Northern Europe

Northern Europe is the geographical region in Europe north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, about 54°N. Narrower definitions may be based on other geographical factors such as ecology. A broader definition would include the area north of the Alps. Countries which are central-western, central or central-eastern are not considered part of either Northern or Southern Europe; when Europe was dominated by the Roman Empire, everything not near the Mediterranean region was termed Northern European, including southern Germany, all of the Low Countries, Austria. This meaning is still used today in some contexts, for example, discussions of the Northern Renaissance. Northern Europe might be defined to include some or all of the following areas: British Isles, the peninsula of Jutland, the Baltic plain that lies to the east and the many islands that lie offshore from mainland Northern Europe and the main European continent. In some cases, Greenland is included; the area is mountainous, including the northern volcanic islands of Iceland and Jan Mayen, the mountainous western seaboard and Scandinavia, often includes part of the large plain east of the Baltic sea.

The entire region's climate is at least mildly affected by the Gulf Stream. From the west climates vary from maritime subarctic climates. In the north and central climates are subarctic or Arctic and to the east climates are subarctic and temperate/continental. Just as both climate and relief are variable across the region, so too is vegetation, with sparse tundra in the north and high mountains, boreal forest on the north-eastern and central regions temperate coniferous forests and temperate broadleaf forests growing in the south and temperate east. Various definitions of Northern Europe include the Nordic countries, may include some or all of the Baltic states, the British Isles, northern Germany, northern Belarus and northwest Russia. In the CIA World Factbook, the description of each country includes information about "Location" under the heading "Geography", where the country is classified into a region; the following countries are included in their classification "Northern Europe": Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Swedenas well as the dependent areas Faroe Islands Jan Mayen SvalbardIn this classification, stagnant since the Cold War era, Estonia and Lithuania are classified as being in Eastern Europe, while the British Isles are included in Western Europe.

EuroVoc is a multilingual thesaurus maintained by the Publications Office of the European Union, giving definitions of terms for official use. In the definition of "Northern Europe", the following countries are included: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Swedenas well as the dependent area Faroe IslandsIn this classification, the British Isles are included in Western Europe. Countries in Northern Europe have developed economies and some of the highest standards of living in the world, they score on surveys measuring quality of life, such as the Human Development Index. Aside from the United Kingdom, they have a small population relative to their size, most of whom live in cities. Most peoples living in Northern Europe are traditionally Protestant Christians, although many are non-practicing. There are growing numbers of non-religious people and people of other religions Muslims, due to immigration. In the United Kingdom, there are significant numbers of Indian religions such as Hindus and Sikhs, due to the large South Asian diaspora.

The quality of education in much of Northern Europe is rated in international rankings, with Estonia and Finland topping the list among the OECD countries in Europe. The Hansa group in the European Union comprises most of the Northern European states. Media related to Northern Europe at Wikimedia Commons

Out Islands

The Out Islands are the islands that make up the Bahamas with the exception of New Providence Island, where the capital and largest city, Nassau, is located and Grand Bahama Island, where Freeport is located. The Abaco Islands and Eleuthera islands are among the Out Islands; the Out Islands are referred to as the Family Islands, a term adopted in the 1970s. There are 700 Out Islands, of which only a small number are inhabited. A History of the Bahamian People notes that Nassau became a more important port, "the majority of the Out Islands remained fixed in the age of sail well into the twentieth century." A significant number of American Loyalists fleeing from the Revolution migrated to the Bahamas, along with their slaves, profoundly influencing the islands' history. Some 300 white families fled from East Florida to New Providence. A History of the Bahamian People notes that the Out Islands were "a miniature replica of Nassau's socialeconomic system based on race, differential wealth, economic power" with some settlements were inhabited by Afro-Bahamians, others by white Bahamians.

In 1980, a Cuban MiG fighter jet attacked a Bahamian patrol boat, the HMBS Flamingo, in the Out Islands, killing four Bahamian marines. Survivors of the attack came ashore on Ragged Island; the Cuban government maintained. The incident angered Bahamians, Cuba issued an apology and reparations; the Out Islands are more sparsely inhabited and less economically developed that New Providence and Grand Bahama islands. The most populous of the Out Islands are Abaco and Eleuthera. Poverty has been high in the Out Islands, given the small size of the islands and the lack of natural resources. In 2013, the Bahamas Department of Statistics reported a poverty rate of 17.16% in the Out Islands, compared to 12.58% in Nassau and 9.69% in Grand Bahama. At the beginning of the 20th century, more than 75% of all Bahamians lived in the Out Islands; this dramatic population shift was related to a lack of stable job market in the Out Islands. Today, tourism is economically significant in the Out Islands. A 2017 academic study reported that the relative economic importance of shark diving was greater in the Out Islands than elsewhere in the Bahamas.

List of islands of the Bahamas Michael Craton & Gail Saunders, A History of the Bahamian People: From Aboriginal Times to the End of Slavery. Michael Craton & Gail Saunders, A History of the Bahamian People: From the Ending of Slavery to the Twenty-First Century

Herbert William Fisher

Herbert William Fisher was a British historian, best known for his book Considerations on the Origin of the American War. Fisher was born at Poulshot, the son of Rev. William Fisher, rector of Poulshot from 1823 to his death, Canon of Salisbury Cathedral from 1834 and his wife Elizabeth Cookson, he was educated at Christ Church and became a tutor in 1851 becoming tutor to the future King Edward VII in 1859. He was called to the bar at Inner Temple in 1855 and served as private secretary to Henry Pelham-Clinton, 5th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne. In 1862 he became private secretary to the Prince of Wales, his former pupil, became Keeper of the Privy Seal in 1865, before being appointed to the position of Vice-Warden of the Stannaries, Cornwall in 1870. Fisher married Mary Louisa Jackson on 5 Aug 1862 in Middlesex, she was born in Calcutta, the second daughter of John Jackson, physician in the Bengal Medical Service and her younger sister, was the mother of Virginia Woolf. Her older sister, married Henry Halford Vaughan.

Fisher and his wife had several daughters. The sons included historian H. A. L. Fisher, Admiral Sir William Wordsworth Fisher. Among the daughters was Florence, Lady Darwin. Another daughter, Adeline Maria, was the first wife of the composer Ralph Vaughan Williams. Fisher's funeral took place in Brockenhurst, Hampshire on 23 January 1903; the King and Queen were represented by Major-General Sir Stanley Clarke. Florence Henrietta Fisher, married Frederic William Maitland and secondly Sir Frank Darwin Herbert Albert Laurens Fisher and Minister of Education Arthur Alexander Fisher, artillery officer, died from injuries sustained in the Second Boer War Emmeline Mary Fisher, married composer and musician R. O. Morris in February 1915 Adeline Maria Fisher, married Ralph Vaughan Williams Edmund Montagu Prinsep Fisher, died in the First World War Hervey George Stanhope Fisher, married Augustine Louise Perret in 1912 William Wordsworth Fisher, Knight Admiral Charles Dennis Fisher, killed during the First World War in the Battle of Jutland Cordelia Fisher Edwin Fisher, Chairman of Barclays BankDates of birth are from FamilySearch Community Trees.

Mary Bennett: an Autobiography Papers of Admiral Fisher "Herbert William Fisher". W. H. Auden –'Family Ghosts'. Retrieved 8 May 2012