National Revolutionary Army
The National Revolutionary Army, sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army before 1928, as National Army after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China. It became the regular army of the ROC during the KMT's period of party rule beginning in 1928, it was renamed the Republic of China Armed Forces after the 1947 Constitution, which instituted civilian control of the military. Organized with Soviet aid as a means for the KMT to unify China during the Warlord Era, the National Revolutionary Army fought major engagements in the Northern Expedition against the Chinese Beiyang Army warlords, in the Second Sino-Japanese War against the Imperial Japanese Army and in the Chinese Civil War against the People's Liberation Army. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the armed forces of the Communist Party of China were nominally incorporated into the National Revolutionary Army, but broke away to form the People's Liberation Army shortly after the end of the war.
With the promulgation of the Constitution of the Republic of China in 1947 and the formal end of the KMT party-state, the National Revolutionary Army was renamed the Republic of China Armed Forces, with the bulk of its forces forming the Republic of China Army, which retreated to the island of Taiwan in 1949. The NRA was founded by the KMT in 1925 as the military force destined to unite China in the Northern Expedition. Organized with the help of the Comintern and guided under the doctrine of the Three Principles of the People, the distinction among party and army was blurred. A large number of the Army's officers passed through the Whampoa Military Academy, the first commandant, Chiang Kai-shek, became commander-in-chief of the Army in 1925 before launching the successful Northern Expedition. Other prominent commanders included Chen Cheng; the end of the Northern Expedition in 1928 is taken as the date when China's Warlord era ended, though smaller-scale warlord activity continued for years afterwards.
In 1927, after the dissolution of the First United Front between the Nationalists and the Communists, the ruling KMT purged its leftist members and eliminated Soviet influence from its ranks. Chiang Kai-shek turned to Germany a great military power, for the reorganization and modernization of the National Revolutionary Army; the Weimar Republic sent advisors to China, but because of the restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles they could not serve in military capacities. Chiang requested famous generals such as Ludendorff and von Mackensen as advisors; when Adolf Hitler became Germany's chancellor in 1933 and disavowed the Treaty, the anti-communist Nazi Party and the anti-communist KMT were soon engaged in close cooperation. With Germany training Chinese troops and expanding Chinese infrastructure, while China opened its markets and natural resources to Germany. Max Bauer was the first advisor to China. In 1934 Gen. Hans von Seeckt, acting as advisor to Chiang, proposed an "80 Division Plan" for reforming the entire Chinese army into 80 divisions of trained, well-equipped troops organised along German lines.
The plan was never realised, as the eternally bickering warlords could not agree upon which divisions were to be merged and disbanded. Furthermore, since embezzlement and fraud were commonplace in understrength divisions, reforming the military structure would threaten divisional commanders' "take". Therefore, by July 1937 only eight infantry divisions had completed training; these were the 3rd, 6th, 9th, 14th, 36th, 87th, 88th, the Training Division. For a time, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, Communist forces fought as a nominal part of the National Revolutionary Army, forming the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army units, but this co-operation fell apart. Throughout the Chinese Civil War the National Revolutionary Army experienced major problems with desertion, with many soldiers switching sides to fight for the Communists. Troops in India and Burma during World War II included the Chinese Expeditionary Force, the Chinese Army in India and Y Force. After the drafting and implementation of the Constitution of the Republic of China in 1947, the National Revolutionary Army was transformed into the ground service branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces – the Republic of China Army.
The NRA throughout its lifespan recruited 4,300,000 regulars, in 370 Standard Divisions, 46 New Divisions, 12 Cavalry Divisions, eight New Cavalry Divisions, 66 Temporary Divisions, 13 Reserve Divisions, for a grand total of 515 divisions. However, many divisions were formed from two or more other divisions, were not active at the same time. At the apex of the NRA was the National Military Council translated as Military Affairs Commission. Chaired by Chiang Kai-Shek, it commands, it included from 1937 the Chief of the General Staff, General He Yingqin, the General Staff, the War Ministry, the military regions and naval forces, air defence and garrison commanders, support services Around 14 Million were conscripted from 1937-1945 Also, New Divisions were created to replace Standard Divisions lost early in the war and were issued the old division's number. Therefore, the number of divisions in active service at any given time is much smaller than this
The Twenty-One Demands were a set of demands made during the First World War by the Empire of Japan under Prime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu sent to the government of the Republic of China on 8 January 1915. The demands would extend Japanese control of Manchuria and of the Chinese economy, were opposed by Britain and the United States. In the final settlement Japan gained a little but lost a great deal of prestige and trust in Britain and the US; the Chinese public responded with a spontaneous nationwide boycott of Japanese goods. Britain no longer trusted Japan as a partner. With the First World War underway, Japan's position was strong and Britain's was weak. Britain forced Japan to drop the fifth set of demands that would have given Japan a large measure of control over the entire Chinese economy and ended the Open Door Policy. Japan and China reached a series of agreement which ratified the first four sets of goals on 25 May 1915. Japan had gained a large sphere of interest in northern China and Manchuria through its victories in the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, had thus joined the ranks of the European imperialist powers in their scramble to establish political and economic domination over Imperial China under the Qing dynasty.
With the overthrow of the Qing dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution, the establishment of the new Republic of China, Japan saw an opportunity to further expand its position in China. The German Empire were in control of the Shandong province as part of the Kiautschou Bay concession since 1898. With the onset of the First World War, Japan declared war against Germany on 23 August 1914, secured victory by 7 November 1914 after the conclusion of the Siege of Tsingtao. Japan, under Prime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu and Foreign Minister Katō Takaaki, drafted the initial list of Twenty-One Demands, which were reviewed by the genrō and Emperor Taishō, approved by the Diet; this list was presented to Yuan Shikai on January 18, 1915, with warnings of dire consequences if China were to reject them. The Twenty One Demands were grouped into five groups: Group 1 confirmed Japan's recent seizure of German ports and operations in Shandong Province, expanded Japan's sphere of influence over the railways and major cities of the province.
Group 2 pertained to Japan's South Manchuria Railway Zone, extending the leasehold over the territory for 99 years, expanding Japan's sphere of influence in southern Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia, to include rights of settlement and extraterritoriality, appointment of financial and administrative officials to the government and priority for Japanese investments in those areas. Japan demanded access to Inner Mongolia for raw materials, as a manufacturing site, as a strategic buffer against Russian encroachment in Korea. Group 3 gave Japan control of the Hanyeping mining and metallurgical complex in central China. Group 4 barred China from giving any further coastal or island concessions to foreign powers. Group 5 was the most aggressive. China was to hire Japanese advisors who could take effective control of China's police. Japan would be empowered to build three major railways, Buddhist temples and schools. Japan would gain effective control of Fujian, opposite the island of Formosa. Knowing the negative reaction "Group 5" would cause, Japan tried to keep its contents secret.
The Chinese government attempted to stall for as long as possible and leaked the full contents of the Twenty-One Demands to the European powers in the hope that due to a perceived threat to their own political and economic spheres of interest, they would help contain Japan. After China rejected Japan's revised proposal on 26 April 1915, the genrō intervened and deleted ‘Group 5’ from the document, as these had proved to be the most objectionable to the Chinese government. A reduced set of "Thirteen Demands" was transmitted on May 7 in the form of an ultimatum, with a two-day deadline for response. Yuan Shikai, competing with other local warlords to become the ruler of all China, was not in a position to risk war with Japan, accepted appeasement, a tactic followed by his successors; the final form of the treaty was signed by both parties on May 25, 1915. Katō Takaaki publicly admitted that the ultimatum was invited by Yuan to save face with the Chinese people in conceding to the Demands. American Minister Paul Reinsch reported to the US State Department that the Chinese were surprised at the leniency of the ultimatum, as it demanded much less than they had committed themselves to concede.
The results of the revised final version of the Twenty-One Demands were far more negative for Japan than positive. Without "Group 5", the new treaty gave Japan little that it did not have in China. On the other hand, the United States expressed negative reactions to Japan's rejection of the Open Door Policy. In the Bryan Note issued by Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan on 13 March 1915, the U. S. while affirming Japan's "special interests" in Manchuria and Shandong, expressed concern over further encroachments to Chinese sovereignty. Great Britain, Japan's closest ally, expressed concern over what was perceived as Japan's overbearing, bullying approach to diplomacy, the British Foreign Office in particular was unhappy with Japanese attempts to establish what would be a Japanese protectorate over all of China. Afterwards and the United States looked for a compromise point; as a result, the Lansing–Ishii Agreement was concluded in 1917. It was appr
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
The Anti-Fengtian War was the last major civil war within the Republic of China's northern Beiyang government prior to the Northern Expedition. It lasted from November 1925 to April 1926 and was waged by the Guominjun against the Fengtian clique and their Zhili clique allies; the war ended with the end of the provisional executive government. The war is known as either Guominjun-Fengtian War, or the Third Zhili-Fengtian War; the end result of the Second Zhili-Fengtian War had led to the creation of a provisional executive government in Beijing in November 1924, where an informal triumvirate formed by Fengtian's Zhang Zuolin, the Guominjun's Feng Yuxiang and the Anhui clique's Duan Qirui had ruled. Duan's position as head of state was as a figurehead, however, as his clique had been destroyed, his small army of bodyguards operated within the capital he now figuratively ruled. Zhang controlled the wealthy northeastern provinces. Feng's smaller army controlled the poorer northwest; as such, the power sharing arrangement between the two was destined to fail: Zhang was a monarchist backed by Japan, whereas Feng dabbled with radical politics and revolutionary idealism all with Soviet support.
Duan, lacking a power base of his own, played the two against each other in order to retain some control. Throughout the summer of 1925 both Zhang and Feng began soliciting help from their former Zhili enemy, Wu Peifu. Seething at Feng's earlier betrayal during the Beijing coup, Wu sealed an alliance with Zhang in November; this alliance would last until the defeat of both cliques under the Northern Expedition in 1928. In October 1925 Guo Songling, a division commander of the Fengtian clique, defected to Feng's Guominjun clique. From November 22 he began to lay siege to the capital city of his former Fengtian master. Chiang Kai-shek sought to convince Sun Chuanfang to defect, though to the Kuomintang. Sun, affiliated with Wu Peifu's Zhili clique, was a popular target to woo. Sun, however and executed Chiang's emissaries. Chiang retaliated in turn by executing Sun's envoys. A power struggle was taking place among the key figures in the KMT. Wang Jingwei, Chiang Kai-shek's rival for absolute control over the Nationalist Party, proposed sending Chiang to Feng's Guominjun as an adviser.
Chiang declined. On December 24, in a stunning reversal of fortune, Guo's siege of Mukden was lifted and he was killed; the Guominjun began hemorrhaging soldiers, both from fighting and desertion, as it tried to hold off the combined armies of Wu Peifu, Zhang Zuolin, Li Jinglin and Zhang Zongchang. In January Feng moved to the Soviet Union to study. Japan supported Zhang's forces, directly providing naval support. During an artillery attack on Guominjun forces civilians were killed, leading to protests in Beiping and the March 18 Massacre. Though Duan expressed his remorse at the brutal suppression of the protests, the Guominjun removed him from office the next month. In April, in order to appease the Zhili clique, the Guominjun released the deposed ex-president Cao Kun, put under arrest by Feng in 1923. Wu did not respond; the Young Marshal, Zhang Xueliang, had his army occupy the capital, with Wu's troops arriving a little later. They sacked the capital, causing much chaos and leading to the collapse of much of the Beiyang government's bureaucracy.
It would not recover until its occupation by the Nationalists in 1928. Guominjun troops tried to flee through Shanxi, but the Shanxi clique led by Yan Xishan maintained a strict neutrality policy and attacked any soldiers that encroached their borders. Yan, an ex-Tongmenghui member, was sympathetic with the Guominjun but did not want his province drawn into civil war, he would go on to side with Feng during Central Plains War. Though jointly occupying Beiping, Zhang and Wu could not agree as to who should lead the new government. Wu wanted to restore Cao to the presidency, whereas Zhang hinted at restoring the last Manchu Emperor, Pu-yi. In the end they resorted to a string of powerless interim cabinets. Militarily, the war had caused the Zhili clique to shift their armies northward, leaving their southern flank and industrial base thinly defended against the underestimated armies of the KMT; this would prove crucial. The remainder of the Guominjun which held out northwest of Beiping would fold into the National Revolutionary Army when the KMT advanced.
Kössler, Reinhart. "Revolution in a foreign land: eyewitness accounts by Soviet advisers to China, 1923 – 1927". In Frits L. van Holthoon. Internationalism in the Labour Movement: 1830-1940. Leiden, New York City, Cologne: Brill Publishers. Pp. 109–134. Waldron, Arthur. "'Modern Warfare in China in 1924–1925': Soviet film propaganda to support Chinese Militarist Zhang Zuolin". Historical Journal of Film and Television. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge. 15: 407–424. Doi:10.1080/01439689500260291
The Beiyang government sometimes spelled Peiyang Government or the First Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China which sat in its capital Peking between 1912 and 1928. It was internationally recognized as the legitimate Chinese government; the name derives from the Beiyang Army, which dominated its politics with the rise of Yuan Shikai, a general of the Qing dynasty. After his death, the army split into various factions competing for power, in a period called the Warlord Era. Although the government and the state were nominally under civilian control under a constitution, the Beiyang generals were in charge of it; the government enjoyed legitimacy abroad along with diplomatic recognition, had access to tax and customs revenue, could apply for foreign financial loans. Its legitimacy was challenged in 1917, by Sun Yat-sen's Guangzhou-based Kuomintang government movement, his successor Chiang Kai-shek defeated the Beiyang warlords during the Northern Expedition between 1926 and 1928, overthrew the factions and the government unifying the country in 1928.
The Kuomintang proceeded to install its nationalist government in Nanking. Under the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China as drawn up by the provisional senate in February 1912, the National Assembly elected the president and vice president for five-year terms, appointed a premier to choose and lead the cabinet; the relevant ministers had to countersign executive decrees for them to be binding. The most important ministries were army, finance and interior; the navy ministry's importance declined after most of its ships defected to the South's Constitutional Protection Movement in 1917. The communications ministry was responsible for transportation and the Bank of Communications and was the base of the influential Communications Clique; the interior ministry was responsible for policing and security while the weaker ministry of justice handled judicial affairs and prisons. The ministry of foreign affairs had a renowned diplomatic corps with figures such as Wellington Koo; because the generals required their skills, the foreign affairs ministry was given substantial independence.
The ministry's greatest accomplishment was the 1922 return of German concessions in Shandong that were seized by Japan during World War I which boosted the government's reputation. The foreign affairs ministry denied the South's government of any international recognition all the way until the Beiyang government collapsed. China was a founding member of the League of Nations; the assembly was bicameral with a senate that had six-year terms divided into two classes and a house of representatives with three year terms. The senators were chosen by the provincial assemblies and the representatives were chosen by an electoral college picked by a limited public franchise; the task of the assembly was to write a permanent constitution, draft legislation, approve the budget and treaties, ratify the cabinet, impeach corrupt officials. An independent judiciary with a supreme court was provided. Early law codes were based on reforming the Great Qing Legal Code into something akin to German civil law. In reality, these institutions were undermined by strong factional ties.
Overall, the government was corrupt and tyrannical. Most of the revenue was spent on the military forces of whichever faction, in power; the short lived legislatures did have civilian cliques and debates but were subject to bribery, forced resignations, or dissolution altogether. During the warlord era, the government remained unstable, with seven heads of state, five caretaker administrations, 34 heads of government, 25 cabinets, five parliaments, four charters within the span of twelve years, it was near bankruptcy several times where a mere million dollars could decide the fate of the bureaucracy. Its income came from the customs revenue, foreign loans, government bonds, as it had difficulty collecting taxes outside the capital if the surrounding regions were controlled by allied warlords. After the 1920 Zhili-Anhui War, no taxes were remitted to Beijing outside of Zhili province. After the Xinhai Revolution of 1911–1912, the rebels established a republican Provisional Government in Nanjing under President Sun Yatsen and Vice President Li Yuanhong.
Since they only controlled southern China, they had to negotiate with the commander of the Beiyang Army, Yuan Shikai, to put an end to the Qing dynasty. On 10 March 1912, Yuan became provisional president while located in his power base, he refused fearing further assassination attempts. It was more economical to keep the existing Qing bureaucracy in Beijing, so the provisional senate moved north as well; the 1912–1913 National Assembly elections gave over half the seats and control of both houses to Sun's Nationalist Party. The second-largest party, the Progressives led by Liang Qichao favored Yuan. Song Jiaoren was expected to become the next premier, but he riled Yuan by promising to pick a cabinet with only KMT ministers, he was assassinated. An investigation pinned the blame on Premier Zhao Bingjun. Yuan denied that either he or Zhao killed Song. Yuan took out a huge foreign loan without parliament'
The Siberian Intervention or Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan and China to support White Russian forces against Soviet Russia and its allies during the Russian Civil War. The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia after other Allied forces withdrew in 1920. Following the Russian October Revolution of 1917, the new Bolshevik government signed a peace treaty with Germany; the collapse of the Russian front presented a tremendous problem to the Entente powers, since it allowed Germany to shift troops and war material from its eastern front to the west. 50,000 man Czechoslovak Legion, fighting on the side of the Allied Powers, was now behind enemy lines, was attempting to fight its way out through the east to Vladivostok along the Bolshevik-held Trans-Siberian Railway. Faced with these concerns, the United Kingdom and France decided to intervene in the Russian Civil War against the Bolsheviks.
They had three objectives: to prevent the Allied war material stockpiles in Russia from falling into German or Bolshevik hands to help the Czechoslovak Legion and return it to the European front to resurrect the Eastern Front by installing a White Russian-backed governmentThe British and French asked the United States to furnish troops for both the North Russia Campaign and the Siberian Campaign. In July 1918, against the advice of the United States Department of War, President Wilson agreed to send 5,000 US troops as the American North Russia Expeditionary Force and 10,000 US troops as the American Expeditionary Force Siberia. In the same month, the Beiyang government of the Republic of China accepted an invitation by the Chinese community in Russia and sent 2,000 troops by August; the Chinese occupied Outer Mongolia and Tuva and sent a battalion to the North Russian Campaign as part of their anti-Bolshevik efforts. The British, short on personnel, only deployed 1,500 troops to Siberia; these men came from the 1/9th Battalion, Hampshire Regiment and the 25th Battalion, Middlesex Regiment.
The Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force, commanded by Major General James H. Elmsley and authorised in August 1918, was sent to Vladivostok to bolster the Allied presence there. Composed of 4,192 soldiers, the force returned to Canada between April and June 1919. During this time, the Canadians saw little fighting, with fewer than 100 troops proceeding "up country" to Omsk, to serve as administrative staff for 1,500 British troops aiding the White Russian government of Admiral Alexander Kolchak. Most Canadians remained in Vladivostok, undertaking routine drill and policing duties in the volatile port city. At the request of Chinese merchants, 2,300 Chinese troops were sent to Vladivostok to protect Chinese interests there; the Chinese army fought against both Cossacks. The "Corpo di Spedizione Italiano in Estremo Oriente" was made of Alpini troops, supported by 2,500 Italian ex-POWs who had fought in the Austro-Hungarian Army and enrolled in the Legione Redenta; the Italians played a small but important role during the intervention, fighting together with the Czechoslovak Legion and other allied forces using armed and armoured trains to control large sections of the Siberian railway.
The main areas of operation were the Irkutsk and Vladivostok regions. The Japanese were asked in 1917 by the French to intervene in Russia but declined the request. However, the army general staff came to view the Tsarist collapse as an opportunity to free Japan from any future threat from Russia by detaching Siberia and forming an independent buffer state; the Japanese government in the beginning refused to undertake such an expedition and it was not until the following year that events were set in motion that led to a change in this policy. In July 1918, President Wilson asked the Japanese government to supply 7,000 troops as part of an international coalition of 25,000 troops, including an American expeditionary force, planned to support the rescue of the Czechoslovak Legions and securing the Allied war material stockpiles. After heated debate in the Diet, the administration of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake agreed to send 12,000 troops, but under the command of Japan, rather than as part of an international coalition.
Once the political decision had been reached, the Imperial Japanese Army took over full control under Chief of Staff Yui Mitsue and extensive planning for the expedition was conducted. The American Expeditionary Force Siberia was commanded by Major General William S. Graves and totaled 7,950 officers and enlisted men; the AEF Siberia included the U. S. Army's 27th and 31st Infantry Regiments, plus large numbers of volunteers from the 13th and 62nd Infantry Regiments along with a few from the 12th Infantry Regiment. To operate the Trans-Siberian railroad, the Russian Railway Service Corps was formed of US personnel. Although General Graves did not arrive in Siberia until September 4, 1918, the first 3,000 American troops disembarked in Vladivostok between August 15 and August 21, 1918, they were assigned guard duty along segments of the railway between Vladivostok and Nikolsk-Ussuriski in the north. Unlike his Allied counterparts, General Graves believed their mission in Siberia was to provide protection for American-supplied property and to help the Czechoslovak Legions evacuate Russia, that it did not include fighting against the Bolsheviks.
Calling for restraint, Graves was at odds with commanders of British and Japanese forces who wanted the Americans to take a more active part in the military intervention in Siberia. The joint Allied intervention began in August 1918; the Japanese entered through Vladivostok an
Yuan Shikai was a Chinese military and government official who rose to power during the late Qing dynasty, tried to save the dynasty with a number of modernization projects including bureaucratic, judicial and other reforms. He established the first modern army and a more efficient provincial government in North China in the last years of the Qing dynasty before the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor, the last monarch of the Qing dynasty, in 1912. Through negotiation, he became the first official president of the Republic of China in 1912; this army and bureaucratic control were the foundation of his autocratic rule as the first formal President of the Republic of China. He was frustrated in a short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor. On September 16, 1859, Yuan was born as Yuan Shikai in the village of Zhangying, Xiangcheng County, Chenzhou Prefecture, China; the Yuan clan moved 16 kilometers southeast of Xiangcheng to a hilly area, easier to defend.
There the Yuans had built Yuanzhaicun. Yuan's family was affluent enough to provide Yuan with a traditional Confucian education; as a young man he enjoyed riding and entertainment with friends. Though hoping to pursue a career in the civil service, he failed the Imperial examinations twice, leading him to decide on an entry into politics through the Huai Army, where many of his relatives served, his career began with the purchase of a minor official title in 1880, a common method of official promotion in the late Qing. Using his father's connections, Yuan travelled to Tengzhou and sought a post in the Qing Brigade. Yuan's first marriage was in 1876 to a woman of the Yu family who bore him a first son, Keding, in 1878. Yuan Shikai married nine more concubines throughout the course of his life. Joseon Dynasty Korea, in the early 1870s, was in the midst of a struggle between isolationists under King Gojong's father Heungseon Daewongun, progressives, led by Empress Myeongseong, who wanted to open trade.
After the Meiji Restoration, Japan had adopted an aggressive foreign policy, contesting Chinese domination of the peninsula. Under the Treaty of Ganghwa, which the Koreans signed with reluctance in 1876, Japan was allowed to send diplomatic missions to Hanseong, opened trading posts in Incheon and Wonsan. Amidst an internal power struggle which resulted in the queen's exile, the Viceroy of Zhili, Li Hongzhang, sent the 3,000 strong Qing Brigade into Korea; the Korean king proposed training 500 troops in the art of modern warfare, Yuan Shikai was appointed to lead this task in Korea. Li Hongzhang recommended Yuan's promotion, with Yuan given the rank of sub-prefect. In 1885, Yuan was appointed Imperial Resident of Seoul. On the surface the position equalled that of ambassador but in practice, as head official from the suzerain, Yuan had become the supreme adviser on all Korean government policies. Perceiving China's increasing influence on the Korean government, Japan sought more influence through co-suzerainty with China.
A series of documents were released to Yuan Shikai, claiming the Korean government had changed its stance towards Chinese protection and would rather turn to Russia for protection. Yuan was outraged yet skeptical, asked Li Hongzhang for advice. In a treaty signed between Japan and Qing, the two parties agreed only to send troops into Korea after notifying the other. Although the Korean government was stable, it was still a protectorate of Qing. Koreans emerged advocating modernization. Another more radicalised group, the Donghak Society, promoting an early nationalist doctrine based upon Confucian principles, rose in rebellion against the government. Yuan and Li Hongzhang sent troops into Korea to protect Seoul and Qing's interests, Japan did the same under the pretext of protecting Japanese trading posts. Tensions boiled over between Japan and China when Japan refused to withdraw its forces and placed a blockade at the 38th Parallel. Li Hongzhang wanted at all costs to avoid a war with Japan, attempted this by asking for international pressure for a Japanese withdrawal.
Japan refused, war broke out. Yuan, having been put in an ineffective position, was recalled to Tianjin in July 1894, before the official outbreak of the First Sino-Japanese War. Yuan Shikai had three Korean concubines, one of whom was Korean Princess Li's relative, concubine Kim. 15 of Yuan's children came from these three Korean women. Yuan's rise to fame began with his nominal participation in the First Sino-Japanese War as commander of the Chinese garrison forces in Korea. Unlike other officers, however, he avoided the humiliation of Chinese defeat by having been recalled to Beijing several days before the outbreak of conflict; as an ally of Li Hongzhang, Yuan was appointed the commander of the first New Army in 1895. As the officer most directly responsible for training China's first modernized army, Yuan gained significant political influence and the loyalty of a nucleus of young officers: by 1901, five of China's seven divisional commanders and most other senior military officers in China were his protégés.
The Qing court relied on his army due to the proximity of its garrison to the capital and their effectiveness. Of the new armies that formed part of the Self-Strengthening Movement, Yuan's was the best trained and most effective; the Qing Court at the time was divided between progressives under the leadership of the Guangxu Emperor, conservatives under the Empress Dowager Cixi, who had temporarily retreated to the Summer Palace as a place of "retirement"