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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland is variously described as a country, province or region, part of the United Kingdom. Located in the northeast of the island of Ireland, Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in several areas, the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments". On 11 January 2020, legislators in Northern Ireland formed a government for the first time since the Executive of the 5th Northern Ireland Assembly collapsed in January 2017, following the Renewable Heat Incentive scandal.

Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom. Most of these were the Protestant descendants of colonists from Great Britain. However, a significant minority Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. Today, the former see themselves as British and the latter see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned. For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, called a "cold house" for Catholics.

In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and injured over 50,000 others. The 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons and security normalisation, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, sporadic violence has continued. Northern Ireland was the most industrialised region of Ireland, declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, but economically growing since the late 1990s; the initial growth came from the "peace dividend" and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17.2% in 1986, dropping to 6.1% for June–August 2014 and down by 1.2 percentage points over the year, similar to the UK figure of 6.2%.

58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom. In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games; the region, now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century. The English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, the region's Gaelic, Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in 1607 and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English and Scottish settlers.

A rebellion in 1641 by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government. Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants. Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV, the powerful King of France, in conflict with the papacy for decades. In 1693, Pope Innocent XII recognised James as continuing King of Great Britain and Ireland in place of William, after reconciliation with Louis.

In 1695, contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick, a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, felt to be a betrayal. The intention of the laws was to materially disad

K-Ci (singer)

Cedric Renard Hailey, known professionally as K-Ci, is an American singer and member of K-Ci & JoJo and Jodeci. He started his music career as Little Cedric, in 1983, with the release of, I'm Alright Now, by Atlanta International Records; the next two albums, 1984's Jesus Saves and 1985's God's Blessing, were released by AIR Gospel, they both achieved placements upon the Billboard Gospel Albums chart. Although Hailey is best known as the lead singer of Jodeci and second-lead singer of K-Ci & JoJo, he participated on different solo projects as K-Ci, most notably his cover of Bobby Womack's "If You Think You're Lonely Now" in 1994. Hailey was born in Charlotte, North Carolina, to Anita and Cliff Hailey both of whom were gospel singers. For a time, the Hailey family lived in MD where they performed gospel music; the family would return to Charlotte when Cedric was a teen. He would go on to attend Garinger High School. Along with younger brother and his father, Hailey recorded three gospel albums as "Little Cedric and the Hailey Singers" beginning with the 1983 release I'm Alright Now by Atlanta International Records, Gospel.

Though the album failed to place on any Billboard magazine charts, the next two releases, 1984's Jesus Saves and God's Blessing in 1985, both placed upon the Billboard Gospel Albums chart. 22. Cedric and Joel's gospel singing connected them with the DeGrate brothers, Donald "DeVante Swing" DeGrate and Dalvin DeGrate, with whom they formed the R&B group Jodeci; as lead vocalist for the group and Jodeci would release three multi-platinum albums between 1991 and 1995. In 1996, the group announced a hiatus from releasing music. Hailey continued to record with his brother as the duo K-Ci & JoJo, releasing five albums between 1997 and 2013; as K-Ci, his cover of Bobby Womack's "If You Think You're Lonely Now" was featured on the soundtrack to the 1994 film, Jason's Lyric. It was released as a single and peaked at number 17 on the Billboard Hot 100. Hailey dated fellow R&B singer and label-mate Mary J. Blige from 1992 till 1997; the two Hailey brothers are cousins of R&B singers Fantasia Barrino, Dave Hollister and Stephanie Mills.

He is married to the former Cassandra Chestnut of Myrtle Beach, SC. with JodeciForever My Lady Diary of a Mad Band The Show, the After Party, the Hotel The Past, The Present, The Future with K-Ci & JoJoLove Always It's Real X Emotional My Brother's Keeper Solo albumMy Book

Paula Natascha Schwarz

Paula Natascha Schwarz is a German CEO based in Berlin. She is the founder of Startup Boats, The World Datanomic Forum, The Cloud Nation. Schwarz started Startupboat as an incubator for solutions to the European migrant crisis based on design thinking methods, she brought together experts from McKinsey, Lufthansa and other companies in order to create solutions together with refugees from Syria and Afghanistan on sailing boats. After working in the refugee-support space from 2012 to 2017, she developed the concept of Datanomics as a way to change the economy based on data. Schwarz started the started the online newspaper www. Datanomy. Today to convey the Datanomics concept, she was included in the 2016 Forbes 30 Under 30, in 2019 she was the winner of the Europas Award for "Hottest Tech for Good Startup". Official website