Northern Hemisphere

The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth, north of the Equator. For other planets in the Solar System, north is defined as being in the same celestial hemisphere relative to the invariable plane of the solar system as Earth's North Pole. Owing to the Earth's axial tilt, winter in the Northern Hemisphere lasts from the December solstice to the March equinox, while summer lasts from the June solstice through to the September equinox; the dates vary each year due to the difference between the astronomical year. Its surface is 60.7% water, compared with 80.9% water in the case of the Southern Hemisphere, it contains 67.3% of Earth's land. The Arctic is a region around the North Pole, its climate is characterized by cool summers. Precipitation comes in the form of snow. Areas inside the Arctic Circle experience some days in summer when the Sun never sets, some days during the winter when it never rises; the duration of these phases varies from one day for locations right on the Arctic Circle to several months near the Pole, the middle of the Northern Hemisphere.

Between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer lies the Northern temperate zone. The changes in these regions between summer and winter are mild, rather than extreme hot or cold. However, a temperate climate can have unpredictable weather. Tropical regions are hot all year round and tend to experience a rainy season during the summer months, a dry season during the winter months. In the Northern Hemisphere, objects moving across or above the surface of the Earth tend to turn to the right because of the Coriolis effect; as a result, large-scale horizontal flows of air or water tend to form clockwise-turning gyres. These are best seen in ocean circulation patterns in the North North Pacific oceans. For the same reason, flows of air down toward the northern surface of the Earth tend to spread across the surface in a clockwise pattern. Thus, clockwise air circulation is characteristic of high pressure weather cells in the Northern Hemisphere. Conversely, air rising from the northern surface of the Earth tends to draw air toward it in a counter-clockwise pattern.

Hurricanes and tropical storms spin counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. The shadow of a sundial moves clockwise on latitudes north of the subsolar point. During the day on these latitudes, the Sun tends to rise to its maximum at a southerly position. Between the Tropic of Cancer and the Equator, the sun can be seen to the north, directly overhead, or to the south at noon dependent on the time of year. In the Southern Hemisphere the midday Sun is predominantly at north; when viewed from the Northern Hemisphere, the Moon appears inverted compared to a view from the Southern Hemisphere. The North Pole faces away from the galactic center of the Milky Way; this results in the Milky Way being sparser and dimmer in the Northern Hemisphere compared to the Southern Hemisphere, making the Northern Hemisphere more suitable for deep-space observation, as it is not "blinded" by the Milky Way. The Northern Hemisphere is home to 6.57 billion people, around 90% of the earth's total human population of 7.3 billion people.

Earth's Northern Hemisphere comprises the following regions of continents: All of continental Europe All of North America, Central America and the Caribbean The vast majority of Asia, except part of Maritime Southeast Asia About ​2⁄3 of Africa, just above Lake Victoria About ​1⁄10 of South America, north of the mouth of the Amazon River Arctic Ocean North–South divide Media related to Northern Hemisphere at Wikimedia Commons

USS Barry (DD-2)

USS Barry, was a Bainbridge-class destroyer, she was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for Commodore John Barry. Barry was launched on 22 March 1902, by Neafie and Levy Ship and Engine Building Company of Philadelphia. Barry was assigned to the 1st Torpedo Flotilla, Coast Squadron, North Atlantic Fleet, during the summer of 1903 participated in maneuvers off the New England coast. Setting out on 23 December 1903, the flotilla proceeded by way of Puerto Rico and the Canary Islands to Gibraltar where it arrived on 27 January 1904. Resuming the voyage on 31 January, the warships stopped at Algiers for a week in early February. On 9 February, they arrived at Valletta, where the flotilla and Buffalo had to lay over for a fortnight while Barry went into dry dock to have her propellers repaired after damaging them while mooring. Transiting the Suez Canal on 26 February, the flotilla stayed at Port Suez, until the 29th when it headed down the Red Sea to Aden. In March and her companions visited Bombay and Colombo, Ceylon.

They made the last stop before reaching their destination, a port call at Singapore, between 3 and 9 April. The flotilla made the short final leg of the voyage, from Singapore to Cavite in the Philippines, on 9 April 1904. On 1 July 1905, Barry stood out of Manila Bay with the flotilla to accompany the battleship and cruiser squadrons on the annual northern redeployment to conduct summer exercises and to "show the flag" in Chinese waters; the first portion of the normal summer drills and port visits went off as usual. This brought little disruption to the Asiatic Fleet's routine; the warships visited Chinese ports as usual. The destroyers returned south to the Philippines in October according to custom. Only came the break with normal routine. Instead of passing the winter months in the Philippines and Bainbridge spent just six weeks there before returning north to China late in November after President Theodore Roosevelt chose to brandish the "Big Stick"; the mission lasted through the winter with the destroyers joining other ships of the Asiatic Fleet in repeated calls at Chinese ports in a vigorous display of the naval might of the United States.

By the spring of 1906, the Chinese national feeling against the United States had subsided so that, though Barry and Bainbridge remained in Chinese waters and continued to "show the flag," they were able to resume many of the normal training evolutions more typical of their annual summer sojourns in Chinese waters. Her stay in northern waters thus continued into the fall. At the end of September and Bainbridge left Chefoo, China, in company with Chattanooga to return to the Philippines for the first time since the previous fall. After stopping off at Amoy, from 3 to 8 October, the warships arrived back at Cavite on the 10th. On the Asiatic Station she served with the 1st Torpedo Flotilla, Battleship Squadron, until August 1917, except for two short periods out of commission. On 1 August 1917, Barry stood out of Cavite with the rest of her division and embarked on the long voyage to Europe, she steamed by way of Borneo, Singapore and India, making extended pauses at Columbo, where the division had to wait for Barry to repair a damaged propeller, at Bombay, before reaching the southern terminus of the Suez Canal on 23 September.

The division transited the canal on 25 September arriving at Port Said, early in the afternoon. After a week at Port Said, Barry headed across the Mediterranean with the division, she steamed with the division to Malta, arriving in Valletta on 6 October and leaving again the following day escorting some ships to Naples. On the 9th, Barry and her division mates saw the merchant ships safely into Naples where they stood down for a week, she and her colleagues stood out of Naples on the last leg of their voyage on 15 October and reached their new base at Gibraltar on the 20th. She escorted merchantmen in the Mediterranean until August 1918 and arrived at Charleston, South Carolina on 5 September, she remained there until the end of the year performing convoy duties. In January 1919, she left for the Philadelphia Navy Yard where she was decommissioned on 28 June and sold on 3 January 1920 to Joseph G. Hitner of Philadelphia. Lieutenant Noble Edward Irwin Lieutenant Adolphus Eugene Watson Citations Friedman, Norman.

Naval Weapons of World War One. Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978 1 84832 100 7. OCLC 751804655. DiGiulian, Tony. "United States of America 3"/50 Marks 2, 3, 5, 6 and 8". Navweaps. Retrieved 31 July 2016

Caffarelli (castrato)

Gaetano Majorano was an Italian castrato and opera singer, who performed under the stage name Caffarelli. Like Farinelli, Caffarelli was a student of Nicola Porpora. Caffarelli was born Gaetano Carmine Francesco Paolo Majorano to Vito Majorano and Anna Fornella in Bitonto, his early life is uncertain. His stage name, Caffarelli, is said to be taken from an early teacher Caffaro who taught him music in childhood, others say it was taken from a patron, Domenico Caffaro. There is evidence that he desired to be castrated; when aged ten, he was given the income from two vineyards owned by his grandmother, according to the legal document, so that he could study grammar and music: "to which he is said to have a great inclination, desiring to have himself castrated and become an eunuch". He became the pupil of Nicola Porpora. According to legend, Porpora kept the young Caffarelli working from one sheet of exercises for six years, eventually declared: "Go, my son: I have no more to teach you. You are the greatest singer in Europe".

In Carnival 1726, aged 15, he made his debut at Rome in Domenico Sarro's Valdemaro, singing the third female role, listed with the stage name “Caffarellino.” His fame spread throughout Italy during the 1730s, with performances at Venice, Milan, before returning to Rome for a great success in Johann Adolf Hasse's Cajo Fabricio. His time in London was not successful, public memory of Farinelli being too strong, but at the King's Theatre during the 1737–38 season he created roles in Giovanni Battista Pescetti's pasticcio Arsace and Handel's Faramondo, in addition to the title role in Handel's Serse, singing the famous aria "Ombra mai fù". In years he worked at Madrid, Vienna and Lisbon, his career in France, to which he had been invited by Louis XV, was cut short after he badly wounded a poet during a duel, left in disgrace after only one year. In 1734 the singer had taken up a post at the royal chapel of Naples, over the next twenty years he performed at the Teatro di San Carlo. At Naples he sang for Pergolesi, Porpora and Leonardo Vinci, not to mention starring in Gluck's La Clemenza di Tito.

After 1756 he sang little, though in 1770 Charles Burney heard him and praised his "expression and grace." Always a favourite of royal families and a first-rate castrato who could command vast fees, Caffarelli made a large fortune, was able to buy himself a dukedom and impressive estates in Naples and Calabria. On a palazzo he built he added the superscription "Amphion Thebas, ego domum". However, he fell foul of local wit when some wag mockingly added to this "ille cum, tu sine". Caffarelli was notorious for his unpredictability and displays of temperament, both on and off stage. On stage he is reputed to have sung his own preferred versions irrespective of what his colleagues were doing, mimicking them while they sang their solos and sometimes conversing with members of the public in their boxes during the same. Off stage his pugnacity and fierce demeanour led to his willingness to fight duels under little provocation; such behaviour led to spells of house arrest and imprisonment for assault and for misconduct during performances.

Most infamously he humiliated a prima donna during a performance of Hasse's Antigono in 1745. On the other hand, with Handel a famously fiery character, he seems to have been able to coexist on a peaceable basis due to the fantastic sums of money the composer paid him for his work. Time, seemed to soften Caffarelli. In the latter years of his life he donated extensively to charity, when Burney met the singer he was impressed by his politeness, he died in Naples. Caffarelli's voice was that of a mezzo-soprano, with a high tessitura; those who heard him sing ranked him only behind his direct competitor Farinelli as the finest singer of that time. Farinelli, ended his public career at just 32, while Caffarelli kept performing well into his fifties and over. At the end of his career, Burney thought that he had been "an amazing fine singer", his teacher, who loathed Caffarelli's overweening arrogance, nonetheless claimed that he was "the greatest singer Italy had produced". Friedrich Melchior Grimm summed up his qualities: With the nickname "Caffariello," Caffarelli is brought up in the libretto for Rossini's opera The Barber of Seville written by Cesare Sterbini.

He is singled out in Act 2 by the stuffy Dr. Bartolo as a singer who exemplified the greatness of operatic culture of the past. Dean, W. "Caffarelli". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Heriot, A: The Castrati in Opera Rosselli, J: The Castrati as a Professional Group and a Social Phenomenon, 1550–1830