International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
North-East District (Botswana)
The North-East District is one of the administrative districts of Botswana. Its capital is Francistown. In 2013, North-East had a population of 167,500 people; the North-East District is predominantly occupied by Kalanga speaking people. In the north and east, North-East borders the Matabeleland South Province of Zimbabwe with the border in the east predominantly the Ramokgwebana River Center. In the south and west, North-East District borders Central District and the border being the Shashe River Center; the district is administered by a district administration and district council which are responsible for local administration. As of 2011, the total population of the district was 60,264 compared to 49,399 in 2001; the growth rate of population during the decade was 2.01. The total number of workers constituted 14,633 with 7,134 males and 7,498 females. Most part of Botswana has tableland slopes sliding from east to west; the region has an average elevation of around 915 m above the mean sea level.
The vegetation type is Savannah, with tall grasses and tress. The annual precipitation is around 65 cm, most of, received during the summer season from November to May. Most of the rivers in the region are seasonal, with Limpopo River, which are prone to flash floods, being the most prominent. There are conflicts between agricultural expansion and protection of indigenous wildlife within the Central District. There are several seasonal rivers in the district which flows in the rainy season reach the Makgadikgadi Pans; the Nata River flows through the North-East District and is a significant gathering place for wildlife including birds. The Nata River continues to flow to the Makgadikgadi Pans; as of 2011, the total population of the district was 60,264 compared to 49,399 in 2001. The growth rate of population during the decade was 2.01. The population in the district was 2.98 per cent of the total population in the country. The sex ratio stood at 90.30 for every 100 males, compared to 88.29 in 2001.
The average house hold size was 3.11 in 2011 compared to 4.55 in 2001. There were 2,426 craft and related workers, 593 clerks, 3,485 people working in elementary occupation 273 Legislators, Administrators & managers 660 Plant & machine operators and assemblers, 331 professionals, 1,247 service workers, shop & market sales workers, 444 skilled agricultural & related workers 730 technicians and associated professionals, making the total work force to 10,243; as of 2011, there were a total of 66 schools in the district, with 6.70 per cent private schools. The total number of students in the Council schools was 24,296, while it was 1,277 in private schools; the total number of students enrolled in the district was 25,572: 12,564 girls and 13,008 boys. The total number of qualified teachers was 1,058, 841 female and 217 male. There were around 34 temporary teachers, 19 male and 53 female. There were no untrained teachers in the district; as of 2006, 6,881 were involved in agriculture, 1,529 in construction, 1,161 in education, 73 in electricity and water, 61 in finance, 288 in health, 187 in hotels and restaurants, 434 in manufacturing, 784 in mining and quarrying, 97 in other community services, 206 in private households, 1,211 in public administration, 271 in real estate, 156 in transport and communications, 1,294 in wholesale and retail trade.
The total number of workers was 14,633, 7,134 male and 7,498 female. When Botswana gained independence from the British in 1966, they adapted the colonial administration framework to form its district administration; the policies were modified between 1974 to address impediments to rural development. The district is administered by a district administration and district council which are responsible for local administration; the policies for the administration are framed by the Ministry of Local Government. The major activities of the council are Tribal Administration, Remote Area Development and Local Governance; the executive powers of the council are vested on a commissioner appointed by the central government. The technical services wing of the Department of Local Government is responsible for developing roads and the infrastructure in villages such as water supply and recreational facilities. All the staff of the local administration except District Administrator are selected via Unified Local Government Services and the Ministry of Local Government is responsible for their training and career development.
Francistown Subdistrict and North East Subdistrict are the two sub-districts in the North-East District. In the 2011 Census forty-three villages were listed for the district: Botalaote, Ditladi, Gulubane, Jackalas 1, Jackalas No 2, Kgari, Mabudzane, Mambo, Masingwaneng, Masunga, Matopi, Matsiloje, Moroka, Mowana, Nlakhwane, Pole, Sechele, Senyawe, Shashe Bridge, Tati Siding, Toteng, Tshesebe and Zwenshambe. Sub-districts of Botswana Mathangwane Village A biography of Tshekedi Khama 1905-1959
The Kingdom of Zulu, sometimes referred to as the Zulu Empire or the Kingdom of Zululand, was a monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north. The kingdom grew to dominate much of what is Southern Africa. In 1879, the British Empire invaded. After an initial Zulu victory at the Battle of Isandlwana in January, the British Army would regroup and defeat the Zulus in July in the Battle of Ulundi; the area was subsequently absorbed into the Colony of Natal and became part of the Union of South Africa. Shaka Zulu was the illegitimate son of King of the Zulus, he was born c. 1787. He and his mother, were exiled by Senzangakona, found refuge with the Mthethwa. Shaka fought as a warrior under Jobe, under Jobe's successor, leader of the Mthethwa Paramountcy; when Senzangakona died, Dingiswayo helped. After Dingiswayo's death at the hands of Zwide, king of the Ndwandwe, around 1818, Shaka assumed leadership of the entire Mthethwa alliance.
Shaka initiated many military, social and political reforms, forming a well-organized and centralised Zulu state. The most important reforms involved the transformation of the army, through the innovative tactics and weapons he conceived, a showdown with the spiritual leadership, witchdoctors ensuring the subservience of the "Zulu church" to the state. Another important reform integrated defeated clans into the Zulu, on a basis of full equality, with promotions in the army and civil service becoming a matter of merit rather than due to circumstances of birth; the alliance under his leadership survived Zwide's first assault at the Battle of Gqokli Hill. Within two years, Shaka had defeated Zwide at the Battle of Mhlatuze River and broken up the Ndwandwe alliance, some of whom in turn began a murderous campaign against other Nguni tribes and clans, setting in motion what became known as Defecane or Mfecane, a mass-migration of tribes fleeing the remnants of the Ndwandwe fleeing the Zulu; the death toll has never been satisfactorily determined, but the whole region became nearly depopulated.
Normal estimates for the death toll during this period range from 1 million to 2 million people. These numbers are however controversial. By 1825, Shaka had conquered an empire covering an area of around 11,500 square miles. An offshoot of the Zulu, the amaNdebele, better known to history as the Matabele created an larger empire under their king Mzilikazi, including large parts of the highveld and modern-day Zimbabwe. Shaka was succeeded by Dingane, his half-brother, who conspired with Mhlangana, another half-brother, Mbopa, an InDuna, to murder him in 1828. Following this assassination, Dingane murdered Mhlangana, took over the throne. One of his first royal acts was to execute all of his royal kin. In the years that followed, he executed many past supporters of Shaka in order to secure his position. One exception to these purges was Mpande, another half-brother, considered too weak to be a threat at the time. Before encountering the British, the Zulus were first confronted with the Boers. In an attempt to form their own state as a protection against the British, the Boers began moving across the Orange River northwards.
While travelling they first collided with the Ndebele kingdom, with Dingane's Zulu kingdom. In October 1837, the Voortrekker leader Piet Retief visited Dingane at his royal kraal to negotiate a land deal for the voortrekkers. In November, about 1,000 Voortrekker wagons began descending the Drakensberg mountains from the Orange Free State into what is now KwaZulu-Natal. Dingane asked that Retief and his party retrieve some cattle stolen from him by a local chief as part of the treaty for land for the Boers; this Retief and his men did, returning on 3 February 1838. The next day, a treaty was signed, wherein Dingane ceded all the land south of the Tugela River to the Mzimvubu River to the Voortrekkers. Celebrations followed. On 6 February, at the end of the celebrations, Retief's party were invited to a dance, asked to leave their weapons behind. At the peak of the dance, Dingane leapt to his feet and yelled "Bambani abathakathi!". Retief and his men were overpowered, taken to the nearby hill kwaMatiwane, executed.
Some believe that they were killed for withholding some of the cattle they recovered, but it is that the deal was a plot to overpower the Voortrekkers. Dingane's army attacked and massacred a group of 250 Voortrekker men and children camped nearby; the site of this massacre is today called Weenen. The remaining Voortrekkers elected a new leader, Andries Pretorius, he led an attack; the Zulu forces and Dingane suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Blood River on 16 December 1838, when 15 000 Zulu impis attacked a group of 470 Voortrekker settlers led by Pretorius. Following his defeat, Dingane fled north. Mpande, the half-brother, spared from Dingane's purges, defected with 17,000 followers, together with Pretorius and the Voortrekkers, went to war with Dingane. Dingane was assassinated near the modern Swaziland border. Mpande took over rulership of the Zulu nation. Following the campaign against Dingane, in 1839 the Voortrekkers, under Pretorius, formed the Boer republic of Natalia, south of the Tugela, west of the British settlement of Port Natal.
Mpande and Pretorius maintained peaceful relations. However, in 1842, war broke out between the British and the Boers, resulting in the British annexation of Natalia. Mpande shifted his allegia
Shaka kaSenzangakhona known as Shaka Zulu, was one of the most influential monarchs of the Zulu Kingdom. He was born in the lunar month of uNtulikazi in the year of 1787 near present-day Melmoth, KwaZulu-Natal Province. Due to persecution as a result of his illegitimacy, Shaka spent his childhood in his mother's settlements where he was initiated into an ibutho lempi. In his early days, Shaka served as a warrior under the sway of Dingiswayo. Shaka went on to further refine the ibutho system used by Dingiswayo and others and, with the Mthethwa empire's support over the next several years, forged alliances with his smaller neighbours, to counter the growing threat from Ndwandwe raids from the north; the initial Zulu maneuvers were defensive in nature, as Shaka preferred to apply pressure diplomatically, aided by an occasional strategic assassination. His changes to local society built on existing structures. Although he preferred social and propagandistic political methods, he engaged in a number of battles, as the Zulu sources make clear.
In turn, he was assassinated by his own half brothers and Mhlangana. Shaka's reign coincided with the start of the Mfecane, English "Upheaval" or "The Crushing", a period of widespread destruction and warfare in southern Africa between 1815 and about 1840 that depopulated the region, his role in the Mfecane is controversial. When Senzangakhona died in 1816, Shaka's younger half-brother Sigujana assumed power as the legitimate heir to the Zulu chiefdom. Sigujana's reign was short, however, as Dingiswayo, anxious to confirm his authority, lent Shaka a regiment so that he was able to put Sigujana to death, launching a bloodless coup, accepted by the Zulu, thus Shaka became Chief of the Zulu clan, although he remained a vassal of the Mthethwa empire until Dingiswayo's death in battle a year at the hands of Zwide, powerful chief of the Ndwandwe nation. When the Mthethwa forces were defeated and scattered temporarily, the power vacuum was filled by Shaka, he reformed the remnants of the Mthethwa and other regional tribes and defeated Zwide in the Zulu Civil War of 1819–20.
When Dingiswayo was murdered by Zwide, Shaka sought to avenge his death. At some point, Zwide escaped Shaka, though the exact details are not known. In that encounter, Zwide's mother Ntombazi, a Sangoma, was killed by Shaka. Shaka chose a gruesome revenge on her, locking her in a house and placing jackals or hyenas inside: they devoured her and, in the morning, Shaka burned the house to the ground. Despite carrying out this revenge, Shaka continued his pursuit of Zwide, it was not until around 1825 that the two military leaders met, near Phongola, in what would be their final meeting. Phongola is near the present day border of a province in South Africa. Shaka was victorious in battle, although his forces sustained heavy casualties, which included his head military commander, Umgobhozi Ovela Entabeni. In the initial years, Shaka had neither the influence nor reputation to compel any but the smallest of groups to join him, upon Dingiswayo's death, Shaka moved southwards across the Thukela River, establishing his capital Bulawayo in Qwabe territory.
In Qwabe, Shaka may have intervened in an existing succession dispute to help his own choice, into power. As Shaka became more respected by his people, he was able to spread his ideas with greater ease; because of his background as a soldier, Shaka taught the Zulus that the most effective way of becoming powerful was by conquering and controlling other tribes. His teachings influenced the social outlook of the Zulu people; the Zulu tribe soon developed a warrior outlook. Shaka's hegemony was based on military might, smashing rivals and incorporating scattered remnants into his own army, he supplemented this with a mixture of diplomacy and patronage, incorporating friendly chieftains, including Zihlandlo of the Mkhize, Jobe of the Sithole, Mathubane of the Thuli. These peoples were never defeated in battle by the Zulu. Shaka won them over by subtler tactics, such as reward; as for the ruling Qwabe, they began re-inventing their genealogies to give the impression that Qwabe and Zulu were related in the past.
In this way a greater sense of cohesion was created, though it never became complete, as subsequent civil wars attest. Shaka still recognised Dingiswayo and his larger Mthethwa clan as overlord after he returned to the Zulu but, some years Dingiswayo was ambushed by Zwide's amaNdwandwe and killed. There is no evidence to suggest that Shaka betrayed Dingiswayo. Indeed, the core Zulu had to retreat before several Ndwandwe incursions. Shaka was able to form an alliance with the leaderless Mthethwa clan and was able to establish himself amongst the Qwabe, after Phakathwayo was overthrown with relative ease. With Qwabe and Mkhize support, Shaka was able to summon a force capable of resisting the Ndwandwe. Historian Donald Morris states that Shaka's first major battle against Zwide, of the Ndwandwe, was the Battle of Gqokli Hill, on the Mfolozi river. Shaka's troops maintained a strong position on the crest of the hill. A frontal assault by their opponents failed to dislodge them, Shaka sealed the victory by sending his reserve forces in a sweep around the hill to attack the enemy's rear.
Losses were high overall but the efficiency of the new Shakan innovation
Zimbabwe the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of 16 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English and Ndebele the most used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade; the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia; the state endured a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces. Zimbabwe joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then-government, from which it withdrew in December 2003; the sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa.
It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity under the former Rhodesian administration. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator"; the country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état.
On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed. On 30 July 2018 Zimbabwe held its general elections, won by the ZANU-PF party led by Emmerson Mnangagwa. Nelson Chamisa, leading the main opposition party MDC Alliance contested the election results and filed a petition to the Constitution Court of Zimbabwe; the court confirmed Mnangagwa's victory. The name "Zimbabwe" stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, an ancient ruined city in the country's south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the word. Many sources hold that "Zimbabwe" derives from dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as "houses of stones"; the Karanga-speaking Shona people live around Great Zimbabwe in the modern-day province of Masvingo. Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and references chiefs' houses or graves.
Zimbabwe was known as Southern Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia. The first recorded use of "Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference dates from 1960 as a coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema, whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to use the name in 1961; the term "Rhodesia"—derived from the surname of Cecil Rhodes, the primary instigator of British colonisation of the territory during the late 19th century—was perceived by African nationalists as inappropriate because of its colonial origin and connotations. According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in 1960 to choose an alternative name for the country, proposing names such as "Matshobana" and "Monomotapa" before his suggestion, "Zimbabwe", prevailed. A further alternative, put forward by nationalists in Matabeleland, had been "Matopos", referring to the Matopos Hills to the south of Bulawayo, it was unclear how the chosen term was to be used—a letter written by Mawema in 1961 refers to "Zimbabweland" — but "Zimbabwe" was sufficiently established by 1962 to become the preferred term of the black nationalist movement.
In a 2001 interview, black nationalist Edson Zvobgo recalled that Mawema mentioned the name during a political rally, "and it caught hold, and, that". The black nationalist factions subsequently used the name during the Second Chimurenga campaigns against the Rhodesian government during the Rhodesian Bush War of 1964–1979. Major factions in this camp included the Zimbabwe African National Union, the Zimbabwe African People's Union. Archaeological records date human settlement of present-day Zimbabwe to at least 100,000 years ago; the earliest known inhabitants were San people, who left behind arrowheads and cave paintings. The first Bantu-speaking farmers arrived during the Bantu expansion around 2000 years ago. Societies speaking proto-Shona languages fir
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Mzilikazi was a Southern African king who founded the Matabele Kingdom, Matabeleland, in what became British South Africa Company-ruled Rhodesia and is now Zimbabwe. His name means "the great road", he was born the son of Matshobana near Mkuze and died at Ingama, Matabeleland. Many consider him to be the greatest Southern African military leader after the Zulu king Shaka. David Livingstone, in his autobiography, referred to Mzilikazi as the second most impressive leader he encountered on the African continent, he was a lieutenant of Shaka but had a quarrel with him in 1823 and rebelled. Rather than face ritual execution, he fled northwards with his people, he first travelled to Mozambique but in 1826 he moved west into the Transvaal due to continued attacks by his enemies. As he conquered the Transvaal he absorbed many members of other tribes and established a military despotism, such as Mzilikazi's attacks in the Nzunza kraal at Esikhunjini, where the Nzunza king Magodongo and others were kidnapped and subsequently killed at Mkobola river.
For the next ten years, Mzilikazi dominated the Transvaal. This period, known locally as the Mfecane was characterised by devastation and murder on a grand scale as Mzilikazi removed all opposition and remodelled the territory to suit the new Ndebele order. In 1831 he won in a battle with the Griqua King, Barend Barendse, the land next to the Ghaapse mountains, he used the method of scorched earth to keep distance to all surrounding kingdoms. The death toll has never been satisfactorily determined, but the region was so depopulated that the Voortrekkers were able to occupy and take ownership of the Highveld area without opposition in the 1830s. Voortrekkers began to arrive in Transvaal in 1836, after several confrontations over the next two years, the Ndebele suffered heavy losses. By early 1838, Mzilikazi was forced out of Transvaal altogether. Further attacks first caused him to move west again to present-day Botswana and later northwards towards what is now Zambia, he was unable to settle the land there because of the prevalence of tsetse fly-borne diseases of oxen.
Mzilikazi therefore travelled southeastwards to what became known as Matabeleland and settled there in 1840. After his arrival, he organised his followers into a military system with regimental kraals, similar to those of Shaka, which became strong enough to repel the Boer attacks of 1847–1851 and persuade the government of the South African Republic to sign a peace treaty with him in 1852. While Mzilikazi was friendly to European travellers, he remained mindful about the danger that they posed to his kingdom and, in years, he refused some visitors any access to his realm; the many European travellers who met with Mzilikazi include Henry Hartley the hunter and explorer, Robert Moffat the missionary, David Hume the explorer and trader, Andrew Smith the medical doctor and zoologist, William Cornwallis Harris the hunter and the missionary explorer David Livingstone. During the tribe's wanderings north of the Limpopo Mzilikazi became separated from the bulk of the tribe who gave him up for dead and hailed his young heir Nkulumane as successor.
However, on his reappearance after a traumatic journey through the Zambezi valley, Mzilikazi asserted control once more. According to one account, he had all those chiefs who had chosen him put to death, they were all executed by being cast over a steep cliff on a hill now called Ntabazinduna. Another account claims that Nkulumane was not killed with the chiefs, as is popular belief, but was sent back to the Zulu Kingdom with a sizeable delegation including warriors. On his journey south, he passed through the Bakwena territory in the northwestern Transvaal, near Rustenburg; the Bakwena were at the time struggling to repel frequent attacks from a neighbouring king, who wanted to lay claim to the territory that they occupied. Nkulumane assisted the Bakwena by leading his impi in a battle in which the neighbouring chief was killed by Nkulumane himself. Following this victory, the Bakwena convinced Nkulumane to settle in their territory, arguing that it would be futile to return to the Zulu kingdom as his father's enemies would kill him.
Nkulumane settled and lived with his family in that area until his death, in 1883. His gravesite, covered in a concrete slab, is on the outskirts of Rustenburg in Phokeng; the gravesite is incongruously referred to as Mzilikazi's kop though it is his son, buried there. After resuming his role as chief, Mzilikazi made his capital 5 kilometres distant from Ntabazinduna and named it ko-Bulawayo. Shaka's capital was called Bulawayo. History profile of Mzilikazi: King of Matabele