SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Northern Australia

The unofficial geographic term Northern Australia includes those parts of Queensland and Western Australia north of latitude 26° and all of the Northern Territory. Those local government areas of Western Australia and Queensland that lie in the north are included. Although it comprises about half of the total area of Australia, Northern Australia includes only about one quarter of the Australian population. However, it includes several sources of Australian exports, being coal from the Great Dividing Range in Queensland/New South Wales and the natural gas and iron ore of the Pilbara region in WA, it includes major natural tourist attractions, such as Uluru, the Great Barrier Reef and the Kakadu National Park. All of Northern Australia is a huge ancient craton that has not experienced geological upheaval since the end of the Precambrian; the only exception to this generalisation is the Wet Tropics of northern Queensland, where active volcanoes have been present as as the Pleistocene. The vast craton in the north and west contains a number of quite rugged mountain ranges, of which the highest are the MacDonnell and Musgrave Ranges on the southern border of the Northern Territory.

These rise to over 1,500 metres, but the most spectacular features are the deep gorges of rivers such as the Finke. Most of the craton, however, is distinctly flat and low-lying with an average elevation of around 400 metres, whilst in the Lake Eyre Basin most of the land is not far above sea level; the climate of the north of Australia ranges from arid in the south to monsoonal in the Top End and Kimberley. On the eastern coast, the climate is much more humid and ranges from humid sub-tropical to humid tropical in the Wet Tropics. Except in the western part of the Pilbara and Gascoyne where the heaviest rain occurs from May to July under northwest cloudbands, rainfall is concentrated in the "summer" months from November to March. For instance, in Burketown, the months May to September are rainless in over fifty percent of years, with over eighty percent of Augusts having no rain. Temperatures in summer are unpleasantly hot apart from the eastern coastal belt. Maximum temperatures elsewhere between October and April range from 30 °C in the south in April to around 40 °C in the inland Pilbara and Kimberley before the wet season breaks.

Further north, maxima are around 32 °C but extreme humidity makes conditions unpleasant. On the coast, maxima in January range from 29 °C in the south to 32 °C, with minima around 21 °C. In July, temperatures show a wider range, from 31 °C in the north to around 19 °C in the south, where minima can be as low as 5 °C in Alice Springs in June and July; the above generalisations, mask the immense variability of the climate throughout the whole region. With the exception of the extreme north of the Northern Territory, rainfall variability throughout Northern Australia is quite markedly higher than most comparable climates in other continents. For example, at Charters Towers, the rainfall over the wet season can vary from less than 100 millimetres in 1901/1902 to over 2,000 millimetres in 1973/1974; the chief cause of this high variability is erratic tropical cyclones, which occur from December to April and in many places can deliver as much as 350 millimetres of rain over a day or two, causing large floods in the region's rivers.

For example, in April 1898, a tropical cyclone gave 740 millimetres in one day at Whim Creek in the Pilbara, but for the whole of 1924 that same station recorded only 4 millimetres for the whole year. Tropical cyclones may cross the coast anywhere in Northern Australia but are most frequent between Derby and Onslow on the west side and between Cooktown and Rockhampton on the east. Inland, variability of rainfall is related to the penetration of the summer monsoon, with high rainfall in seasons like 1973/1974, 1975/1976 and from 1998 to 2001 when the monsoon is most powerful. Climate change has seen increases of up to fifty percent in annual rainfall since 1967 over the western half of Australia's tropics, but has not seen any increase over the east; the increase over the west is sometimes attributed to aerosol pollution over industrialising areas of China and India, but may be related to global warming. Frosts are common in the southern inland during the winter, but in some years, such as 1998, they are much less frequent due to the recent incidence of warm pools in the Indian Ocean.

Except in the Lake Eyre Basin and adjacent areas to the east, the soils of Northern Australia are quite remarkable in global terms for their low fertility and difficulty of working. Most of them consist chiefly of hard laterite developed during period of climate much more humid than that of Darwin today. Since there has been no mountain building in the region since the Precambrian and no glaciation since the Carboniferous, the region's soils have been under continuous weathering without renewal for over 250 million years, as against less than ten thousand for most soils in Europe, North America and New Zealand which have been formed from recent mountain building or glacial scouring of the land; this immensely long weathering time means that nutrient levels in Northern Australian soils are exceptionally low because all soluble minerals have long been weathered out. The major constituents of most soils in Northern Australia are iron and aluminium oxides, both of which are not only insoluble but serve to reduce the soil pH and remove phosphorus from the soil as insoluble iron a

Navade Road railway station

Navade Road is a railway station on the Vasai Road - Diva - Panvel route of the Central Line, of the Mumbai Suburban Railway network. Navade node is a small node developed by Cidco with single point access to the node, it is like a small township with approx 30-40 buildings. Construction in this area is in developing stage and good properties are available, it has got good transportation facility from panvel via 87,78 no. NMMT bus, KDMT bus no.20 and from belapur NMMT bus no. 71 and 72. There is an auto rickhaw stand in Navade, it has close proximity to Kharghar node of Cidco with Navade village falling in Kharghar sec 45. Close proximity to Kalamboli. D Mart is 1 km away from Navade node. Navi Mumbai metro line 1 phase 2 will be passing through Navade road and shall have interconnection with Navade railway station. Panvel-Virar local train, approved from the government and the work is expected to start soon. Navade colony connects to Sion Panvel expressway via Taloja link road. There is heavy traffic of trailers and trucks due to nearby MIDC area, but once the NH4 road widening is completed and proposed service roads are constructed, much lighter traffic is expected.

There is smell problem from nearby Taloja MIDC for which Navade and Kharghar/Kalamboli residents are fighting. Nearby Kasadi river is passing through Navade node but this river has contaminated water and the aqua life is dead due to careless attitude of the factories in Taloja MIDC. Cidco had started to construct a holding pond in Navade but left it half done after some works; the internal roads have been in too poor state waiting for the awarded contractor to start construction work. Unlike other Cidco nodes, Navade doesn't have any plot reserved for Garden and the plots reserved for Police station, market and post office is not at all developed from Cidco. Heavy vehicles and trailers are parked illegally at the internal roadside for which government should take action to avoid inconvenience to Navade residences

Block Island Wind Farm

Block Island Wind Farm is the first commercial offshore wind farm in the United States, located 3.8 miles from Block Island, Rhode Island in the Atlantic Ocean. The five-turbine, 30 MW project was developed by Deepwater Wind. Construction began in 2015 and in late summer 2016 five Alstom Haliade 150-6-MW turbines were erected. Operations were launched in December 2016, it is the largest project using wind power in Rhode Island. Block Island Wind Farm is a project of Deepwater Wind located about 3.3 nautical miles southeast of Block Island, the first offshore wind farm in the United States. The 30 megawatt, five-turbine demonstration project is expected to produce more than 125,000 megawatt hours of electricity annually. Power is transmitted from the turbines to the electric grid along a 21-mile transmission submarine power cable buried under the ocean floor, making landfall north of Scarborough Beach in Narragansett, Rhode Island; the structures were designed by Alstom Wind. They can withstand a Category 3 storm.

The system connects New Shoreham, Rhode Island to the grid for the first time and allows it to cease using diesel generators which have been replaced with power from the cable supplying the island. Gulf Island Fabrication was interested in building the foundations; the Block Island Wind Farm was conceived as a larger project extending into neighboring Massachusetts to build a $1.5-billion, 385-megawatt wind farm in federal waters. The 100-turbine project could provide 1.3 terawatt-hours of electricity per year – 15 percent of all electricity used in the state. In 2009, the State of Rhode Island designated Deepwater Wind to begin with pilot projects. In that year Deepwater signed an agreement with National Grid to sell the power from the wind farm off Block Island, at an initial price of 24.4¢/kW·h, with a guaranteed 3.5% annual increase. The permitting process for the project has been controversial, with the Rhode Island Public Utilities Commission rejecting the agreement price with National Grid as being excessive to Rhode Island's electricity rate payers.

However, after the Rhode Island General Assembly and Governor Carcieri changed the state law concerning the "commercial reasonability" of contract pricing, the RIPUC voted to approve the key contract. After continuing controversy and appeals, the Rhode Island Supreme Court ruled in July 2011 to uphold the RIPUC decision. Opponents of the project raised issue about the contract pricing with the United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in August 2012, but FERC in October of the same year issued a decision that they would not act on the complaint. A total of nine reviews and permits from state federal agencies were acquired, the last in early May 2015. On May 11, 2015 a new complaint was filed with FERC alleging that the power purchase agreement with National Grid violates the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act of 1978 and further alleging that the RIPUC violated the Federal Power Act and the Supremacy Clause of the U. S. Constitution. However, Deepwater Wind maintains that there is no support for any of these claims and that FERC should promptly deny the new complaint in its entirety.

While the wind turbines have been built in state waters southeast of Block Island, the transmission cable crosses federal waters in the Atlantic. A portion of the power is supplied directly to Block Island, 13 miles off shore from the Rhode Island mainland and had some of the highest power rates in the country due to its local generation by small diesel powered generators. Deepwater Wind announced March 2015 that it had received funding in the amount of $290 million from mandated lead arrangers Société Générale of Paris and KeyBank National Association of Cleveland, Ohio; the operation was verified in 2017. In late 2014, Gulf Island Fabrication, Inc. began steel work construction at its Houma, Louisiana shipyard. The building phase would focus on the turbines' foundations to be pile-anchored to the ocean floor. On June 26, 2015, the first of the five foundations for the project began its move via barge from Louisiana; the turbines will be delivered in 2015 and erected in place in 2016. Foundation assembly started in ProvPort in March 2016, with estimated commissioning in late 2016.

GZA GeoEnvironmental provided the geotechnical design and consulting for the staging facility at the Port of Providence. The structures, designed by Alstom Wind, can withstand a Category 3 storm; the foundations were designed by Louisiana-based Keystone Engineering Inc. to withstand a 1000-year storm. The foundations’ robust strength is the product of meticulous design processes and thorough engineering analysis performed by Keystone. While the four-pile jacket foundation is common for offshore oil and gas platforms, Block Island's jackets are engineered to handle additional loading and vibration from the spinning turbines Keystone's engineering team ran thousands of test simulations, repeating each calculation multiple times to ensure the design would hold up under various weather conditions and load scenarios. Altogether, nearly 10 million tests were completed. On March 9, 2015, French company Alstom Group received final notication to begin fabrication of five Alstom Haliade 150 6 MW offshore wind turbines.

GE Wind acquired Haliade production in November 2015. As of July 2016, the site was grid-connected, towers and LM Wind Power blades were in the port of Providence; the Norwegian installation jack-up vessel was on its way to France to pick up the 400 tonne generators, as it was not able to pick them up from an easier US port due to the Jones Act. A test version of the direct-drive turbine is installed at Østerild Wind Turbine Test Field; the first turb