Northern Arizona University is a public research university with its main campus in Flagstaff, Arizona. Governed by the Arizona Board of Regents and accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, the university offers 158 baccalaureate and graduate degree programs; as of fall 2019, 30,736 students were enrolled, 22,791 at the Flagstaff campus. The average cost of tuition and fees for a full-time, Arizona resident undergraduate student for two semesters is $11,896, out-of-state undergraduates pay an estimated $26,516. NAU participates in the Western Undergraduate Exchange Program, which offers lower tuition rates for students from the Western United States. For 2018–19, WUE tuition and fees are $16,759. NAU offers Flagstaff undergraduate students the Pledge Program, which guarantees the same tuition rate for four years. Named the Northern Arizona Normal School, the institution opened on September 11, 1899, with 23 students, two faculty members—one, Almon Nicholas Taylor, the school president—and "two copies of Webster's International Dictionary bound in sheepskin" as teaching resources.
The first graduating class, in 1901, consisted of four women who received credentials to teach in the Arizona Territory. In 1925, the Arizona State Legislature allowed the school, called the Northern Arizona State Teachers College, to grant bachelor of education degrees. In 1929, the school became Arizona State Teachers College at Flagstaff. In 1929, the Great Depression struck the nation, the ASTC found new meaning in community outreach. Rather than collapsing, the school endured through the depression. In fact, Grady Gammage, the school president at the time, described higher education as "a'depression industry' that fared well in hard times." Despite financial difficulties, enrollment increased from 321 students to 535 students between 1930 and 1940, graduate work was introduced in 1937. ASTC provided an education during economically trying times creating jobs to help students afford their education; the self-sufficiency of the college helped conserve monetary resources, it was a major contributor to the local economy of the surrounding Flagstaff community, injecting a half million dollars in 1938.
ASTC was known for ethnic tolerance. In fact, the first Hopi to receive a college degree was Ida Mae Fredericks in 1939. Students came from rural farms, mining families, the East Coast, points between. During the depression, lots of fraternities and clubs sprang up, reflecting the diversity of background and interests. Enrollment dropped at the beginning of World War II, dropping to 161 in 1945. During this time, ASTC became a Navy V-12 program training site. However, the end of World War II brought increased enrollment as returning veterans returned to continue their education; the end of the war expanded programs beyond teaching degrees in the fields of art and science. To reflect this growth, the school changed its name to Arizona State College at Flagstaff in 1945 and, in 1958, became Arizona State College after the former Arizona State College at Tempe became Arizona State University. In 1958, the Forestry Program was introduced. With further growth over the next two decades, the Arizona Board of Regents granted Arizona State College university status as Northern Arizona University in 1966.
Perched at 6,950 feet above sea level, one of the highest-elevation four-year college campuses in the country, the main campus is surrounded by the largest contiguous ponderosa pine forest in the world and enjoys a four-season climate, with an average annual snowfall of 260 inches. Winter skiing is accessible at Arizona Snowbowl, an alpine ski resort located on the San Francisco Peaks, 7 miles northwest of Flagstaff, ranked the third best college town in the United States by the American Institute of Economic Research in 2017. NAU offers 153 baccalaureate programs, 81 master's degree programs, 15 doctoral programs, along with 49 undergraduate and 30 graduate certificates. In 2006, the Arizona Board of Regents directed the university to develop innovative ways to provide access and affordability to all Arizona residents. NAU developed the Pledge Program and 2NAU partnerships with community colleges and NAU–Yavapai, a collaboration with Yavapai College in Prescott Valley, Arizona. NAU–Yuma, a quarter-century partnership with Arizona Western College, is nationally recognized as a model community college/university effort.
In addition to the more than 22,000 students who study on the Flagstaff campus, NAU serves another 8,000 students online and statewide. NAU offers 99 online accredited degree programs at statewide campuses; the university's oldest branch campus, the largest, is NAU Yuma. NAU is the first public university to offer a competency-based online degree program that allows students to earn credit for experience. Personalized Learning, launched in 2013, is an competency-based degree path; the program offers students access to a self-paced, affordable college education. In the fall of 2017, the top undergraduate academic degree plans by enrollment were Biomedical Sciences and Criminal Justice, Nursing – Option for Registered Nurses, Mechanical Engineering, Elementary Education; the College of Arts and Letters houses the Asian Studies Program, Cinema Studies, Comparative Cultural Studies, History, Latin American Studies, Modern Languages, Museum Studies, School of Art, School of Music, Theatre. The college oversees the NAU Art Museum, Martin-Springer Institute (promoting lessons of the Ho
Leucosia anatum known as the pebble crab, is a species of crab in the family Leucosiidae. This species has a convex, elongate carapace, its outline is somewhat rhomboidal. The front edge of the carapace is slender and obtusely triangular, with a pointed postorbital that points upward at an oblique angle, it has stout ambulatory legs, with each section being cylindrical and smooth. This species is known to occur in the following locations: Madagascar Mauritius Persian Gulf Pakistan Sri Lanka Andaman Islands Mergui Archipelago Japan: multiple locations Korea Taiwan China in the sea around Guangdong Gulf of Tonkin Philippines: south of Manila Bay Indonesia: Ambon Australia: multiple location New Caledonia: Ilot Maitre Fiji
Public/social/private partnerships are methods of co-operation between private and government bodies. The name “public social private partnership” is a development of Public Private Partnership. PPP is one expression of a strong trend towards privatisation, which in some European countries has arisen as a result of more difficult economic conditions in recent years and the associated structural crisis in the public sector; the growth in public-private partnerships as a way of fulfilling public tasks in partnership between the state administration and private enterprises must be seen in this context. In political discussions, lack of public funds is put forward as a limit on state activities. Instead of financing infrastructure projects alone, the government looks to cooperations with private investors; the EU policy on competitive tendering of public works and services has forced changes towards a more market-oriented approach to delivering tasks for which the state is responsible. Another relevant factor are the arguments in debates on privatisation that state bodies are inefficient and that management concepts typical in the commercial sector should be used to achieve more cost-effective provision of public services.
All these factors taken together result in a shift away from a role of the state as “producer” towards one as “quality assurer” and a trend away from collective, tax-based financing of infrastructure to financing models in which these are paid for by their users. The term PPP has gained currency for this increased cooperation of government with private partners in the German-speaking countries since about the middle of the 1990s. Public private partnership contrasted with conventional provision of public services PPPs can be said to differ from other forms of provision of public services in the following 3 points: In PPPs, the ownership of the project is shared; the heart of a PPP is thus the sharing of profits. Compared to providing the service directly, in a PPP the state can concentrate on its core competences; the state does not need to allocate experts of its own for the implementation of the project and is thus less intimately involved. Additionally, PPPs exhibit a trend away from conventional, tax-based financing approaches towards financing through contributions of individual users.
In the social services sector, PPPs have been implemented in the health services and overseas development until now. As current discussions about PPPs in the social services sector show, this sector has special requirements and will need special conditions and criteria for possible PPPs; the definition of goals is a central and sensitive issue in finding a suitable form and modalities of implementation of PPPs in this area. Existing types of PPP will need to be modified to include extra mechanisms and criteria in order to function adequately in social services. In other words, public social private partnership is not an extension of the PPP idea, but a precondition for ensuring that a PPP with a social goal: assures and implements the public aims and tasks in the sense of community benefit, etc.. For the state side of the partnership the redefinition from PPP to PSPP means that mid- to long-term solutions are found for functions that the state needs to fulfil for reasons of the common good or welfare provision.
By addressing state functions in the form of partnerships, the state partner gains options for action: firstly through a cooperative form of outsourcing and secondly by involving additional partners from private enterprise and social enterprise in doing things which the state has responsibility for. Both of these aspects allow the state to do its job in a more rounded and sustainable way by bringing in additional finance and practical resources. For private enterprises, PSPP opens up possibilities for new kinds of business activity through the cooperation with the state and social enterprise. PSPPs offer social enterprises an opportunity to act in their ideal role of intermediaries between the state and private sectors, helping to make sure that each partner's contribution to the project is in an area where they have special competence; this reduces the risks for all partners. The social enterprise partners stand to gain from a PSPP in terms of planning and quality due to the mid- and long-term nature of the projects.
For target groups of disadvantaged people, PSPPs can mean the assurance of services that they need, that the welfare state has led them to expect. To summarize, application of a PPP model to fulfilling social aims for people in disadvantaged situations leads to expansion of the PPP to a PSPP. PSPP rather than PPP criteria become applicable when public aims such as the common good and welfare are being pursued. In this area, all the mid- and long-term indicators of success belonging to the agendas and goals of the cooperation depend on the correct adherence to PSPP specifications. Observing the discussions among representatives of social enterprise on the issue of “public social
Kerala State Film Development Corporation, is an organization founded by the Government of Kerala, India for promoting the film market in the state. It was founded in a period when the production of Malayalam films were centered in Madras. KSFDC was formed with an objective of moving the Malayalam film industry from Madras to Kerala. At the time of its inception, it was the first of its kind organization for film development under public sector in India. KSFDC organised the International Film Festival of Kerala annually until 1998, after which its management was handed over to the Kerala State Chalachitra Academy. KSFDC is the founder of the Chithranjali Studio. KSFDC owns a cinema exhibition network of ten theatres across Kerala. KSFDC works as a production agency which makes public interest documentary films and short films for the Government of Kerala. Shaji N. Karun is appointed as the new chairman of Kerala State Film Development Corporation after the demise of previous chairman Lenin Rajendran The demand for a studio in the public domain was first put forward by filmmaker Ramu Kariat, his idea was to make one in the lines of Moscow Film Studio, He, along with like minded filmmakers P. Bhaskaran and Thoppil Bhasi and many others met C.
Achutha Menon, the chief minister who in turn directed them to the home minister K. Karunakaran who looked after state's cinema. Karunakaran and the secretary of government Malayattoor Ramakrishnan supported the demand. In 1975, the Kerala State Film Development Corporation was formed with P. R. S. Pillai as its first chairman and G. Vivekanandan as the first managing director. A digital post processing studio owned by the KSFDC. KSFDC owns an exhibition network of 17 cinemas in Kerala namely: Kairali and Sree theatre complex, Thiruvananthapuram Kalabhavan Theatre, Chalachitrakalabhavan, Thiruvananthapuram Kairali & Sree twin theatres, Karunakaran Nambiar Road, Round North, Trissur Kairali & Sree twin theatres, Mavoor Road, Kozhikode Kairali & Sree twin theatres, Alappuzha Kairali & Sree twin theatres, A. C Road Cherthala, Alappuzha District Kairali & Sree twin theatres, North Paravur, Ernakulam District Kairali & Sree twin theatres, Palakkad District Chithranjali Studio
CT was a 24-hour Filipino cable and satellite television network based in Mandaluyong City. It was launched on March 22, 2015, is owned by Solar Entertainment Corporation, replacing Jack City, a defunct spin-off of sister channel Jack TV; this channel was broadcast on all local pay TV and cable operators in the Philippines. During its initial launch on BEAM Channel 31, Chase was a male-focused general entertainment channel that aired during nighttime, while sharing its channel space with the now-defunct game show channel, TGC, which aired during daytime. In late February 2012, the former announced in an on-screen graphic during its shows that it was switching to a 24-hour broadcast, therefore remaining on channel 31 while the latter was spin off into its own channel on select cable providers. On September 7, 2012, Chase announced through on-screen graphics and various plugs that it was going to be replaced by a spin-off of sister channel Jack TV; the changes took effect on October 20, 2012, when Jack City was launched, with some of Chase's programs carried onto its roster.
The full broadcast was initiated on November 11, 2012. On June 28, 2013, the channel's airing hours were reduced to 18 hours a day on free TV, in compliance with the National Telecommunications Commission's guidelines. However, it still continues to air 24 hours a day as a cable channel. On September 1, 2014, Jack City ended its run on free TV, due to the preparations being made by BEAM 31 for the incoming transition to ISDB-T digital television, though it continues to be broadcast as a separate cable channel; this move resulted in a change of its channel assignment for Destiny Cable subscribers. On March 22, 2015, Jack City was replaced by CT. Upon launch, the channel broadened its programming focus by adding talk shows and men's lifestyle programs to its roster. On April 10, 2017, Sky Cable & Destiny Cable was dropped CT along with Basketball TV, Jack TV, Solar Sports & NBA Premium TV due to Sky Cable's unpaid carriage fees. On December 31, 2017 at 11:59 pm, CT signed-off the air due to low viewership and programming redundancies.
Solar Entertainment Corporation CHASE Jack City
Vanguard TV-2 called Vanguard Test Vehicle-Two, was the third sub-orbital test flight of a Vanguard rocket as part of Project Vanguard. Successful TV-2 followed the successful launch of Vanguard TV-0 a one-stage rocket launched in December 1956 and Vanguard TV-1 a two-stage rocket launched in May 1957. Project Vanguard was a program managed by the United States Naval Research Laboratory, designed and built by the Glenn L. Martin Company, which intended to launch the first artificial satellite into Earth orbit using a Vanguard rocket; as the launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral Missile Annex, Florida. Vanguard TV-2 arrived at Cape Canaveral in June 1957. Vanguard TV-2 was a prototype as it had a liquid rocket first stage, a dummy second stage, a dummy third stage. Three Vanguard stages were needed to put a satellite in orbit, the final goal of the Vanguard project. Since stage two and three had no power the test flight would not achieve the same height as Vanguard TV-1. Vanguard TV-2 lifted off on 23 October 1957 from Cape Canaveral from launch pad 18A.
Launch pad 18A was an older Viking launch stand, shipped from White Sands Missile Range for use at the Cape Canaveral. Pad 18A was used on Vanguard TV-0 and TV-1; the goal of TV-2 was to test the final Vanguard first stage, as well as to test the retrorocket system of stage two and spin-up of stage three. New to test on TV-2 flight was a super high frequency C-band radio beacon on the rocket and ground tracking radar gear, used to track proper propulsion and trajectory; the telemetry was picked up at the Air Force Missile Test Center's tracking station. Vanguard TV-2 was successful, the three stage rocket achieved an altitude of 175 km, a down range of 539 km, a top speed of 6,840 km/h. TV-2 landed in the Atlantic Ocean. First and second stage separated on time, all controls and tracking worked; the only problems TV-2 had were on the ground getting ready for the flight as there were many delays. TV-2 was shipped to the Cape not working, it took from early June to late October in 1957 at the Cape to work out all the problems that were not fixed in the manufacturing.
For contrast TV-1 arrived at the cape in February 1956 and lifted off in early May 1956. The delay of TV-2 along with the failure of TV-3, put the USA behind in the space race. On 4 October 1957, 19 days before TV-2's lift off, a Soviet Union Sputnik rocket was used to perform the world's first satellite launch, taking away some of the joy of TV-2's success. Vanguard TV-0, Vanguard TV-1 and Vanguard TV-2 success was an important part of the space race; the space race started between United States and the Soviet Union at the end of World War II, as a race began to retrieve as many V-2 rockets and Nazi Germany V-2 staff as possible. Three hundred rail-car loads of V-2 rocket weapons and parts were captured and shipped to the United States 126 of the principal designers of the V-2, including Wernher von Braun and Walter Dornberger, went to America. Von Braun, his brother Magnus von Braun, seven others decided to surrender to the United States military in Operation Paperclip to ensure they were not captured by the advancing Soviets or shot dead by the Nazis to prevent their capture.
Thus the V-2 program started the space race, the V-2 could not orbit, but could reach a height of 88 km on long range trajectory and up to 206 km if launched vertically. Due to problems a delays with Vanguard TV-2 and failure of TV-3, Vanguard was not the first rocket to place into orbit an unmanned satellite; the first small-lift launch vehicle was the Sputnik rocket, it put into orbit an unmanned orbital carrier rocket designed by Sergei Korolev in the Soviet Union, derived from the R-7 Semyorka ICBM. On 4 October 1957, the Sputnik rocket was used to perform the world's first satellite launch, placing Sputnik 1 satellite into a low Earth orbit; the USA responded by launching the Vanguard TV-4 with Vanguard 1 satellite. That was intended to be the first launch vehicle the United States would use to place a satellite into orbit. Instead, the Sputnik crisis caused by the surprise launch of Sputnik 1 led the U. S. after the failure of Vanguard TV-3, to orbit the Explorer 1 satellite using a Juno I rocket launched on 1 February 1958.
Thus Vanguard I was the second successful U. S. orbital launch. Thus started the space race, that gave the drive to put men on the moon with the USA's Apollo program. Vanguard rocket Project Vanguard Comparison of orbital launch systems Comparison of orbital rocket engines Rocket Spacecraft propulsion Mallove, Eugene F. and Matloff, Gregory L. The Starflight Handbook: A Pioneer's Guide to Interstellar Travel, Wiley. ISBN 0-471-61912-4