Northern California is the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. Spanning the state's northernmost 48 counties, its main population centers include the San Francisco Bay Area, the Greater Sacramento area, the Metropolitan Fresno area. Northern California contains redwood forests, along with the Sierra Nevada, including Yosemite Valley and part of Lake Tahoe, Mount Shasta, most of the Central Valley, one of the world's most productive agricultural regions; the 48-county definition is not used for the Northern California Megaregion, one of the 11 megaregions of the United States. The megaregion's area is instead defined from Metropolitan Fresno north to Greater Sacramento, from the Bay Area east across Nevada state line to encompass the entire Lake Tahoe-Reno area. Native Americans arrived in northern California in the BC time and successive waves of arrivals led to one of the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America; the arrival of European explorers from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries did not establish European settlements in northern California.
In 1770, the Spanish mission at Monterey was the first European settlement in the area, followed by other missions along the coast—eventually extending as far north as Sonoma County. Northern California is not a formal geographic designation. California's north-south midway division is around 37° latitude, near the level of San Francisco. Popularly, though, "Northern California" refers to the state's northernmost 48 counties; because of California's large size and diverse geography, the state can be subdivided in other ways as well. For example, the Central Valley is a region, distinct both culturally and topographically from coastal California, though in northern versus southern California divisions, the Sacramento Valley and most of the San Joaquin Valley are placed in northern California; the state is considered as having an additional division north of the urban areas of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas. Extreme northern residents have felt under-represented in state government and in 1941 attempted to form a new state with southwestern Oregon to be called Jefferson, or more to introduce legislation to split California into two or three states.
The coastal area north of the Bay Area is referred to as the North Coast, while the interior region north of Sacramento is referred by locals as the Northstate. Northern California was used for the name of a proposed new state on the 2018 California ballot created by splitting the existing state into three parts. Since the events of the California Gold Rush, Northern California has been a leader on the world's economic and cultural stages. From the development of gold mining techniques and logging practices in the 19th century that were adopted around the world, to the development of world-famous and online business models, northern California has been at the forefront of new ways of doing business. In science, advances range from being the first to isolate and name fourteen transuranic chemical elements, to breakthroughs in microchip technology. Cultural contributions include the works of Ansel Adams, George Lucas, Clint Eastwood, as well as beatniks, the Summer of Love, the cradle of the international environmental movement, the open, casual workplace first popularized in the Silicon Valley dot-com boom and now in use around the world.
Other examples of innovation across diverse fields range from Genentech to CrossFit as a pioneer in extreme human fitness and training. It is home to one of the largest Air Force Bases on the West Coast, the largest of California, Travis Air Force Base. Northern California's largest metropolitan area is the San Francisco Bay Area which consists of 9 counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara and Sonoma counties; the cities of San Francisco, San Jose and their many suburbs. Although not a part of the Bay Area, in recent years the Bay Area has drawn more commuters from as far as Central Valley cities such as Sacramento, Fresno and Modesto; these cities in the central part of the Central Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may be viewed as part of a single megalopolis. The 2010 U. S. Census showed that the Bay Area grew at a faster rate than the Greater Los Angeles Area while Greater Sacramento had the largest growth rate of any metropolitan area in California; the state's larger inland cities are considered part of Northern California in cases when the state is divided into two parts.
Key cities in the region which are not in major metropolitan areas include Eureka on the far North Coast, Redding, at the northern end of the Central Valley and Yuba City in the mid-north of the Central Valley, as well as Fresno and Visalia on the southern end. Though smaller in each case, with the notable exception of Fresno, than the larger cities of the general region, these smaller regional centers are of historical and economic importance for their respective size, due to their locations, which are rural or otherwise isolated. Inhabited for millennia by Native Americans, from the Shasta tribe in the north, to the Miwoks in the central coast and Sierra Nevada, to the Yokuts of the southern Central Valley, northern California was among the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America; the first E
Genuanoconus has become a synonym of Conus da Motta, 1991 represented as Conus Linnaeus, 1758 It was a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies. The Tucker & Tenorio 2009 taxonomy distinguishes Genuanoconus from Conus in the following ways: Genus Conus sensu stricto Linnaeus, 1758Shell characters The basic shell shape is conical to elongated conical, has a deep anal notch on the shoulder, a smooth periostracum and a small operculum; the shoulder of the shell is nodulose and the protoconch is multispiral. Markings include the presence of tents except for black or white color variants, with the absence of spiral lines of minute tents and textile bars. Radular tooth The radula has an elongated anterior section with serrations and a large exposed terminating cusp, a non-obvious waist, blade is either small or absent and has a short barb, lacks a basal spur. Geographical distribution These species are found in the Indo-Pacific region.
Feeding habits These species eat other gastropods including cones. Genus Genuanoconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009Shell characters The shell is turgid in shape, the body is not elongated; the protoconch is multispiral, the whorl tops lack cords. The shoulders are indistinct; the anal notch is shallow. The body has a color pattern of alternating stripes of white squares over the base color; the periostracum is thin and smooth, the operculum is small to moderate in size. Radular tooth; the blade is long, is more than half as long as the anterior section of the tooth. A basal spur is present, the barb is short; the blade has one row of serrations. The terminating cusp is large and recurved. Geographical distribution The sole species in this genus is endemic to the West African region. Feeding habits This cone snail is vermivorous, meaning that the cone snail preys on Amphinomid polychaete worms; this list of species is based on the information in the World Register of Marine Species list. The sole species within the genus Genuanoconus is: Genuanoconus genuanus is a synonym of Conus genuanus Linnaeus, 1758 Kohn A.
A.. Chronological Taxonomy of Conus, 1758-1840". Smithsonian Institution Press and London. Monteiro A.. The Cone Collector 1: 1-28. Berschauer D.. Technology and the Fall of the Mono-Generic Family The Cone Collector 15: pp. 51-54 Puillandre N. Meyer C. P. Bouchet P. and Olivera B. M. Genetic divergence and geographical variation in the deep-water Conus orbignyi complex, Zoologica Scripta 40 350-363. To World Register of Marine Species Gastropods.com: Conidae setting forth the genera recognized therein
Archibald Joyce was an English light music composer known for his early waltzes. He first came to prominence with the publication of his Waltz Songe d'Automne which fast became a hit; the piece is in a minor key, with the melody in a low tenor register. The following year he repeated this success with his Waltz Visions of Salome in the same low-pitched minor-key style, he was billed by his publishers, Ascherberg Hopwood and Crew, as the "English Waltz King". His music was immensely popular with dance orchestras of the period together with amateur pianists; the piano solo sheet music for his waltzes sold in large quantities in the UK. He continued with his distinctive waltzes until the start of the WW1 period, his other principal hits during this period were Dreaming waltz and The Passing of Salome waltzes, 1000 Kisses and Always Gay waltzes and Remembrance waltz. He co-wrote the musical Toto with Merlin Morgan. After a try-out in Plymouth it opened at London's Duke of York's Theatre on 19 April 1916.
Despite good initial reviews it was withdrawn after only 77 performances. He was credited as conducting "the first modern dance band in Britain", he continued conducting his own orchestra for a number of years until the early 1920s. During the early 1920s, his orchestras recorded material for the Aeolian Company's Vocalion Records label in London, he had recorded for the Gramophone Company HMV-label in London as early as 1912 previously. His music was familiar worldwide during its period, his waltz "Dreaming" was provided with lyrics by Earl Carroll and introduced in the US by Miss Kitty Gordon in Oliver Morosco's comedy with music, Pretty Mrs Smith. "Songe d'Automne" and "1000 Kisses" were incorporated into Charlie Chaplin's latter-day sound track added to his The Gold Rush. In the US a conventional method of gaining public exposure for a song was to arrange to have it included a revue: in this way Joyce's "Vision of Salome" was included in Florenz Ziegfeld Jr.'s Follies of 1910. Harold Bride's recollection that the orchestra was playing "Autumn" as the RMS Titanic foundered in 1912 has led to speculation by Walter Lord that he was in fact referring to Songe d'Automne, part of the repertory of the White Star Line orchestras and with which he would undoubtedly been familiar.
After the early 1920s, there was a small trickle of material for many years. His last composition of any note is his Bohemia - concert waltz for piano which finishes off his career with a hefty hat-tip to both the waltz and to the piano which made him; the music of Joyce has been transcribed for the balalaika and is still recorded in Russia