1978 †Ganolophus Zhang 1979 †Phenacolophus Matthew and Granger 1925 †Sanshuilophus Mao et al. 2015 †Tieshanilophus Tong 1979 †Yuelophus Zhang 1978 †Zaisanolophus Gabunia 1998 Order Perissodactyla Suborder Hippomorpha Superfamily Equoidea EquidaePalaeotheriidae Suborder TapiromorphaIsectolophidae Infraorder Ceratomorpha Superfamily Tapiroidea †HelaletidaeDeperetellidaeLophialetidae Tapiridae Superfamily Rhinocerotoidea †Hyrachyidae †HyracodontidaeAmynodontidae Rhinocerotidae Infraorder †AncylopodaEomoropidaeChalicotheriidaeLophiodontidae Suborder †Titanotheriomorpha Superfamily †BrontotherioideaBrontotheriidae †Anchilophidae Order Paenungulata Suborder HyracoideaPliohyracidae Procaviidae Suborder Tethytheria Infraorder †EmbrithopodaArsinoitheriidae Infraorder Sirenia †ProrastomidaeProtosirenidae Dugongidae Trichechidae Infraorder †DesmostyliaDesmostylidae Infraorder ProboscideaAnthracobunidae †Phosphatheriidae †NumidotheriidaeMoeritheriidaeBarytheriidaeDeinotheriidaePalaeomastodontidaePhiomiidaeHemimastodontidaeMammutidaeGomphotheriidae Elephantidae Mammal classification

Endodontic crown

Endodontic crownor endocrown is a single prostheses fabricated from reinforced ceramics, indicated for endodontically treated molar teeth that have significant loss of coronal structure. Endocrowns are formed from a monoblock containing the coronal portion invaded in the apical projection that fills the pulp chamber space, the root canal entrances, they are luted to the tooth structure by an adhesive material. The ceramic can be molded under pressure. Endocrowns can be an alternative to conventional crown restorations, it was Bindl and Mörmann who named this restorative procedure “endocrown” in 1999 defining it as a total porcelain crown fixed to a depulped posterior tooth, anchored to the internal portion of the pulp chamber and to the cavity margins, thus obtaining macromechanical retention for restoring endodontically treated teeth. The classical approach is to build up the tooth with a post and core, which have physical properties close to those of natural dentin, utilizing adhesive procedures and placement of full-coverage crowns with a sufficient ferrule, but it was found that excessive amount of teeth removal may cause fracture to the teeth.

The literature suggests that endocrowns may perform or better than the conventional treatments using intraradicular posts, direct composite resin or inlay/onlay restorations. Endocrowns are indicated in cases of molar teeth with short, or fragile roots, they may be used in situations of excessive loss of coronal dental tissue. Reinforced, acid etchable dental ceramics have been the materials of choice for the fabrication of endocrowns, because they guarantee the mechanical strength needed to withstand the forces exerted on the tooth, as well as the bond strength of the restoration to the cavity walls. Using endocrowns for premolars is contraindicated as the tooth is more to be subjected to lateral forces during mastication than molars because of the steep cuspal incline. Therefore, premolars are prone to fracture after restoration. A systemic review and meta-analysis showed a success rate of endocrowns varying from 94 to 100%. Analysis in posterior and anterior teeth demonstrated that endocrowns had higher fracture strength than conventional treatments.

Another study showed that an endodontic crown preparation appeared acceptable for molar crowns but inadequate for premolar crowns. The longest duration of survival is for molar endocrowns is a 5-year clinical follow-up period, with success rate of 87.1%. Root fracture is a possible finding in premolar and anterior teeth

Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea

Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Seas: A World Tour Underwater is a classic science fiction adventure novel by French writer Jules Verne. The novel was serialized from March 1869 through June 1870 in Pierre-Jules Hetzel's periodical, the Magasin d'éducation et de récréation. A deluxe octavo edition, published by Hetzel in November 1871, included 111 illustrations by Alphonse de Neuville and Édouard Riou; the book was acclaimed on its release and remains so. The presentation of Captain Nemo's ship, the Nautilus, was considered ahead of its time, as it describes many features of modern submarines, which in the 1860s were comparatively primitive vessels. A model of the French submarine Plongeur was displayed at the 1867 Exposition Universelle, where Jules Verne studied it, it became an inspiration for his novel; the title refers to the distance traveled under the various seas and not to any depth attained, as 20,000 leagues is nearly twice the circumference of the Earth. This distinction becomes clear when the book's French title is translated: rendered it should read “Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Seas”.

The book uses metric leagues. During the year 1866, ships of various nationalities sight a mysterious sea monster, which, it's suggested, could be a giant narwhal; the U. S. government assembles an expedition in New York City to destroy the monster. Professor Pierre Aronnax, a French marine biologist and narrator of the story, happens to be in town at the time and receives a last-minute invitation to join the expedition, which he accepts. Canadian whaler and master harpooner Ned Land and Aronnax's faithful manservant Conseil are among the participants; the expedition leaves Manhattan's 34th St. Pier aboard the United States Navy frigate Abraham Lincoln and travels south around Cape Horn into the Pacific Ocean. After a long search, the ship attacks the monster, which damages the ship's rudder; the three protagonists are hurled into the sea and climb onto the monster itself, which they are surprised to find is an amazingly advanced submarine. They are forced to wait on the back of the futuristic vessel until morning, when they are captured, hauled inside, introduced to the vessel's mysterious manufacturer and commander, Captain Nemo.

The rest of the novel follows the protagonists' adventures aboard the submarine Nautilus, built in secrecy and now roams the seas beyond the reach of any land-based government. In self-imposed exile, Captain Nemo seems to have a dual motivation: a quest for scientific knowledge and a desire to take revenge on terrestrial civilization. Nemo explains that his submarine can carry out advanced marine research. Professor Aronnax and Conseil are enthralled by the prospect of undersea adventures, but Ned Land hungers to escape, they visit some factual and others fictitious. The travelers view coral formations, sunken vessels from the battle of Vigo Bay, the Antarctic ice barrier, the Transatlantic telegraph cable, the legendary underwater realm of Atlantis; the passengers don diving suits, hunt sharks and other marine fauna with air-guns amidst the underwater forests of Crespo Island, attend an undersea funeral for a crew member who died during a mysterious collision experienced by the Nautilus. When the submarine returns to the Atlantic Ocean, a school of "poulpes" attacks the vessel and kills a crewman.

Late in the novel it's suggested that Captain Nemo went into undersea exile after his homeland was conquered and his family slaughtered by a powerful imperialist nation. Following the episode of the devilfish, Nemo avoids Aronnax, who begins to side with Ned Land. In the book's final pages, the Nautilus is attacked by a warship from the mysterious nation that has caused Nemo such suffering. Carrying out his quest for revenge, Nemo — dubbed an "archangel of hatred" by Aronnax — rams the ship below her waterline, sends her to the bottom, much to Aronnax's horror. Afterward Nemo kneels before a picture of his deceased wife and children sinks into a deep depression. Circumstances aboard the submarine change drastically: watches are no longer kept, the vessel careens about aimlessly. Ned Land becomes so reclusive, but one morning Ned have a chance to escape. Professor Aronnax is more than ready to leave Captain Nemo, yet he's still drawn to the man, fearing that Nemo's presence could weaken his resolve, he avoids contact with the captain.

Before their departure, the professor eavesdrops on Nemo and overhears him crying out in anguish, "O almighty God! Enough! Enough!" Aronnax joins his companions, they carry out their escape plans. But as they board the ship's skiff, they realize that the Nautilus has blundered into the ocean's deadliest whirlpool, the Moskenstraumen, more known as the "Maelstrom". Non

Delisle, Saskatchewan

Delisle is a town in south central Saskatchewan, Canada. It is located 45 kilometres southwest of Saskatoon beside Highway 7; the origins of the town go back to original settlement, on the old Bone trail. It derived its name from the DeLisle family. Mrs. Lenora DeLisle with her four sons Amos, Fred, Ed and Eugene, came from North Dakota, USA in 1903 and homesteaded on the land 3 miles south of the present day townsite. With the coming of the CN Railway in 1908 the settlement to the south was forced to move to the new townsite; the town was named after the brothers on December 29, 1908. Delisle was named a town in 1913. A cenotaph stands in the heart of Delisle in front of the old hospital. On it are inscribed the names of those from Delisle and surrounding area who made the supreme sacrifice in the two world wars. In 2002 the Cenotaph was re-dedicated; the service included a small parade consisting of Girl Guides, Boy Scouts, elementary school children, the complement of HMCS Unicorn, the RCSCC Jervis Bay Ship's Band leading the way from the Centennial Arena to the cenotaph.

The town boasts a nine-hole grass green golf course. The town supports one of the largest high schools in the Prairie Spirit School Division bringing in students from smaller, nearby villages and hamlets such as Laura, Donavon, Swanson and the Pike Lake district, as well as rural students, it has a nine-man football team. The school contributes the most players for the Prairie Spirit Band Program. Hockey Hall of Fame brothers Max and Doug Bentley were born and lived in Delisle, as did their brother Reg, who played 11 National Hockey League games and nephew, Bev Bentley who played with 12 different teams in both Canada and the US between 1949 and 1967. Former NHL goaltender Jack Norris is proud to call Delisle home. From Delisle and seeing games in the NHL were Dick Butler and Jack Miller; as were a number of provincial champion curlers such as Jimmy Hill, Barbara McNevin, Doug Wyatt and Harold Worth. Delisle is the epitome of success in men's fastpitch, having won numerous provincial and western Canadian titles over the years.

The team's collective accomplishments have translated into individual success, highlighted by outstanding athletes such as the Wiebe brothers, Dave Norris, Jimmy Climenhaga. Delisle was the setting for the Canadian modern day hockey movie Paperback Hero. Delisle is considered part of the greater Saskatoon region and as such has direct access to most of its print and television media