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Northern Pacific Railway

The Northern Pacific Railway was a transcontinental railroad that operated across the northern tier of the western United States, from Minnesota to the Pacific Northwest. It was approved by Congress in 1864 and given nearly forty million acres of land grants, which it used to raise money in Europe for construction. Construction began in 1870 and the main line opened all the way from the Great Lakes to the Pacific when former President Ulysses S. Grant drove in the final "golden spike" in western Montana on September 8, 1883; the railroad had about 6,800 miles of track and served a large area, including extensive trackage in the states of Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, Oregon and Wisconsin. In addition, the NP had an international branch to Winnipeg, Canada; the main activities were shipping wheat and other farm products, cattle and minerals. The Northern Pacific was headquartered in Minnesota, first in Brainerd in Saint Paul, it had a tumultuous financial history. Congress chartered the Northern Pacific Railway Company on July 2, 1864 with the goals of connecting the Great Lakes with Puget Sound on the Pacific, opening vast new lands for farming, ranching and mining, linking Washington and Oregon to the rest of the country.

Congress granted the railroad a potential 60 million acres of land in exchange for building rail transportation to an undeveloped territory. Josiah Perham was elected its first president on December 7, 1864, it could not use all the land and in the end took just under 40 million acres. For the next six years, backers of the road struggled to find financing. Though John Gregory Smith succeeded Perham as president on January 5, 1865, groundbreaking did not take place until February 15, 1870, at Carlton, Minnesota, 25 miles west of Duluth, Minnesota; the backing and promotions of famed financier Jay Cooke in the summer of 1870 brought the first real momentum to the company. Over the course of 1871, the Northern Pacific pushed westward from Minnesota into present-day North Dakota. Surveyors and construction crews had to maneuver through swamps and tamarack forests; the difficult terrain and insufficient funding delayed by six months the construction phase in Minnesota. The NP began building its line north from Kalama, Washington Territory, on the Columbia River outside of Portland, towards Puget Sound.

Four small construction engines were purchased, the Minnetonka, Ottertail and St. Cloud, the first of, shipped to Kalama by ship around Cape Horn. In Minnesota, the Lake Superior and Mississippi Railroad completed construction of its 155-mile line stretching from Saint Paul to Lake Superior at Duluth in 1870, it was leased to the Northern Pacific in 1876, was absorbed by the Northern Pacific. The North Coast Limited was the Northern Pacific's flagship train and the Northern Pacific itself was built along the trail first blazed by Lewis and Clark; the Northern Pacific reached Fargo, Dakota Territory, early in June 1872. The following year, in June 1873, the N. P. reached the shores of the Missouri River, at Edwinton D. T. In the west, the track extended 25 miles north from Kalama. Surveys were carried out in North Dakota protected by 600 troops under General Winfield Scott Hancock. Headquarters and shops were established in Brainerd, Minnesota, a town named for the President John Gregory Smith's wife Anna Elizabeth Brainerd.

A severe stock market crash and financial collapse after 1873, led by the Credit Mobilier Scandal and the Union Pacific Railroad fraud, stopped further railroad building for twelve years. In 1886, the company put down 164 miles of main line across North Dakota, with an additional 45 miles in Washington. On November 1, General George Washington Cass became the third president of the company. Cass had been a vice-president and director of the Pennsylvania Railroad, would lead the Northern Pacific through some of its most difficult times. Attacks on survey parties and construction crews by Sioux, Cheyenne and Kiowa warriors in North Dakota and Minnesota became so prevalent that the company received protection from units of the U. S. Army. In 1886 the Northern Pacific opened colonization offices in Germany and Scandinavia, attracting farmers with cheap package transportation and purchase deals; the success of the NP was based on the abundant crops of wheat and other grains and the attraction to settlers of the Red River Valley along the Minnesota-North Dakota border between 1881 and 1890.

The Northern Pacific reached Dakota Territory at Fargo in 1872, began its career as one of the central factors in the economic growth of North Dakota. The climate, although cold, was suitable for wheat, in high demand in the cities of the United States and Europe. Most of the settlers were German and Scandinavian immigrants who bought the land cheaply, raised large families, they shipped huge quantities of wheat to Minneapolis, while buying all sorts of equipment and home supplies to be shipped in by rail. The NP used its federal land grants as security to borrow money to build its system; the federal government kept every other section of land, gave it away free to homesteaders. At first the railroad sold much of its holdings at low prices to land speculators in order to realize quick cash profits, to eliminate sizable annual tax bills. By 1905 the railroad company's land policies changed, after it was judged a costly mistake to have sold much of the land at wholesale prices. With better rai

Jack Rooke

Jack Rooke is an English comedian, campaigner and writer from Watford. His work explores issues surrounding grief and loss, using humour and documentary film to explore the awkwardness of death, his debut BBC Three series Happy Man was broadcast in April 2017, a documentary exploring alternative solutions to the male mental health crisis, nominated for Best Factual in the iTalkTelly Awards 2017 and earned Rooke a place on the BBC New Talent Hotlist 2017. He received Broadcast magazine's TV Writing Hot Shot 2017, his debut show Good Grief which played at the Soho Theatre, earnt Rooke a nomination for Best Show by an Emerging Artist in the Total Theatre Awards 2015 and a mention in The New York Times’ Top Theatre highlights of the Edinburgh Festival 2015. BBC Comedy commissioned Good Grief for a Radio 4 adaptation, broadcast in March 2017, his second show Happy Hour was commissioned by Soho Theatre and premiered at the Edinburgh Festival 2017 to critical acclaim and a nomination for The Scotsman's first Mental Health Arts award.

Rooke became a performer after meeting Bestival founder and BBC 6 Music DJ Rob Da Bank at a BBC Blast workshop in 2009. After graduating from a Journalism BA, Rooke began making a documentary about the experience of losing his father; this project involved interviews with Rooke's family, exploring the hurdles of being a bereaved teenager from a working-class background in Britain. The documentary ran out of funding, until Arts Council England decided to fund Rooke to create a live comedy-storytelling show which featured excerpts of documentary footage and interviews with his 85-year-old grandmother Sicely; the show Good Grief, premiered at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in 2015 with venue partner Underbelly and directed by Gabriel Bisset-Smith. It was met with critical acclaim, selling out numerous dates and leading to three runs at London's Soho Theatre; the show protested against government proposals to cut Widowed Parents Allowance, a basic weekly welfare payment for bereaved families in Britain.

In collaboration with the Childhood Bereavement Network, the show aimed to raise awareness of these cuts. Good Grief headlined Soho Theatre's first #SohoRising season, aiming to showcase the best ‘emerging companies, young people and brave new writing.' He is consulted on matters of bereavement by BBC Radio 1 appearing on their social action programme The Surgery. In 2014 he featured in the documentary'Radio 1's Guide To Happiness' with hosts Dan and Phil and in Radio 1's'Running With Grief' documentary with Clara Amfo in April 2016. Rooke features in the music video for Santigold's single'Can't Get Enough Of Myself' alongside Jay-Z, Pharrell Wiliams, Andy Samberg, Olivia Wilde and Alexander Wang, he is an ambassador for male suicide prevention charity CALM and deputy edited their free lifestyle publication The CALMzine from 2013-2015. He picked up the 2016 Mind Media award for Best Publication; as a journalist and blogger, Rooke has created work and written for The Guardian, Channel 4, The Independent, The Huffington Post, BBC London 94.9, Roundhouse Radio and Beige Magazine

List of Canadian provinces by unemployment rate

The list of Canadian provinces by unemployment rate are statistics that directly refer to the nation's seasonally adjusted unemployment rate. Below is a comparison of the seasonally adjusted unemployment rates by province/territory, sortable by name or unemployment rate. Data provided by Statistics Canada's Labour Force Survey. Not seasonally adjusted data reflects the actual current unemployment rate, while seasonally adjusted data removes the seasonal component from the information. Statistic set below: May 2019. Note: Statistics for the territories are not seasonally adjusted. Definitions of modern full employment range from 3% to 6% unemployment rates. Canada uses a different measure to gauge the unemployment rate than the United States calculation. An analyst with the American Bureau of Labour Statistics stated that if the Canadian unemployment rate were adjusted to U. S. concepts, it would be reduced by 1 percentage point. In Canada, 15-year-olds are included in surveys of the working age population and therefore are included in their calculations.

In the United States, 15-year-olds are not included in the calculations. A larger contributor to the difference is that flipping through the want-ads in a newspaper gets people classified as unemployed in Canada, but not in the United States. A rise in the use of these passive job search methods in Canada is important as an explanation for the methodology bump of +1% for the Canadian figures; the lowest level of national unemployment came in 1947 with a 2.2% unemployment rate, a result of the smaller pool of available workers caused by casualties from the Second World War. The highest level of unemployment throughout Canada was set on December 1982, when the early 1980s recession resulted in 13.1% of the adult population being out of work due to economic factors that originated in the United States. The primary cause of the early 1980s recession was a contractionary monetary policy established by the Federal Reserve System to control high inflation. During the Great Depression, urban unemployment throughout Canada was 19%.

Farmers who stayed on their farms were not considered unemployed