Chuck Hoskin is a former member of the Oklahoma House of Representatives from the 6th district, which includes parts of Craig and Rogers counties. He served as a whip for the Democratic caucus. A citizen of the Cherokee Nation, Hoskin was a member of the tribal council, is Chief of Staff for the Principal Chief. Hoskin was born on January 1952, in Claremore, Oklahoma. After graduating from Vinita High School in 1970, he enlisted in the U. S. Navy, he was stationed on the USS Independence until his honorable discharge. After the Navy, he received his AA degree from Northeastern Oklahoma A&M College and his BA and M. Ed from Northeastern State University. Before being elected to office, he served as an administrator for Locust Grove Public Schools in Locust Grove, Oklahoma, he is married to Stephanie and has 3 children, Charles, Jr. and Amelia. Along with being an elected official, Hoskin is the chief of staff to principal chief of the Cherokee Nation, Bill John Baker. Hoskin was elected to the House in 2006, defeating Republican Wayland Smalley in the 2006 election, after the incumbent, Joe Eddins, retired.
Hoskin serves on the Appropriations & Budget, Public Safety, Veterans & Military Affairs committees, as well as the Redistricting Eastern Oklahoma Subcommittee and the Joint Committee on Appropriations & Budget. A citizen of the Cherokee Nation, Hoskins served for 12 years on the Tribal Council, from 1995 to 2007, he is serving as the Cherokee Nation Chief of Staff
An academic certificate is a document that certifies that a person has received specific education or has passed a test or series of tests. In many countries, a certificate is a qualification attained in secondary education. For instance, students in the Republic of Ireland sit the Junior Certificate and follow it with the Leaving Certificate. Other countries have awards, for instance, in Australia the Higher School Certificate in New South Wales, the Victorian Certificate of Education in Victoria, etc. is the examination taken on completion of secondary education. In parts of the United Kingdom the General Certificate of Secondary Education is the normal examination taken at age 16 and the General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary Level and Advanced Level are taken at 17 and 18. In many other countries, certificates are qualifications in higher education. For example, in the Republic of Ireland, the National Certificate, soon to be replaced by the "Higher Certificate"; these have Graduate Certificate and Postgraduate Certificate.
In Hong Kong, students take the exams to receive Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education. Certificate is below the standard of the associate degree, higher diploma and advanced diploma, which are below the bachelor's degree. Postgraduate certificates are taken after the bachelor's degree and are sometimes more vocationally oriented than master's degrees. In Australia, a certificate is a qualification offered by a university or other higher education provider, shorter than a degree or diploma. Certificates are provided by TAFE colleges or non-academic registered training organizations. There are four ranks of certificate in Australia, indicated by Roman numerals, e.g. Cert. IV in Horticulture; the time spent varies, but in general a Certificate I will be granted after a course of only a few weeks, while a Cert. IV may take up to twelve months. A Diploma directly follows Cert. IV and may rightly be considered equivalent to a hypothetical Certificate V. In the United Kingdom, a Certificate of Higher Education requires successful completion of 120 credits at level four of the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications.
This is equivalent to one year of full-time university education at first-year level. Each credit is equivalent to a nominal ten hours of study, as such the CertHE is 1,200 hours of study; this compares with 360 credits for an honours bachelor's degree, 240 credits for a Diploma of Higher Education. A certificate can be a vocational qualification of between 13 and 36 credits at any of the levels of the Regulated Qualifications Framework, the level being specified in the qualification title. In the United States, a certificate may be offered by an institute of higher education; these certificates signify that a student has reached a standard of knowledge about a certain vocational or professional subject. Certificate programs can be completed more than associate degrees and do not have general education requirements. Undergraduate certificates represent completion of a specific program offered in coordination with a bachelors degree. Graduate certificates represent completion of studies beyond the bachelor's degree, yet short of a masters degree.
In the State of Maryland, a Certificate of Merit was, until issued to graduating high-school seniors who met certain academic requirements. It may be awarded as a necessary certification to validate that a student is considered competent in a certain specific networking skill area in information technology, thus a computer engineer or computer science graduation most will have to obtain additional certificates on and pertaining to the specific technologies or equipment used by the hiring corporation. It is becoming more common for higher education institutions to award certificates to continuing education students; these certificates vary involve rigorous courses, can be affiliated with many associations. Examples would include CMA or CGA. University certificates are becoming more common ways for people to engage in areas of interest while working full-time, they can be completed with a minimum grade in a series of university courses, are sometimes taken as a way to further one's professional career.
They are gaining ground in both the academic world and the working world. Graduate certificate Academic degree Doctorate
Technical drawing, drafting or drawing, is the act and discipline of composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is constructed. Technical drawing is essential for communicating ideas in engineering. To make the drawings easier to understand, people use familiar symbols, units of measurement, notation systems, visual styles, page layout. Together, such conventions constitute a visual language and help to ensure that the drawing is unambiguous and easy to understand. Many of the symbols and principles of technical drawing are codified in an international standard called ISO 128; the need for precise communication in the preparation of a functional document distinguishes technical drawing from the expressive drawing of the visual arts. Artistic drawings are subjectively interpreted. Technical drawings are understood to have one intended meaning. A drafter, draftsperson, or draughtsman is a person. A professional drafter who makes technical drawings is sometimes called a drafting technician.
A sketch is a executed, freehand drawing, not intended as a finished work. In general, sketching is a quick way to record an idea for use. Architect's sketches serve as a way to try out different ideas and establish a composition before a more finished work when the finished work is expensive and time-consuming. Architectural sketches, for example, are a kind of diagrams; these sketches, like metaphors, are used by architects as a means of communication in aiding design collaboration. This tool helps architects to abstract attributes of hypothetical provisional design solutions and summarize their complex patterns, hereby enhancing the design process. Italic text The basic drafting procedure is to place a piece of paper on a smooth surface with right-angle corners and straight sides—typically a drawing board. A sliding straightedge known as a T-square is placed on one of the sides, allowing it to be slid across the side of the table, over the surface of the paper. "Parallel lines" can be drawn by moving the T-square and running a pencil or technical pen along the T-square's edge.
The T-square is used to hold other devices such as set triangles. In this case, the drafter places one or more triangles of known angles on the T-square—which is itself at right angles to the edge of the table—and can draw lines at any chosen angle to others on the page. Modern drafting tables come equipped with a drafting machine, supported on both sides of the table to slide over a large piece of paper; because it is secured on both sides, lines drawn along the edge are guaranteed to be parallel. In addition, the drafter uses several technical drawing tools to draw circles. Primary among these are the compasses, used for drawing simple arcs and circles, the French curve, for drawing curves. A spline is a rubber coated articulated metal. Drafting templates assist the drafter with creating recurring objects in a drawing without having to reproduce the object from scratch every time; this is useful when using common symbols. Templates are sold commercially by a number of vendors customized to a specific task, but it is not uncommon for a drafter to create his own templates.
This basic drafting system requires an accurate table and constant attention to the positioning of the tools. A common error is to allow the triangles to push the top of the T-square down thereby throwing off all angles. Tasks as simple as drawing two angled lines meeting at a point require a number of moves of the T-square and triangles, in general, drafting can be a time-consuming process. A solution to these problems was the introduction of the mechanical "drafting machine", an application of the pantograph which allowed the drafter to have an accurate right angle at any point on the page quite quickly; these machines included the ability to change the angle, thereby removing the need for the triangles as well. In addition to the mastery of the mechanics of drawing lines and circles onto a piece of paper—with respect to the detailing of physical objects—the drafting effort requires a thorough understanding of geometry and spatial comprehension, in all cases demands precision and accuracy, attention to detail of high order.
Although drafting is sometimes accomplished by a project engineer, architect, or shop personnel, skilled drafters accomplish the task, are always in demand to some degree. Today, the mechanics of the drafting task have been automated and accelerated through the use of computer-aided design systems. There are two types of computer-aided design systems used for the production of technical drawings" two dimensions and three dimensions. 2D CAD systems such as AutoCAD or MicroStation replace the paper drawing discipline. The lines, circles and curves are created within the software, it is down to the technical drawing skill of the user to produce the drawing. There is still much scope for error in the drawing when producing first and third angle orthographic projections, auxiliary projections and cross sections. A 2D CAD system is an electronic drawing board, its greatest strength over direct to paper technical drawing is in the making of revisions. Whereas in a conventional hand dr
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high
University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma
The University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma, or USAO, is a public liberal arts college located in Chickasha, Oklahoma. It is the only public college in Oklahoma with a liberal arts-focused curriculum and is a member of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges. USAO is an undergraduate-only institution and grants Bachelor's Degrees in a variety of subject areas; the school was founded in 1908 as a school for women and from 1912 to 1965 was known as Oklahoma College for Women. It became coeducational in 1965 and today educates 1,000 students. In 2001, the entire Oklahoma College for Women campus was listed as a National Historic District. After Oklahoma was admitted to statehood in 1907, the new state legislature was tasked with establishing institutions of higher education in the former Indian Territory. Statistics gathered by the State Superintendent of Education showed that many young women from Oklahoma chose to attend women's colleges in Kansas and Missouri. Colonel J. T. O'Neil, the state senator from Grady County, his daughter, Anne Wade O'Neil, who had graduated from a women's college in Mississippi, appealed to the legislature to authorize the creation of a women's college.
The University was founded on May 16, 1908, with the signing of Senate Bill 249 by Governor Charles Haskell. The bill, authored by Senator N. P. Stewart of Hugo, authorized the foundation of the Oklahoma Industrial Institute and College for Girls; the legislature subsequently appropriated $100,000 for the establishment of the initial buildings for the school. A local rancher named J. B. Sparks donated land for the school in memory of Nellie. Nellie was a Chickasaw descendent, the land had been part of her allotment; the Nellie Sparks Dormitory, among the first buildings constructed at the new institution, was named in her honor. In 1912, the school's authorities renamed the school Oklahoma College for Women; this came about because a probate judge, under the mistaken impression that the "Industrial Institute" was a reform school, sentenced an "incorrigible young woman" to serve time there. This name change was made official by the State Legislature in 1916; the school offered four years of high school work and four years of college.
It shifted its focus to college only. Though the school's original name implied industrial training, over the next couple decades, the school gained a focus on a broad liberal arts education. By 1930, it was awarding degrees in many different fields of study, including art, history, several languages and physical sciences, home economics, physical education; the deaf education program increased in statewide recognition. On June 6, 1955, the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education adopted the policy that all state-supported institutions would be racially integrated; that summer, Clydia Troullier became the first black student to enroll at OCW. By the mid-1960s female universities were declining throughout the nation; the legislature made the school coeducational in 1965, the school was renamed Oklahoma College of Liberal Arts. The Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education assigned a new mission to the school: it was to be "experimental in nature" and was to "enroll a select group of students whose aspirations and abilities fit them for an intellectually rigorous and accelerated course of study."
Under the direction of the ninth President, Robert L. Martin, the university switched to a system of three equal trimesters. In an attempt to attract students interested in vigorous academics, this offered an opportunity for advanced students to move through their studies and graduate early. During this period the Alumni Association became active, donating funds for the building of an on-campus chapel. Other buildings housing classrooms, including Davis Hall, were built around this time. Dr. Bruce G. Carter took over administrative duties as President in 1972. Under his direction, the school advanced a system of night classes for local adult learners. New scholarships for Freshmen were made available. Soon after Dr. Carter took office, the legislature moved to rename all public institutions of higher education in the state under a new system: 2-year institutions would be known as "colleges" and 4-year institutions would be known as "universities." This led directly to OCLA's current name: the University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma.
Over the next several years, several construction projects were completed, including renovations to Gary and Davis Halls and Nash Library. Serious construction continued throughout the 1980s and 1990s, culminating in the opening of a newly remodeled $2.2 million Student Center in 1998. Sparks Hall, the traditional dormitory on campus, was greatly renovated. In 2000, Dr. John Feaver became the university's twelfth president. In 2001, the National Park Service approved the listing of the entire campus as a National Historic District, the only educational institution in the state to hold such an honor. Historic markers throughout the campus document describe the various historic buildings. New housing options were made available in the early 2000s in the form of the $13.1 million Lawson Court Apartment Complex. Owens Flag Plaza, a centerpiece for the campus'oval', was opened in 2004. Since 2005, USAO, with the support of the State Regents for Higher Education, has embarked on a Mission Enhancement Plan intended to emphasize the University's unique role as the public liberal arts college in Oklahoma.
As part of the plan, USAO has raised its admissi
Juqua Demail Parker is a former American football defensive end. He was signed by the Tennessee Titans as an undrafted free agent in 2001, he played college football at Oklahoma State and high school football at Aldine High School in Houston, Texas. Parker has played for the Philadelphia Eagles and Cleveland Browns. Parker attended Northeastern Oklahoma A&M College where he posted 29 sacks in two seasons and was named Southwestern Junior College Conference Player of the Year, he transferred to Oklahoma State, earning third team All-Big 12 Conference honors and playing in the East-West Shrine Game his senior year after posting 57 tackles, five PBUs, a team-leading 21 TFLs & 9.5 sacks. Parker signed with the Tennessee Titans as a rookie free agent in 2001 and spent four years as a backup. Parker was signed by the Philadelphia Eagles in 2005 to serve a similar role, he recorded six sacks in 2006 following an injury to starter Jevon Kearse. In 2007, Parker signed a long-term contract to remain with the team.
Midway through the 2007 season he was elevated to the starting lineup to replace an ineffective Kearse and was the team's starting left defensive end. He made a career-high eight sacks in 2008. Parker lost his starting job to 2010 first-round draft pick Brandon Graham midway through the 2010 preseason, however, in the first three games of the season, Parker, in his limited playing time, recorded four sacks. In 2011, in week 1 against the St. Louis Rams, Parker had a fumble off of Rams quarterback Sam Bradford and returned for a touchdown. In week 15 against the New York Jets, Parker had another fumble returned for a touchdown after Eagles free safety Kurt Coleman stripped the ball from Jets wide receiver Santonio Holmes. Parker signed with the Cleveland Browns on March 15, 2012. On March 12, 2008, it was revealed that Juqua's last name had been changed from Thomas to Parker at the request of his father, who died in 2005. On August 5, 2009, Parker was taken into custody during a traffic stop around 12:30 a.m. on N.
Mountain Drive at Route 378 in Lower Saucon Township, near the Eagles' training camp at Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Lower Saucon Township police said Parker was a passenger in a vehicle, driven by Eagles' teammate Todd Herremans, stopped for a traffic violation, he had a small amount of marijuana in his possession. Parker, of Medford, New Jersey, was arraigned in the Central Booking Center and released from Northampton County Prison under $1,000 bail; the charges were dropped after the district attorney ruled that the arresting officer had no right to search the car. Cleveland Browns bio