Whaling is the hunting of whales for their usable products such as meat and blubber, which can be turned into a type of oil which became important in the Industrial Revolution. It was practiced as an organized industry as early as 875 AD. By the 16th century, it had risen to be the principle industry in the coastal regions of Spain and France; the industry spread throughout the world, became profitable in terms of trade and resources. Some regions of the world's oceans, along the animals' migration routes, had a dense whale population, became the targets for large concentrations of whaling ships, the industry continued to grow well into the 20th century; the depletion of some whale species to near extinction led to the banning of whaling in many countries by 1969, to a worldwide cessation of whaling as an industry in the late 1980s. The earliest forms of whaling date to at least circa 3000 BC. Coastal communities around the world have long histories of subsistence use of cetaceans, by dolphin drive hunting and by harvesting drift whales.
Industrial whaling emerged with organized fleets of whaleships in the 17th century. By the late 1930s more than 50,000 whales were killed annually. In 1986, the International Whaling Commission banned commercial whaling because of the extreme depletion of most of the whale stocks. Contemporary whaling is subject to intense debate. Countries that support commercial whaling, notably Iceland and Norway, wish to lift the ban on certain whale stocks for hunting. Anti-whaling countries and environmental groups oppose lifting the ban. Under the terms of the IWC moratorium, aboriginal whaling is allowed to continue on a subsistence basis. Over the past few decades, whale watching has become a significant industry in many parts of the world; the live capture of cetaceans for display in aquaria continues. Whaling began in prehistoric times in coastal waters; the earliest depictions of whaling are the Neolithic Bangudae Petroglyphs in Korea, which may date back to 6000 BC. These images are the earliest evidence for whaling.
Although prehistoric hunting and gathering is considered to have had little ecological impact, early whaling in the Arctic may have altered freshwater ecology. Early whaling affected the development of disparate cultures – such as Norway and Japan, both of which continue to hunt in the 21st century; the Basques were the first to catch whales commercially, dominated the trade for five centuries, spreading to the far corners of the North Atlantic and reaching the South Atlantic. The development of modern whaling techniques was spurred in the 19th century by the increase in demand for whale oil, sometimes known as "train oil", in the 20th century by a demand for margarine and whale meat. Many countries which once had significant industries, such as the Netherlands and Argentina, ceased whaling long ago, so are not covered in this article; the primary species hunted are minke whales,belugas and pilot whales. Which are some of the smallest species of whales. There are smaller numbers killed of gray whales, sei whales, fin whales, bowhead whales, Bryde's whales, sperm whales and humpback whales.
Recent scientific surveys estimate a population of 103,000 minkes in the northeast Atlantic. With respect to the populations of Antarctic minke whales, as of January 2010, the IWC states that it is "unable to provide reliable estimates at the present time" and that a "major review is underway by the Scientific Committee."Whale oil is used little today and modern whaling is done for food: for pets, fur farms, sled dogs and humans, for making carvings of tusks and vertebrae. Both meat and blubber are eaten from narwhals and bowheads. From commercially hunted minkes, meat is eaten by humans or animals, blubber is rendered down to cheap industrial products such as animal feed or, in Iceland, as a fuel supplement for whaling ships. International cooperation on whaling regulation began in 1931 and culminated in the signing of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling in 1946, its aim is to: provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the orderly development of the whaling industry.
The International Whaling Commission was set up under the ICRW to decide hunting quotas and other relevant matters based on the findings of its Scientific Committee. Non-member countries conduct their own management programs, it regulates hunting of 13 species of great whales, has not reached consensus on whether it may regulate smaller species. The IWC voted on July 23, 1982, to establish a moratorium on commercial whaling of great whales beginning in the 1985–86 season. Since 1992, the IWC's Scientific Committee has requested that it be allowed to give quota proposals for some whale stocks, but this has so far been refused by the Plenary Committee. At the 2010 meeting of the International Whaling Commission in Morocco, representatives of the 88 member states discussed whether or not to lift the 24-year ban on commercial whaling. Japan and Iceland have urged the organisation to lift the ban. A coalition of anti-whaling nations has offered a compromise plan that would allow these countries to continue whaling, but with smaller catches and under close supervision.
Their plan would completely ban whaling in the Southern Ocean. More than 200 scientists and experts have
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Yamba, New South Wales
Yamba is a suburb in northern New South Wales, Australia at the mouth of the Clarence River. The first European to visit the area was Matthew Flinders, who stopped in Yamba Bay for six days in July 1799; the town economy is based on fishing and tourism, but has a diverse range of influences, due to the'Sea Change' phenomena and the large number of baby boomers who are starting to retire to the warmer climates. In 2017, Yamba had a population of 6,135, but as a popular tourist destination, it can triple its population in the holiday period. In 2009 Yamba was voted the number 1 town in Australia by Australian Traveller Magazine. Yamba is known to have experienced the natural phenomenon known as Sea foam; the Yaegl and Bundjalung people are the traditional custodians of the coastal areas around Yamba and Maclean. The ancestors of the present day Yaegl people lived around the mouth of the Clarence River and spoke Yaygirr, related to Gumbaynggirr. There is evidence the Yaygirr had a developed material culture.
Matthew Flinders described large bark huts with rounded passageway entrances to protect dwellers from wind and rain. Captain Perry described canoes of a superior construction. In 1799 Matthew Flinders landed on the present southern headland at Yamba. He’d been despatched from Sydney to find a new Eden, but from his vantage point atop a craggy promontory, now Pilot Head, he dismissed the turbulent estuary as dangerous and unworthy of further examination, sailed away. In the 1830s, timber harvesting commenced. In 1861, the townsite was surveyed, by October 1862 construction of the breakwater Clarence River Heads Post Office was completed. Named Shoal Bay in 1885, it was renamed Yamba with a population of approx 340. In 1908 the Yamba Surf Lifesaving Club is one of the oldest surf clubs in the world. Yamba began to develop as a tourist destination in the 1930s following the arrival of the railway line at nearby Grafton. Guesthouses were replaced by motels and holiday apartments following the sealing of the main road in 1958, with visitors now able to use bridges rather than punts and ferries.
Fishing and oyster industries were established in the 1880s, with prawn trawling pioneered in the 1940s. Sugar cane farming is now the major cropping industry in the region following full mechanisation of the cane cutting process in 1978. Riverboats and steamers that plied between Grafton and Sydney were replaced by rail and better road connections from the 1970s. There are two theories as to the meaning of Yamba, one being that it is the local Aboriginal word for "headland". However, J. S. Ryan, following R. L. Dawson's early Recollections and Records of the Clarence Aborigines, believes the most derivation is an Aboriginal word yumbah meaning a rough edible shellfish the size of a man's hand that clings to rocks and is similar to an oyster. Since 1 December 2011, the Port of Yamba has been managed by the Sydney Ports Corporation, which on 1 July 2014 became the Port Authority of New South Wales, a corporation owned by the Government of New South Wales; the major export from the port is timber.
There are regular general cargo services from Yamba to Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, New Zealand. In year ended 30 June 2012, the port handled 6,000 tonnes of cargo and vessels up to 120 metres in length. In addition to the Port wharf, Yamba has owned slipway and repair wharves. Yamba is surrounded by the Clarence River, Pacific Ocean and rural land; the town is within reach of Ballina and Grafton. Yamba is only an hour from Byron Bay, two hours from Coffs Harbour and the Gold Coast and three hours from Brisbane, it is a two-hour flight from Sydney. Yamba boasts eleven beaches within the 2464 postcode: Whiting, Yamba, Convent/McKittricks, Flat Rock, Barri. Nearby beaches to the north include Woody Head, Iluka Bluff, Back Beach, to the south Green Point, Angourie Bay, Angourie Point, Back Beach, Shelley and Plumbago. Yamba has a humid subtropical climate; the town has a relaxed lifestyle with access to two pubs and two clubs, The Pacific Hotel and Yamba Shores Tavern, a golf Club and a bowling club all with regular live performances.
Yamba has sporting and recreation groups such as the Yamba Buccaneers rugby union club and the Yamba Breakers football club, the Yamba Community Heated Pool and Raymond Laurie Sports Centre, plus restaurants, a YHA, cafes, internet facilities, primary schools, golf course, post office, bowling greens and a large deep-water marina. Peak tourist seasons are Dec/Jan, mid year and October. Yamba is home to the Lower Clarence and Surrounds FM Community Radio Station TLC FM 100.3. At the northern tip of Pippi beach is "Lovers Point Rock Wall". Between May - October whales can be seen passing by. Dolphins are plentiful all around Yamba and can be observed swimming and fishing quite close to shore. Other attractions include Yamba Lighthouse known as Clarence River Light, Story House museum, the ferry to Iluka on the northern banks and Bundjalung National Parks and the surf beach at Angourie. There are a number of local restaurants and boast cruises available. Popular activities include fishing, kayaking, bike riding and camping.
Located at Ford Park on the 4th Sunday of every month, the Yamba River Markets showcases. Once a year Yamba hosts "S
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
Coffs Harbour is a city on the Mid North Coast of New South Wales, Australia, 540 km north of Sydney, 390 km south of Brisbane. It is one of the largest urban centres on the North Coast, with an estimated population of 70,000 in 2017. Coffs Harbour's economy was once based on bananas, now being superseded by blueberries as well as tourism and fishing; the wider region is known as the Bananacoast. The city has a campus of Southern Cross University, a public and a private hospital, several radio stations, three major shopping centres. Coffs Harbour is including a marine national park. There are regular passenger flights each day to Sydney and Melbourne departing from Coffs Harbour Airport. Coffs Harbour is accessible by road, by NSW TrainLink, by regular bus services. Coffs Harbour is a regional city along the Pacific Highway between The Gold Coast, it has become a major service centre for those living between South West Rocks in the south and Grafton to the north. Sawtell, 10 km south along Hogbin Drive from the city has become a satellite suburb of Coffs Harbour.
The surrounding region is dominated by coastal resorts and apartments with hinterland hills and mountains covered by forests, banana plantations, other farms. It is the only place in New South Wales; the Bananacoast Community Credit Union is headquartered in Coffs Harbour. The greater Coffs Harbour city is broken up into several suburb and precinct areas including: The city is surrounded by outlying towns which are referred to by locals as suburbs of the Coffs Coast Region: By the early 1900s, the Coffs Harbour area had become an important timber production centre. Before the opening of the North Coast Railway Line, the only way to transport large items of heavy but low value, such as timber, was by coastal shipping; this meant sawmillers on the North Coast were dependent on jetties either in rivers or off beaches for exporting their timber. Timber tramways were constructed to connect the timber-getting areas, the sawmills and jetties built into the ocean at Coffs Harbour. Coffs Harbour owes its name to John Korff, who named the area Korff's Harbour when he was forced to take shelter from a storm in the area in 1847.
The name was accidentally changed by the surveyor for the crown when he reserved land in the area during 1861. Coffs Harbour has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 1 Breakwater Road: Ferguson's Cottage According to the 2016 Census the population of the suburb of Coffs Harbour is 25,752; this is an increase from 24,581 in 2011. 52.5% of the population is female in contrast to the national average of 50.7%. The average age is 43, higher than the national average of 38. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 5.6% of the population. 75.5% of residents reported being born in Australia. Other than Australia the most common countries of birth are England, New Zealand, Myanmar and Germany. 62.2% of residents reported both their parents being born in Australia higher than the national average of 47.3%. 82.1% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Punjabi 0.9%, Chin Haka 0.5%, Arabic 0.4%, Spanish 0.4% and Dari 0.4%. The top religious response in Coffs Harbour are Catholic 20.0%, Anglican 17.9% and Presbyterian and Reformed 3.9%.
29.3 % declared 11.1 % did not submit a response. Coffs Harbour has a humid subtropical climate with marked seasonality of rainfall; the city is sunny, receiving 122.1 clear days annually, higher than Brisbane and Cairns. Summers are warm and humid. Winters are mild and drier. Coffs Harbour was the hub for a thriving banana industry. One of the biggest attractions is the Big Banana, one of the first of Australia's Big Things, with the World's Largest Banana celebrating the region's best known export. There is a popular underwater diving spot on a small natural reef; the Coffs Harbour Jetty is an important timber wharf where coastal shipping once moved the timber from the hinterland. The jetty area is the subject of current planning by Council and consultants to develop a cultural precinct and rejuvenated residential area. Nearby, the Solitary Islands Marine Park preserves a diverse underwater ecosystem that mirrors the terrestrial biodiversity, covering the southern limit of northern tropical species and the northern limits of the southern temperate species.
Muttonbird Island is accessible by walking along the breakwater from the harbour, with the nature reserve protecting a significant wedge-tailed shearwater breeding site. The Muttonbird Island footpath leads to a viewing platform where whales are spotted between June and November. There are many national parks and marine parks surrounding the city, including: Bellinger River National Park Bindarri National Park Bongil Bongil National Park Cascade National Park Coffs Coast Regional Park Dorrigo National Park Hayden Dent Nature Reserve Junuy Juluum National Park Moonee Beach Nature Reserve Nymboi-Binderay National Park Solitary Islands Marine Park South Solita
Kyogle is a town in the Northern Rivers region of northern New South Wales, Australia. It falls within the local government area of Kyogle Council. At the 2016 census, Kyogle had a population of 2,751 people, it was founded in the 1830s as a lumber camp, is located 758 kilometres north of Sydney, 32 kilometres north of Casino on the Summerland Way close to the Queensland border. It lies on the banks of the Richmond River, it is the seat of its own shire. Kyogle is an Aboriginal Australian word meaning'place of the Bush Turkey', a reference to the bush turkey, indigenous to the region. Cattle grazing, dairy farming and forestry are the primary industries. In times past, timber getting was the main reason for settlement in the area, with red cedar and hoop pine the main timber trees. Kyogle is known as a "gateway" to many national parks including Border Ranges National Park and Toonumbar National Park. Kyogle won the "Young Legends" category award at the 2012 Australian Tidy Town Awards. One of the judges, Dick Olesinski, described how Kyogle's community encompasses a diverse range of projects that demonstrate the community's commitment to Tidy Towns and other related environmental and beautification programs, saying "Kyogle's Tidy Towns Committee continues to deliver active and enthusiastic promotion of the town, providing infrastructure and support of community activities."
Dean Ferris - MXGP World Motocross Championship Competitor David Kennedy - Famous bull rider. Will Matthews - Current NRL player who has played for the St George Illawarra Dragons & Gold Coast Titans and is again contracted to Gold Coast Titans in 2018. Ken Nagas - Former NRL player that played for the Canberra Raiders, he represent New South Wales & Australia. Nigel Roy - Former NRL and Super league player for Illawarra Steelers, North Sydney Bears, Northern Eagles, London Broncos. Shannon Walker - Former Australian rugby sevens and NRL player and playing Queensland Cup. Kyogle Horseshoe Park Pony Rides Kyogle Bowling Club Kyogle Golf Club Kyogle Cockies Rugby Union Club Kyogle Netball Association Kyogle Pony Club Kyogle Turkeys Rugby League Club Kyogle Little Athletics Kyogle Turkeys Touch Football Club Kyogle Soccer Club Kyogle Swimming club Kyogle Tennis Club Kyogle District Cricket Association. Kyogle station is served by the main North Coast railway line between Brisbane. A train from Sydney to Brisbane stops at 2.46am and a train from Brisbane to Sydney stops at 7.53am.
A short crossing loop used to be located at the passenger station, but when the loop was extended for 1,500-metre -long trains, the crossing loop was relocated to a more suitable — straighter — site outside town. Further north along the railway line towards Brisbane, located at Cougal, is the Border Loop spiral, where the track loops 360 degrees and passes over itself; this loop was constructed for trains to climb from the low side to the high side of the McPherson Range. The 2009 World Rally Championship known as the 2009 Rally Australia, passed through the Kyogle area in 2009. In early January 2008 parts of Kyogle were subject to major flooding when the Richmond River burst its banks after heavy rainfall around Kyogle and upstream. Reaching heights of 18.1 metres. This was the second worst flood in Kyogle on record, after the flood of 1954. Media related to Kyogle at information. Kyogle Council Kyogle Community Directory community info Horseshoe Park Pony Rides
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, used for sugar production. It has stout, fibrous stalks that are rich in the sugar sucrose, which accumulates in the stalk internodes; the plant is two to six metres tall. All sugar cane species can interbreed and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids. Sugarcane belongs to the grass family Poaceae, an economically important seed plant family that includes maize, wheat and sorghum, many forage crops. Sucrose and purified in specialized mill factories, is used as raw material in the food industry or is fermented to produce ethanol. Sugarcane is the world's largest crop by production quantity, with 1.9 billion tonnes produced in 2016, Brazil accounting for 41% of the world total. In 2012, the Food and Agriculture Organization estimated it was cultivated on about 26 million hectares, in more than 90 countries.
The global demand for sugar is the primary driver of sugarcane agriculture. Cane accounts for 79% of sugar produced. Sugarcane predominantly grows in the subtropical regions. Other than sugar, products derived from sugarcane include falernum, rum, cachaça, ethanol. In some regions, people use sugarcane reeds to make pens, mats and thatch; the young, unexpanded inflorescence of Saccharum edule is eaten raw, steamed, or toasted, prepared in various ways in Southeast Asia, including Fiji and certain island communities of Indonesia. Sugarcane was an ancient crop of the Papuan people, it was introduced to Polynesia, Island Melanesia, Madagascar in prehistoric times via Austronesian sailors. It was introduced to southern China and India by Austronesian traders at around 1200 to 1000 BC; the Persians, followed by the Greeks, encountered the famous "reeds that produce honey without bees" in India between the 6th and 4th centuries BC. They adopted and spread sugarcane agriculture. Merchants began to trade in sugar from India, considered a luxury and an expensive spice.
In the 18th century AD, sugarcane plantations began in Caribbean, South American, Indian Ocean and Pacific island nations and the need for laborers became a major driver of large human migrations, both the voluntary in indentured servants. And the involuntary migrations, in the form of slave labor. Sugarcane is a tropical, perennial grass that forms lateral shoots at the base to produce multiple stems three to four m high and about 5 cm in diameter; the stems grow into cane stalk. A mature stalk is composed of 11–16% fiber, 12–16% soluble sugars, 2–3% nonsugars, 63–73% water. A sugarcane crop is sensitive to the climate, soil type, fertilizers, disease control and the harvest period; the average yield of cane stalk is 60–70 tonnes per hectare per year. However, this figure can vary between 30 and 180 tonnes per hectare depending on knowledge and crop management approach used in sugarcane cultivation. Sugarcane is a cash crop, but it is used as livestock fodder. There are two centers of domestication for sugarcane: one for Saccharum officinarum by Papuans in New Guinea and another for Saccharum sinense by Austronesians in Taiwan and southern China.
Papuans and Austronesians primarily used sugarcane as food for domesticated pigs. The spread of both S. officinarum and S. sinense is linked to the migrations of the Austronesian peoples. Saccharum barberi was only cultivated in India after the introduction of S. officinarum. Saccharum officinarum was first domesticated in New Guinea and the islands east of the Wallace Line by Papuans, where it is the modern center of diversity. Beginning at around 6,000 BP they were selectively bred from the native Saccharum robustum. From New Guinea it spread westwards to Island Southeast Asia after contact with Austronesians, where it hybridized with Saccharum spontaneum; the second domestication center is mainland southern China and Taiwan where S. sinense was a primary cultigen of the Austronesian peoples. Words for sugarcane exist in the Proto-Austronesian languages in Taiwan, reconstructed as *təbuS or **CebuS, which became *tebuh in Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, it was one of the original major crops of the Austronesian peoples from at least 5,500 BP.
Introduction of the sweeter S. officinarum may have replaced it throughout its cultivated range in Island Southeast Asia. From Island Southeast Asia, S. officinarum was spread eastward into Polynesia and Micronesia by Austronesian voyagers as a canoe plant by around 3,500 BP. It was spread westward and northward by around 3,000 BP to China and India by Austronesian traders, where it further hybridized with Saccharum sinense and Saccharum barberi. From there it spread further into the Mediterranean; the earliest known production of crystalline sugar began in northern India. The exact date of the first cane sugar production is unclear; the earliest evidence of sugar production comes from ancient Pali texts. Around the 8th century and Arab traders introduced sugar from medieval India to the other parts of the Abbasid Caliphate in the Mediterranean, Egypt, North Africa, Andalusia. By the 10th century, sources state, it was among the early crops brought to the Americas by the Spanish Andalu