Llandudno is a seaside resort and community in Conwy County Borough, located on the Creuddyn peninsula, which protrudes into the Irish Sea. In the 2011 UK census, the community, which includes Penrhyn Bay, the towns name is derived from its patron saint, Saint Tudno. Llandudno, Queen of the Welsh Resorts, a title first applied as early as 1864, is now the largest seaside resort in Wales, historically a part of Caernarfonshire, Llandudno was formerly in the district of Aberconwy within Gwynedd. The origins in recorded history are with the Manor of Gogarth conveyed by King Edward I to Annan, the manor comprised three townships, Y Gogarth in the south-west, Y Cyngreawdr in the north and Yr Wyddfid in the south-east. Home to several herds of wild Kashmiri goats originally descended from several goats given by Queen Victoria to Lord Mostyn. The summit of the Great Orme stands at 679 feet, the Summit Hotel, now a tourist attraction, was once the home of world middleweight champion boxer Randolph Turpin. A haven for flora and fauna with some species such as peregrine falcons.
This great limestone headland has many attractions including the Great Orme Tramway, by 1847 the town had grown to a thousand people, served by the new church of St George, built in 1840. The great majority of the men worked in the mines, with others employed in fishing. In 1848, Owen Williams, an architect and surveyor from Liverpool and these were enthusiastically pursued by Lord Mostyn. The influence of the Mostyn Estate and its agents over the years was paramount in the development of Llandudno, especially after the appointment of George Felton as surveyor, between 1857 and 1877 much of central Llandudno was developed under Feltons supervision. Felton undertook architectural design work, including the design and execution of Holy Trinity Church in Mostyn Street, the town is just off the North Wales Coast railway line which was opened as the Chester and Holyhead Railway in 1848. It became part of the London and North Western Railway in 1859, Llandudno was specifically built as a mid-Victorian era holiday destination and is served by a branch railway line opened in 1858 from Llandudno Junction with stations at Deganwy and Llandudno.
Great Orme Tramway The Llandudno and Colwyn Bay Electric Railway operated a tramway service between Llandudno and Rhos-on-Sea from 1907 and extended to Colwyn Bay in 1908. Modern Llandudno takes its name from the ancient parish of Saint Tudno but encompasses several neighbouring townships and districts including Craig-y-Don, nearby is the small town and marina of Deganwy and these last four are in the traditional parish of Llanrhos. The ancient geographical boundaries of the Llandudno area are complex, today and Llandudno Junction are part of the town community of Conwy even though they are across the river and only linked to Conwy by a causeway and bridge. A beach of sand and rock curves two miles between the headlands of the Great Orme and the Little Orme, for most of the length of Llandudnos North Shore there is a wide curving Victorian promenade. The road, collectively known as The Parade, has a different name for each block and it is on these parades, near the centre of the bay is the Venue Cymru
Cheshire is a county in North West England, bordering Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east and Shropshire to the south and Wales to the west. Cheshires county town is Chester, the largest town is Warrington, other major towns include Congleton, Ellesmere Port, Northwich, Widnes and Winsford. The county covers 905 square miles and has a population of around 1 million and it is mostly rural, with a number of small towns and villages supporting the agricultural and other industries which produce Cheshire cheese, salt and silk. Cheshires name was derived from an early name for Chester. Although the name first appears in 980, it is thought that the county was created by Edward the Elder around 920, in the Domesday Book, Chester was recorded as having the name Cestrescir, derived from the name for Chester at the time. A series of changes occurred as English itself changed, together with some simplifications and elision, resulted in the name Cheshire. Because of the close links with the land bordering Cheshire to the west.
The Domesday Book records Cheshire as having two complete Hundreds that became the part of Flintshire. Additionally, another portion of the Duddestan Hundred became known as Maelor Saesneg when it was transferred to North Wales. For this and other reasons, the Welsh name for Cheshire is sometimes used within Wales, after the Norman conquest of 1066 by William I, dissent and resistance continued for many years after the invasion. In 1069 local resistance in Cheshire was finally put down using draconian measures as part of the Harrying of the North, the ferocity of the campaign against the English populace was enough to end all future resistance. Examples were made of major landowners such as Earl Edwin of Mercia, William I made Cheshire a county palatine and gave Gerbod the Fleming the new title of Earl of Chester. When Gerbod returned to Normandy in about 1070, the king used his absence to declare the earldom forfeit, due to Cheshires strategic location on Welsh Marches, the Earl had complete autonomous powers to rule on behalf of the king in the county palatine.
Cheshire in the Domesday Book is recorded as a larger county than it is today. It included two hundreds and Exestan, that became part of North Wales. At the time of the Domesday Book, it included as part of Duddestan Hundred the area of land known as English Maelor in Wales. The area between the Mersey and Ribble formed part of the returns for Cheshire, an example is the barony of Halton. One of Hugh dAvranches barons has been identified as Robert Nicholls, Baron of Halton, in 1182 the land north of the Mersey became administered as part of the new county of Lancashire, thus resolving any uncertainty about the county in which the land Inter Ripam et Mersam was
Clwyd is a preserved county of Wales, situated in the north-east corner of the country, it is named after the River Clwyd, which runs through the county. To the north lies the Irish Sea, Cheshire is to the east and Shropshire to the south-east, the Welsh counties of Powys and Gwynedd lie to the south and west respectively. Clwyd additionally shares a border with the metropolitan county of Merseyside along the River Dee. Between 1974 and 1996, it was a county with a county council, one of the eight counties into which Wales was divided, and was subdivided into six districts. This area of northeastern Wales has been settled since prehistoric times, the Romans built a fort beside a ford on the River Conwy, and the Normans and Welsh disputed the territory. They built their castles at strategic locations as they advanced and retreated, but in the end, England prevailed, in the following centuries, the Welsh people were repressed and there were numerous uprisings and rebellions against English rule.
The Act of Union in 1535 incorporated Wales under the English Crown, North Wales has had human settlements since prehistoric times. By the time the Romans reached Britain, the area that is now Clwyd was occupied by the Celtic Deceangli tribe and they lived in a chain of hill forts running through the Clwydian Range and their tribal capital was Canovium at an important river crossing on the River Conwy. This fell to the Romans, who built their own here, in about 75 AD. After the Roman departure from Britain in 410 AD, the states of Gwynedd. From about 800 onwards, a series of dynastic marriages led to Rhodri Mawr inheriting the kingdoms of Gwynedd and Powys. After his death, this kingdom was divided among his three sons and further strife followed, with not only Welsh battles being fought, but many raids by Danes, the Normans conquest of England at first had little effect on North Wales. This was to change as the city of Chester on the River Dee became the base for campaigns against the country in the thirteenth century.
The coastal plain of Clwyd was the invasion route used. The castles at Flint and Rhuddlan date from this period, and were the first to be built by Edward I of England in North Wales during his successful conquest in 1282. After this, the rule of the Welsh Princes was at an end, the country was known as the Principality of Wales during the period 1216 to 1536. From 1301, the lands in north and west Wales, including Clwyd, formed part of the appanage of Englands heir apparent. This was a time of repression for the Welsh people and there were numerous uprisings, under the Act of Union of 1535, Wales became permanently incorporated under the English Crown and subject to English law
River Dee, Wales
The River Dee is a river in the United Kingdom. It flows through parts of both Wales and England, forming part of the border between the two countries, the river rises in Snowdonia, flows east via Chester and discharges to the sea in an estuary between Wales and the Wirral Peninsula in England. It has a length of 70 miles. The River Dee was the boundary of the Kingdom of Gwynedd in Wales for centuries. It was recorded in the 13th century as flumen Dubr Duiu, the total catchment area of the River Dee down to Chester Weir is 1,816.8 km2. The estimated average annual rainfall over the catchment area is 640 mm, between its source and Bala Lake the river is known by its Welsh name, Afon Dyfrdwy. Legend tells that the waters of the pass through Bala Lake. Skirting the village of Llanfor, the path of the river takes it past Llandderfel, the river trends generally east-southeast through the Vale of Edeyrnion, shadowed by the B4401 Bala to Cynwyd road. Leaving Gwynedd and entering Denbighshire the Dee flows beneath other historic bridges at Llandrillo, from here the river passes the Iron Age hillfort of Caer Drewyn and enters the Clwydian Range and Dee Valley AONB.
Through its forested valley the course takes it through Carrog and Llantysilio, at Berwyn the river passes over the manmade Horseshoe Falls, before picking up speed on a downhill gradient past the Chain Bridge Hotel and its historic pedestrian bridge. First built in 1814, and refurbished by Henry Robertson in 1870, in 1928 the original bridge was destroyed by severe flooding and was rebuilt in its current form from original parts in 1929. The course of the river takes it through Llangollen and under its 16th-century. The bridge is a Scheduled Ancient Monument and considered one of the Seven Wonders of Wales, on leaving Llangollen the river continues east, generally skirting the outcropping Karstic limestone exposures of Eglwyseg Rocks. Overlooking the river here is the medieval Castell Dinas Brân, a ruined fortress abandoned by John de Warenne, the river enters Wrexham County Borough, passing south of Trevor and under Thomas Telfords Pontcysyllte Aqueduct, of 1805, which carries the Llangollen Canal 120 feet overhead.
Less than a mile east of the aqueduct at Cefn Mawr, beyond this point the river forms the boundary between Wrexham County Borough in Wales and Shropshire in the West Midlands of England. Passing Chirk and the confluence with the River Ceiriog, the river begins to trace gentle meanders on the ground at the beginning of the Cheshire Plain. The course continues past Erbistock on the Welsh side, and the 5th-century earthwork of Wats Dyke on the English, a couple more miles downstream is Bangor-on-Dee, known for its Racecourse. Until 1974 this area was part of an exclave of historic Flintshire known as English Maelor, the Dee continues to meander past Worthenbury where it is joined by the River Clywedog
Shropshire Council was created in 2009, a unitary authority taking over from the previous county council and five district councils. The borough of Telford and Wrekin has been a unitary authority since 1998. The county has many towns, including Whitchurch in the north, Newport north-east of Telford. The Ironbridge Gorge area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, covering Ironbridge, there are other historic industrial sites in the county, such as at Shrewsbury, Broseley and Highley, as well as the Shropshire Union Canal. The Shropshire Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty covers about a quarter of the county, Shropshire is one of Englands most rural and sparsely populated counties, with a population density of 136/km2. The Wrekin is one of the most famous landmarks in the county, though the highest hills are the Clee Hills, Stiperstones. Wenlock Edge is another significant geographical and geological landmark, the River Severn, Great Britains longest river, runs through the county, exiting into Worcestershire via the Severn Valley.
Shropshire is landlocked and with an area of 3,487 square kilometres is Englands largest inland county, the county flower is the round-leaved sundew. The area was part of the lands of the Cornovii. This was a tribal Celtic iron age kingdom and their capital in pre-Roman times was probably a hill fort on the Wrekin. Ptolemys 2nd century Geography names one of their towns as being Viroconium Cornoviorum, after the Roman occupation of Britain ended in the 5th century, the Shropshire area was in the eastern part of the Welsh Kingdom of Powys, known in Welsh poetry as the Paradise of Powys. It was annexed to the Angle kingdom of Mercia by King Offa in the 8th century, in subsequent centuries, the area suffered repeated Danish invasion, and fortresses were built at Bridgnorth and Chirbury. Many defensive castles were built at this time across the county to defend against the Welsh and enable effective control of the region, including Ludlow Castle, the western frontier with Wales was not finally determined until the 14th century.
Also in this period, a number of foundations were formed, the county largely falling at this time under the Diocese of Hereford. The county contains a number of historically significant towns, including Shrewsbury, additionally, the area around Coalbrookdale in the county is seen as highly significant, as it is regarded as one of the birthplaces of the Industrial Revolution. The village of Edgmond, near Newport, is the location of the lowest recorded temperature in England, the origin of the name Shropshire is the Old English Scrobbesbyrigscīr, which means Shrewsburyshire. The name may, therefore, be derived indirectly from a name such as Scrope. Salop is an old name for Shropshire, historically used as a form for post or telegrams
Harlech Castle, located in Harlech, Wales, is a medieval fortification, constructed atop a spur of rock close to the Irish Sea. It was built by Edward I during his invasion of Wales between 1282 and 1289 at the substantial cost of £8,190. Over the next few centuries, the played a important part in several wars. It became Glyndŵrs residence and military headquarters for the remainder of the uprising until being recaptured by English forces in 1409. During the 15th century Wars of the Roses, Harlech was held by the Lancastrians for seven years, before Yorkist troops forced its surrender in 1468, in the 21st century the ruined castle is managed by Cadw, the Welsh Governments historic environment service, as a tourist attraction. UNESCO considers Harlech to be one of the finest examples of late 13th century and early 14th century military architecture in Europe, Edward invaded with a huge army, pushing north from Carmarthen and westwards from Montgomery and Chester. English forces advanced down the Conwy valley and through Dolwyddelan and Castell y Bere, onto Harlech, Edward ordered the construction of a castle at Harlech, one of seven built across North Wales in the wake of the 1282 campaign.
Money to pay for the initial phase arrived in mid-May and carpenters and 35 stonemasons were dispatched in June, John de Bonvillars was appointed the constable of the castle in 1285, after his death in 1287 his wife, took up the role until 1290. Construction continued under the direction of James of Saint George. The castle was complete by the end of 1289, having cost an estimated £8,190. In 1294, Madog ap Llywelyn began an uprising against English rule that spread quickly through Wales, several English-held towns were razed and Harlech, along with Criccieth Castle and Aberystwyth Castle, were besieged that winter. Fresh supplies were sent from Ireland by sea, arriving via Harlechs water gate, in the aftermath of the revolt, additional defences were built around the route down to the sea. In 1400 a revolt broke out in North Wales against English rule, at the end of 1404, the castle fell to Glyndŵr. Harlech became his residence, family home and military headquarters for four years, when this failed to take the castle, Henry left John Talbot in charge of the siege and moved on to deal with Aberystwyth Castle.
Supplies finally ran short and many of his men died of exhaustion, in the 15th century, Harlech was involved in the series of civil wars known as the Wars of the Roses that broke out between the rival factions of the House of Lancaster and York. Thanks to its defences and the supply route by sea, Harlech held out and as other fortresses fell. Tudors arrival caused Edward IV to order William Herbert to mobilise an army, possibly up to 10,000 strong, after a months siege, the small garrison surrendered on 14 August. This siege is credited with inspiring the song Men of Harlech, the English Civil War broke out in 1642 between the Royalist supporters of Charles I and the supporters of Parliament
Kingdom of Gwynedd
The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd was one of several successor states to the Roman Empire that emerged in sub-Roman Britain in the 5th century during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain. Based in northwest Wales, the rulers of Gwynedd repeatedly rose to preeminence and were acclaimed as King of the Britons before losing their power in civil wars or invasions and that realm lasted until the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1283. The sons of their leader, were said to have possessed the land between the rivers Dee and Teifi, the modern preserved county of Gwynedd and principal area of Gwynedd are both somewhat smaller. The 5th-century Cantiorix Inscription now in Penmachno church seems to be the earliest record of the name and it is in memory of a man named Cantiorix and the Latin inscription is Cantiorix hic iacit/Venedotis cives fuit/consobrinos Magli magistrati, Cantiorix lies here. He was a citizen of Gwynedd and a cousin of Maglos the magistrate, the use of terms such as citizen and magistrate maybe cited as evidence that Romano-British culture and institutions continued in Gwynedd long after the legions had withdrawn.
As early as the 2nd century, there may have been an Irish presence in the region as Ptolemy marks the Llŷn Peninsula as the Promontory of the Gangani which is a name he recorded in Ireland, the region became known as Venedotia in Latin. The name was attributed to a specific Irish colony on Anglesey. According to traditional pedigrees, Cuneddas grandfather was Padarn Beisrudd, Paternus of the red cloak, nennius recounts how Cunedda brought order to North Wales and after his death Gwynedd was divided among his sons, Dynod was awarded Dunoding, another son Ceredig received Ceredigion, and so forth. According to Professor John Davies, here is a determinedly Brythonic, there was generally quick abandonment of Roman political and ecclesiastical practices and institutions within Gwynedd and elsewhere in Wales. These early petty kings or princelings adopted the title rhi in Welsh, replaced by brenin, genealogical lists compiled around 960 bear out that a number of these early rulers claimed degrees of association with the old Roman order, but do not appear in the official royal lineages.
It may be assumed that the stronger kings annexed the territories of their weaker neighbors, other evidence supports Nenniuss claim that a leader came to north Wales and brought the region a measure of stability, although an Irish Gaelic element remained until the mid-5th century. During that peace he established a mighty kingdom, after Cadwallon, Gwynedd appears to have held a pre-eminent position amongst the petty Cambrian states in the post-Roman period. The great-grandson of Cunedda, Maelgwn Hir Maelgwn the Tall, was one of the most famous leaders in Welsh history, there are several legends about his life concerning miracles performed either by him or in his presence. Maelgwn was curiously described as the dragon of the island by Gildas which was possibly a title, Maelgwn eventually died in 547 from the plague leaving a succession crisis in his wake. His son in law, Elidyr Mwynfawr of the Kingdom of Strathclyde, claimed the throne and invaded Gwynedd to displace Maelgwns son, Elidyr was killed in the attempt but his death was avenged by his relatives who ravaged the coast of Arfon.
Rhun counter-attacked and exacted the same penalty on the lands of his foes in what is now central Scotland, Rhun returned to Gwynedd and the rest of his reign was far less eventful. He was succeeded by his son, Beli ap Rhun in c, on the accession of Belis son Iago ap Beli in c. 599, the situation in Britain had deteriorated significantly, most of the area today called northern England and been overrun by the invading Angles of Deira and Bernicia who were in the process of forming the Kingdom of Northumbria
Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd
The Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd is a UNESCO-designated World Heritage Site located in Gwynedd, Wales. It includes the castles of Beaumaris and Harlech and the castles and town walls of Caernarfon, UNESCO considers the sites to be the finest examples of late 13th century and early 14th century military architecture in Europe. The fortifications were built by Edward I after his invasion of North Wales in 1282, Edward defeated the local Welsh princes in a major campaign and set about permanently colonising the area. He created new fortified towns, protected by castles, in which English immigrants could settle, the project was hugely expensive and stretched royal resources to the limit. Fresh Welsh revolts followed in 1294 under the leadership of Madog ap Llywelyn and Harlech were kept supplied by sea and held out against the attack, but Caernarfon, still only partially completed, was stormed. In the aftermath, Edward reinvigorated the programme and ordered the commencement of work at Beaumaris.
Edwards wars in Scotland began to consume royal funding, Building work on all the fortifications had ceased by 1330, without Caernarfon and Beaumaris having been fully completed. The fortifications played an important part in the conflicts in North Wales over the coming centuries and they were involved in the Glyndŵr Rising of the early 15th century and the Wars of the Roses in the late 15th century. Despite declining in military significance following the succession of the Tudor dynasty to the throne in 1485, by the end of the 17th century, the castles were ruinous. They became popular with visiting artists during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the British state invested heavily in the castles and town walls during the 20th century, restoring many of their medieval features. For much of the 20th century, the castles and walls were considered primarily from a military perspective, in the late 20th and 21st centuries, historians such as Michael Prestwich and Abigail Wheatley highlighted the sites roles as palaces and symbols of royal power.
The location of such as Caernarfon and Conwy were chosen for their political significance as well as military functions. The castles incorporated luxury apartments and gardens, with the intention of supporting large royal courts in splendour, Caernarfons castle and town walls incorporated expensive stonework, probably intended to evoke images of Arthurian or Roman imperial power in order to bolster Edwards personal prestige. The precise role of the royal architect James of St George in the projects. The Edwardian castles and town walls in Gwynedd were built as a consequence of the wars fought for the control of Wales in the late 13th century. The kings of England and the Welsh princes had vied for control of the region since the 1070s, with Norman and English nobles, Edward I became the king of England in 1272. Edward had extensive experience of warfare and sieges, having fought in Wales in 1257, led the siege of Kenilworth Castle in 1266. He had seen numerous European fortifications, including the walled town
Colwyn Bay is a town and seaside resort in Conwy County Borough on the north coast of Wales overlooking the Irish Sea. Eight neighbouring communities are incorporated within its postal district, (Including Old Colwyn, Rhos-on-Sea and Llysfaen communities]. The western side of Colwyn Bay, Rhos-on-Sea, includes a number of sites associated with St Trillo and Ednyfed Fychan. Bay of Colwyn Town Council is a body, covering the communities in the urban area. The mayor for 2016 -2017 is Councillor John Davies, the town is situated about halfway along the north coast of Wales, between the sea and the Pwllycrochan Woods on the towering hillside. Groes yn Eirias was once a hamlet centred on the Glyn farmhouse but the area is now occupied by the Glyn estate. As with the rest of the British Isles, Colwyn Bay experiences a climate with cool summers and mild winters. Bringing 2011 figures into account that figure is now 33,549, the area is sometimes referred to by the name Bay of Colwyn. According to the census of 2001, 20% of the population can speak Welsh fluently, the highest percentage of speakers is in the 10–14 years age group, where 38% can speak the language.
The town is dominated by the tourist trade, because of its famous beaches, a business and commercial centre with rail links and close access to the activities that are available in the surrounding countryside. Colwyn Bay is a Fairtrade Town as certified by the Fairtrade Foundation as part of the Fairtrade Towns scheme, Colwyn Bay hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1910,1947. The town has parks and gardens and many places of beauty such as Eirias Park. Colwyn Bay has received a gold award 8 times in the Wales in Bloom competition, in 2009 and 2010 the town has been invited to enter Britain in Bloom and has been awarded silver gilt in both years. The Welsh Mountain Zoo is nearby, the Porth Eirias Watersports Centre offers tuition in sailing and power boating as well as kayak and canoe hire. In 2013 it was nominated for Building Designs Carbuncle Cup, the Victoria Pier has been closed to the public since 2009 when a dispute between Conwy County Borough Council and the piers owner led to him being declared bankrupt.
There are now arguments between whether it should remain standing or if it would be better to remove the pier. Rob Dix, Head of Business and Tourism in Conwy, has said, “The straight answer to ‘Will it ever be demolished’ is that the hope it will. We want to see it demolished for health and safety and visual reasons to be able to re-open that section of the beach, ”
Wales in the Middle Ages
When the Roman garrison of Britain was withdrawn in 410, the various British states were left self-governing. There was considerable Irish colonisation in Dyfed, where there are stones with ogham inscriptions. One of the reasons for the Roman withdrawal was the put upon the empires military resources by the incursion of barbarian tribes from the east. These tribes, including the Angles and Saxons, who became the English, were unable to make inroads into Wales except possibly along the Severn Valley as far as Llanidloes. However they gradually conquered eastern and southern Britain, at the Battle of Chester in 616, the forces of Powys and other British kingdoms were defeated by the Northumbrians under Æthelfrith, with king Selyf ap Cynan among the dead. From the 8th century on, Wales was by far the largest of the three remnant Brittonic areas in Britain, the two being the Hen Ogledd and Cornwall. Wales was divided into a number of kingdoms, the largest of these being Gwynedd in northwest Wales.
Powys as the easternmost of the kingdoms of Wales came under the most pressure from the English in Cheshire and Herefordshire. This kingdom originally extended east into areas now in England, and its ancient capital and these areas were lost to the kingdom of Mercia. The construction of the known as Offas Dyke may have marked an agreed border. For a single man to rule the country during this period was rare. This is often ascribed to the system practised in Wales. All sons received a share of their fathers property, resulting in the division of territories. However, the Welsh laws prescribe this system of division for land in general, not for kingdoms, any son, legitimate or illegitimate, could be chosen as edling and there were frequently disappointed candidates prepared to challenge the chosen heir. The first to rule a part of Wales was Rhodri the Great, originally king of Gwynedd during the 9th century. On his death his realms were divided between his sons, rhodris grandson, Hywel Dda, formed the kingdom of Deheubarth by joining smaller kingdoms in the southwest and had extended his rule to most of Wales by 942.
He is traditionally associated with the codification of Welsh law at a council which he called at Whitland, Hywel followed a policy of peace with the English. On his death in 949 his sons were able to control of Deheubarth