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North York Moors

The North York Moors is an upland area in North Yorkshire, containing one of the largest expanses of heather moorland in the United Kingdom. The North York Moors National Park was designated in 1952, through the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949; the National Park covers an area of 554 sq mi, has a population of 23,380. To the east the area is defined by the impressive cliffs of the North Sea coast; the northern and western boundaries are defined by the steep scarp slopes of the Cleveland Hills edging the Tees lowlands and the Hambleton Hills above the Vale of Mowbray. To the south lies the broken line of the Tabular Hills and the Vale of Pickering. Four roads cross the moors from north to south. In the east the A171 joins Scarborough. Further inland, the A169 runs between Whitby. More centrally, a minor road departs from the A170 at Keldholme and passes through Castleton before joining the A171 which connects Whitby and Guisborough; the most westerly route is the B1257 connecting Helmsley to Stokesley.

The A170 from Thirsk to Scarborough marks the southern boundary of the moors area. The Esk Valley Line is an east-west branch line rail link from Whitby to Middlesbrough in the north, the North Yorkshire Moors steam railway runs from Pickering to Grosmont with a link to Whitby; the cyclists in the 2018 Tour de Yorkshire passed through a section of the Moors. The North York Moors consist of a moorland plateau, intersected by a number of deep dales or valleys containing cultivated land or woodland; the largest dale is Eskdale, the valley of the River Esk which flows from west to east and empties into the North Sea at Whitby. The Cleveland Hills rise north of Eskdale. At the western end of Eskdale the valley divides into three smaller dales, Westerdale and Commondale. A series of side dales drain into Eskdale from the moors on its southern side, from west to east Danby Dale, Little Fryup Dale, Great Fryup Dale and the Goathland valley. Kildale, west of Commondale and separated only by a low watershed, is drained by the River Leven, which flows west to join the River Tees.

On their south side the moors are demarcated by a series of dales which drain into tributaries of the River Derwent. The westernmost dale is Rye Dale, to the west of. Bilsdale is a side dale of Rye Dale. East of Bilsdale Bransdale, Farndale and Newton Dale cut into the moors. In the south east, the landscape is marked by the narrow valleys of the upper reaches of the Derwent and its upper tributaries. About 22 per cent of the North York Moors is under woodland cover, equivalent to more than 300 square kilometres of trees, it is home to the largest concentration of veteran trees in northern England. The Derwent crosses the Vale of Pickering flowing westwards, turns southwards at Malton and flows through the eastern part of the Vale of York before emptying into the River Ouse at Barmby on the Marsh; as part of the United Kingdom, the North York Moors area has warm summers and mild winters. Weather conditions vary from day to day as well as from season to season; the latitude of the area means that it is influenced by predominantly westerly winds with depressions and their associated fronts, bringing with them unsettled and windy weather in winter.

Between depressions there are small mobile anticyclones that bring periods of fine weather. In winter anticyclones bring cold dry weather. In summer the anticyclones tend to bring dry settled conditions. For its latitude this area is milder in winter and cooler in summer due to the influence of the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic Ocean. Air temperature varies on a seasonal basis; the temperature is lower at night and January is the coldest time of the year. The two dominant influences on the climate of the North York Moors are the shelter against the worst of the moist westerly winds provided by the Pennines and the proximity of the North Sea. Late, chilly springs and warm summers are a feature of the area but there are spells of fine autumn weather. Onshore winds in spring and early summer bring low stratus clouds to the coasts and moors. Within the area variations in climate are brought about by local differences in altitude and shelter. Snowfall is variable from year to year, but the area gets much more snow on average than other parts of the country.

Heavy falls are associated with northeasterly winds off the North Sea. Roads over the high moors are notoriously prone to drifting snow due to the exposed nature of the terrain. Average recordings are: 100 wet days 215 dry days 50 snowfall days rainfall of 1,000 to 1,520 mm near the coast rainfall of 635 to 760 mm inland summer temperatures of 20 to 32 °C winter temperatures of −1 to 10 °C The geology of the North York Moors is dominated by rocks of the Jurassic period, they were laid down in subtropical seas 205 to 142 million years ago. Fluctuations in sea level produced different rock types varying from shales to sandstones and limestones derived from coral; these marine and delta deposited rocks are superbly exposed on the Yorkshire coast from Staithes to Filey. Lower Jurassic At the beginning of the Jurassic period shales and thin limestones and sandstones were deposited in a shallow sea; these deposits are many metres thick and include layers of ironstone of various thicknesses and the rocks from which alum is extracted.

Middle Jurassic A period of gradual uplift happened when mudstone and sandstone were deposited on a low-lying coastal plain crossed by large rivers. Occasionally

German submarine U-119 (1942)

German submarine U-119 was a Type XB minelaying U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. She was laid down at the Germaniawerft in Kiel on 15 May 1940 as yard number 624, she was launched on 6 January 1942 and commissioned under Kapitänleutnant Alois Zech on 2 April 1942, he was replaced by Kptlt. Horst-Tessen von Kameke on 1 February 1943. U-119's service career began with the 4th U-boat Flotilla on 2 April 1942 where she underwent training, she was declared operational on 1 February 1943. The boat made a short run from Kiel to Frederikshaven in Denmark and back between 4 August 1942 and the 10th, her first patrol commenced with her departure from Kiel on 6 February 1943. She crossed the North Sea and skirted the northern coast of Iceland, arriving at Bordeaux in occupied France on 1 April. U-119 was unsuccessfully attacked on 29 April 1943 by a Short Sunderland flying boat of 461 Squadron RAAF; the boat sustained no damage but one man was killed. She sank Halma on 3 June east of Halifax, Nova Scotia and damaged John A.

Poor on 27 July. Both ships were attacked with mines laid by U-119 on 1 June. U-119 was sunk by a combination of depth charges and ramming from HMS Starling on 24 June 1943. Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type X boat U-119". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 6 December 2014. Hofmann, Markus. "U 119". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - u-boot-archiv.de. Retrieved 6 December 2014

Thirumalai Deivam

Thirumalai Deivam is a 1973 Tamil Devotional - Biographical film, directed by A. P. Nagarajan and produced by C. N. N. Pictures; the film script was written by A. P. Nagarajan. Music was by Kunnakudi Vaidyanathan; the film stars Sivakumar playing title role, with K. B. Sundarambal, T. R. Mahalingam, Lakshmi and A. V. M. Rajan in supporting roles. Sivakumar as Lord Vishnu/Srivasan Gemini Ganesan as Agasa Rajan R. Muthuraman as King Tondaiman A. V. M. Rajan asNarathan S. V. Ramadoss as Birugu Munivar T. R. Mahalingam as Amudha's Husband Suruli Rajan as Rangen, Master Sekhar as Venkatesan V. Gopalakrishnan Ennatha Kannaiya as Anumanthu K. B. Sundarambal as Saint Narayani S. Varalakshmi as Maguda Malini C. R. Vijayakumari as Amutha Srividya as Goddess Lakshmi Lakshmi as Goddess Padmavati Kumari Padmini as Goddess Parvathy Manorama as Ramaayee Sachu as Pankajavalli Pushpalatha as Queen Anandhavalli S. N. Parvathi as Dhankodi Pushpamala Sukumari as Queen Acho Chithra as Vellachi Art: Ganga Stills: M. R. Brothers Design: Snehi Somu Publicity: Elegant Processing: Gemini Colour laboratory Properties: Neo Filmo Crafts and P. B.

Laxmansha Thanga Maligai Audiography: D. Sivanandham Audiography: T. S. Rangasamy, P. V. Kodieswara Rao, S. P. Ramanathan and Swamynathan Choreography: P. S. Gopalakrishnan Outdoor: Sree Vijayalakshmi Photo Sounds Printing: Gemini Colour Laboratory Music was composed by Kunnakudi Vaidyanathan and lyrics were written by Kannadasan, K. D. Santhanam, Alangudi Somu, Nellai Arulmani, Poovai Senguttuvan and Ulundhurpettai Shanmugam; the playback singers consist of T. R. Mahalingam, K. B. Sundarambal, S. Varalakshmi, T. M. Soundararajan, P. Suseela, L. R. Eswari, S. V. Ponnusamy, B. Vasantha and Sarala. Thirumalai Deivam on IMDb Thirumalai Deivam movie on YouTube

Black-faced bunting

The black-faced bunting is a passerine bird in the bunting family Emberizidae, a group now separated by most modern authors from the finches, Fringillidae. The genus name Emberiza is from a bunting; the specific spodocephala is from Ancient Greek spodos, "ashes", kephalos, "headed". It breeds in southern Siberia across to northern Japan, it is migratory, wintering in southern China and northern south-east Asia. It is a rare vagrant to western Europe; the black-faced bunting breeds in dense undergrowth along streams and rivers in the taiga zone, lays four or five eggs in a ground or tree nest. Its natural food consists of seeds, when feeding young, insects, it winters close to water in other open bushy habitats. This bird's general appearance and terrestrial feeding habits give the impression of a dunnock with a bunting's bill, it is similar in size to a reed bunting at about 16 cm long. The breeding male has a dark grey head with a mix of yellow green and black between the bill and eye; the upperparts are brown and streaked with black, except on the rump.

The rump is brown and the tail is a dark brown. The underparts are yellowish white with some fine dark brown flank streaks; the stout bill is pink. Females and young birds have a weaker head pattern, with olive-grey cheeks and a weak creamy white supercilium; the underparts are creamy yellow streaked with dark brown. The bird's call is like a tzee, it sound "metallic" and it is a short and not a song at all. It nests on trees or on the ground and lays about four to five eggs

Jalila Haider

Jalila Haider, is a human rights attorney, political activist and rights defender from Quetta, a city in the province of Balochistan, Pakistan. Haider is known to be the first woman lawyer from the Hazara community of Balochistan, she is the founder of a non-profit organisation,'We the Humans – Pakistan', which aims to empower local communities in Balochistan by strengthening opportunities for vulnerable women and children. Haider has been an advocate of the rights of the persecuted Hazaras of Balochistan, she was named in the BBC's 100 women and she was chosen as a International Woman of Courage in March 2020 by the US Secretary of State. Haider holds a master's degree in International Relations from the University of Balochistan. Haider has been a supporter of the rights of vulnerable communities and has spoken out against human rights violations and abuses faced by them, she has campaigned against the enforced disappearances and killings of Baloch political workers and has led protests and sit-ins against the ethnic cleansing of the Hazaras.

She participates and speaks against the atrocities faced by the Pashtuns and believes that their pain is similar as they are all demanding for their right to life guaranteed in the Constitution of Pakistan Haider addressed a meeting of the Pashtun Tahaffuz Movement in Quetta in March 2018, for which she received criticism and harassment. After four separate attacks targeting the Hazara community in April 2018, Haider led a peaceful hunger strike camp outside Quetta press club, which lasted for around five days. Haider and other leaders demanded that Pakistan's Chief of Army Staff, Qamar Javed Bajwa must visit the community and take concrete steps to bring the perpetrators to justice and ensure their security. Haider and community elders had inconclusive talks with Balochistan Chief Minister Mir Abdul Quddus Bizenjo, Federal Interior Minister Ahsan Iqbal, Provincial Home Minister Mir Sarfraz Bugti; the strike ended after Qamar Javed Bajwa held meetings with the tribal elders and representatives of the community, including Hazara women, in which he ensured security and protection of the community's right to life.

Following the hunger strike, on 2 May 2018, the Chief Justice of Pakistan, Mian Saqib Nisar, took suo moto notice of the killings of Hazaras. In the subsequent hearing on May 11, these targeted killings were termed as ethnic cleansing of the Hazara community and Nisar instructed all the security agencies to submit reports on the forces behind these killings. Apart from her political activism, Haider has been practicing law at the Balochistan Bar Council for years, she specializes in defending women's rights and provides free legal services to people who cannot afford legal counsel on a wide range of issues, including fair justice, extrajudicial killing, domestic violence, marriage disputes, sexual harassment, property rights. In 2018, Haider met Mr. Ihsan Ghani, National Coordinator, National Counter Terrorism Authority in Islamabad to put forward the grievances of the Hazara women who are facing social and administrative challenges as the male breadwinners of their households have been killed.

Haider has contributed to the feminist struggle in Balochistan by fighting against the norms of patriarchy and leading all major movements, including the Aurat March. In 2014, she was selected as an Atlantic Council Emerging Leaders of Pakistan Fellow and was a member of the first batch of Pakistan Social Entrepreneurs by Rajeev Circle Fellows in 2015. In 2015, Haider was selected as one of ‘News Women Power 50’ list of Pakistan's most influential and powerful women, she was a 2016 Swedish Institute Young Connectors of the Future Fellow. She was named in the BBC's 100 Women in 2019, a list about inspiring and influential women compiled by BBC, she was chosen as a International Women of Courage in March 2020 by the US Secretary of State. Haider has received criticism from her society and threats and harassment from state and non-state actors for her activism against human rights excesses. In March 2019, Haider's name was put on Pakistan's Exit Control List after a rumour linked her to the Pashtun Tahafuz Movement but the exact reason behind her travel ban could not be understood.

Persecution of Hazara people Persecution of Hazara people in Quetta This article was created during ‘WikiGap’ event, in Islamabad, Pakistan on 11,12 October 2019, organized by Swedish Embassy

S. Mageswaran

Sivapathasundaram Mageswaran was the first head of the chemistry department and Dean of Science Faculty at the University of Jaffna. The chemistry department is part of the Science Faculty, initiated in 1975, one year after the University of Jaffna came into existence. Mageswaran had his secondary education at Kokkuvil Hindu College, he entered the University of Ceylon and followed the Special Degree course in chemistry, in the final year he was transferred to University of Peradeniya. He passed out with honours in 1966. After serving at the University of Peradeniya as an Assistant Lecturer, he completed his MSc and PhD degrees at the University of Sheffield, his PhD thesis title was Biogenetic Models for the Formation of Neoflavanoids and Isoprenoidphenols. On his return to Sri Lanka, Mageswaran served at the University of Peradeniya for a few years before joining the University of Jaffna as the head of the Chemistry Department, he was instrumental in developing the department and constructing the new chemistry department building at Thirunelveli, Jaffna.

Prof Mageswaran had the extraordinary talent of remembering names and details of students not only from the chemistry department but from the other departments as well. He was elected as the dean of the science faculty in 1991 and served as the dean for several years during the worst times of the Sri Lankan Civil War under difficult circumstances, he published several scientific papers in Science JournalsHe died on 2 February 1998 and his funeral was one of the biggest to be held in Jaffna. Memorial lectures are held annually at the University of Jaffna in his memory