World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Bihar was an administrative county of the Kingdom of Hungary and a county of Partium. Its territory is now in northwestern Romania, where it is administered as Bihor County, a smaller part in eastern Hungary; the capital of the county was Nagyvárad. Bihar County was situated along the upper courses of the rivers Körös, Sebes-Körös, Fekete-Körös and Berettyó; the medieval county included Kalotaszeg region. The total territory of the medieval county was around 10,000 km2. After 1876, Bihar county shared borders with the Hungarian counties Békés, Hajdú, Szatmár, Szilágy, Torda-Aranyos and Arad; the western half of the county was in the Pannonian plain, while the eastern half was part of the Apuseni mountains. Its area was 10,657 km2 around 1910; the castle of Byhor, or Bihar, was the center of the duchy of Menumorut at the time of the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin in the 890s, according to the Gesta Hungarorum. The Gesta—the only primary source which mentions Menumorut—describes him as a ruler "with Bulgarian heart", the vassal of the Byzantine Emperor.
Menumorut's subjects were Khazars, the Székelys joined the invading Hungarians in his duchy. Historian Tudor Sălăgean writes that other peoples must have lived in Menumorut's realm. Menumorut was forced to give his daughter in marriage to Zoltán, son of Árpád, Grand Prince of the Hungarians; when he died, his son-in-law inherited his duchy. Modern scholars debate whether Menumorut and his duchy existed or the anonymous author of the Gesta invented them. For instance, historian György Györffy says that Menumorut's name preserved the memory of the Moravians who dominated parts of the Carpathian Basin in the 9th century. According to historians György Györffy and Victor Spinei, the presence of Kabars in the region could have given rise to Anonymous' reference to Menumorut's "Khazars". Place names of Slavic origin—for instance, Csatár and Szalacs —show that Slav communities lived along the rivers Ér and Berettyó and around Bihar. Graves of 10th-century warriors, buried together with parts of their horses, have been excavated, for instance, at Bihar, Hajdúböszörmény, Nagyszalonta.
According to archaeologist Thomas Nägler, the small number of graves which can be attributed to 10th-century Hungarian warriors shows that few Hungarians settled in the region after the Hungarian conquest. Archaeologist Erwin Gáll writes that the cemetery at Bihar may represent a "peripheral centre" of a core region, located along the upper courses of the river Tisza, because the burial customs were similar in the two territories. A dozen medieval villages—for instance, Felkér, Köröskisjenő and Köröstarján —bore the name of a Hungarian tribe, suggesting that Hungarian groups settled in the region in the late 10th and early 11th centuries, according to György Györffy. Written sources and toponyms implies the presence of Székelys; the castle folk of Ebey—a village, located near Nagyszalonta, abandoned—were grouped into a "hundred", or centurionatus, named Székelyszáz around 1217. The Seat of Telegd was most named after the village Telegd. If this scholarly theory is valid, the ancestors of the Székelys of Telegd had lived in Bihar County before they moved to eastern Transylvania.
Historian Florin Curta writes that the Székelys settled in the county only in the early 13th century. Modern historians agree that the county was established between 1020 and 1050, most by Stephen I, the first king of Hungary, or by his successor, Peter. According to a version of a royal charter, issued in 1203, mentioned that "the whole Bihar County" was located around Bihar and around Zaránd, suggesting that Bihar County had included Zaránd County, or at least its territories north of the river Fehér-Körös. An other version of the same charter mentioned Békés besides Bihar and Zaránd, implying that Bihar County had included the lands which developed into the separate Békés County; the 11th-century Bihar Castle, made of earth and timber, was the first center of the county. The earliest royal charter that mentioned the ispán, or head, of the county was issued around 1067; the county was included in the ducatus, or duchy, that Andrew I of Hungary granted to his younger brother, Béla, around 1050.
Béla's son, Géza, ruled the duchy from 1064. Nomadic Turks—Pechenegs or Ouzes—plundered the eastern territories of the Kingdom of Hungary, including the region around Bihar Castle in 1068. Duke Géza, his brother and their cousin, King Solomon of Hungary, joined their forces and chased the marauders as far as Doboka. Six years "the troops from Byhor" were under the command of Duke Ladislaus in the Battle of Mogyoród which ended with the decisive victory of Géza and Ladislaus over King Solomon; the first document that mentioned the county was issued in 1075. According to György Györffy, the county seems to have been included in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Eger, because the Deanery of Zsomboly, located to the south of Bihar County, formed an exclave of the Eger bishopric during the Middle Ages; the separate Roman Catholic Diocese of Bihar was set up between 1020 and 1061. Its see was transferred to Várad before 1095. There were four deaneries in the county. Pilgrims f
The Carpi or Carpiani were an ancient people that resided in the eastern parts of modern Romania in the historical region of Moldavia from no than c. AD 140 and until at least AD 318; the ethnic affiliation of the Carpi remains disputed, as there is no direct evidence in the surviving ancient literary sources. A strong body of modern scholarly opinion considers that the Carpi were a tribe of the Dacian nation. Other scholars have linked the Carpi to a variety of ethnic groups, including Sarmatians, Slavs and Celts. About a century after their earliest mention by Ptolemy, during which time their relations with Rome appear to have been peaceful, the Carpi emerged in c. 238 as among Rome's most persistent enemies. In the period AD 250-270, the Carpi were an important component of a loose coalition of transdanubian barbarian tribes that included Germanic and Sarmatian elements; these were responsible for a series of large and devastating invasions of the Balkan regions of the empire which nearly caused its disintegration in the "Crisis of the Third Century".
In the period 270-318, the Roman "military emperors" acted to remove the Carpi threat to the empire's borders. Multiple crushing defeats were inflicted on the Carpi in 273, 297, 298-308 and in 317. After each, massive numbers of Carpi were forcibly transferred by the Roman military to the Roman province of Pannonia as part of the emperors' policy of repopulating the devastated Danubian provinces with surrendered barbarian tribes. Since the Carpi are no longer mentioned in known documents after 318, it is possible that the Carpi were removed from the Carpathian region by c. 318 or, if any remained, it is possible that they mingled with other peoples resident or immigrating into Moldavia, such as the Sarmatians or Goths. The Greco-Romans called this people the Carpiani; the earliest mention of them, under the name Καρπιανοί is in the Geographia of the 2nd-century Greek geographer Ptolemy, composed c. AD 140; the name Carpi or Carpiani may derive from the same root as the name of the Carpathian mountain range that they occupied first mentioned by Ptolemy under the name Καρπάτης - Karpátes.
The root may be the putative Proto-Indo-European word *ker/sker, meaning "peak" or "cliff". Scholars who support this derivation are divided between those who believe the Carpi gave their name to the mountain range and those who claim the reverse. In the latter case, Carpiani could mean "people of the Carpathians", but the similarity between the two names may be coincidence, they may derive from different roots. For example, it has been suggested that the name may derive from the Slavic root-word krepu meaning "strong" or "brave", it had been suggested that Carpathian Mountains may derive from the Sanskrit root "kar"'cut' that would give the meaning of'rugged mountains'. Some scholars consider that the following peoples recorded in ancient sources correspond to Ptolemy's Karpiani: the Kallipidai mentioned in the Histories of Herodotus as residing in the region of the river Borysthenes the Karpídai around the mouth of the river Tyras recorded in a fragment of Pseudo-Scymnus the Harpii, located near the Danube delta, mentioned by Ptolemy himself.
If so, their locations could imply that the Carpi had gradually migrated westwards in the period 400 BC - AD 140, a view championed by Kahrstedt. These names' common element carp- appears in Dacian and Thracian placenames and personal names, but there is no consensus. Bichir suggests. According to Ptolemy's Geographia, the Carpi occupied a region between the river Hierasus and the river Porata; this was as defined by Ptolemy, whose eastern border was the Hierasus. East of this river lay what Ptolemy termed Sarmatia Europaea, a vast region stretching as far as the Crimea, but by no means populated by Sarmatian tribes. According to Ptolemy, the Carpi's neighbours were: to the North, the Costoboci to the South, in the Wallachian plain, the Roxolani Sarmatians to the East of the Prut, the Bastarnae which had migrated into the region between the rivers Prut and Dniester around 200 BC)To the West, the Eastern Carpathian mountains between the Siret and the border of the Roman province were populated by the "Free Dacians" i.e. ethnic Dacians residing outside Roman Dacia.
However, it is not possible to reliably define the territories of these groups due to the imprecision of the ancient geographical sources. It is that in many areas, ethnic groups overlapped and the ethnic map was a patchwork of dispersed sub-groups; the Sarmatians and Bastarnae are attested, in both literature and archaeology, all over Wallachia and Bessarabia. It is that, when Greco-Roman sources refer to conflicts with the Costoboci, Carpi or Goths, they are referring to coalitions of different groups under the hegemonic tribe. Given the Carpi's repeated raids South of the Danube and clashes with the Romans during the 3rd century, it is by ca. 230, the Carpi had extended their hegemony over eastern Wallachia dominated by the Roxolani. There is no dispute among scholars that some Decebalic-era Dacian settlements in Moldavia (mostly west of the Siret, with a few on the east bank, were abandoned b
The Gepids were an East Germanic tribe. They were related to, or a subdivision of, the Goths, they are first recorded in 6th-century historiography as having been allied with the Goths in the invasion of Dacia in c. 260. In the 4th century, they were incorporated into the Hunnic Empire. Under their leader Ardaric, the Gepids united with other Germanic tribes and defeated the Huns at the Battle of Nedao in 454; the Gepids founded a kingdom centered on Sirmium, known as Gepidia, defeated by the Lombards a century later. Remnants of the Gepids were conquered by the Avars in the 6th century. Jordanes reports that their name comes from gepanta, an insult meaning "sluggish, stolid". An Old English form of their name is recorded in Widsith, as Gefþ-, alongside the name of the Wends; the Gepids were the "most shadowy of all the major Germanic peoples of the migration period", according to historian Malcolm Todd. Neither Tacitus nor Ptolemy mentioned them in their detailed lists of the "barbarians", suggesting that the Gepids emerged only in the 3rd century AD.
The first sporadic references to them, which were recorded in the late 3rd century, show that they lived north of the frontier of the Roman Empire. The 6th-century Byzantine writer, listed the Gepids among the "Gothic nations", along with the Vandals and Goths proper, in his Wars of Justinian. According to historian Walter Goffart, Jordanes' remark shows that Byzantine scholars had invented a concept of the "Gothic nations, sharing the same language, white bodies, blond hair, Arian form of Christianity". All information of the Gepids' origins came from "malicious and convoluted Gothic legends", recorded in Jordanes' Getica after 550. According to Jordanes' narration the northern island of "Scandza", associated with Sweden by modern scholars, was the original homeland of the ancestors of the Goths and Gepids, they left Scandza in three boats under the leadership of the legendary Gothic King. Jordanes writes that the Gepids' ancestors traveled in the last of the three ships, for which their fellows mocked them as gepanta, or "slow and stolid".
They settled along the southern shore of the Baltic Sea on an island at the mouth of the Vistula river, called "Gepedoius", or the Gepids' fruitful meadows, by Jordanes. Modern historians debate whether the part of Jordanes' work which described the migration from Scandza was written at least on the basis of Gothic oral history or whether it was an "ahistorical fabrication". Jordanes' passage in his Getica reads: Should you ask how the and Gepidae are kinsmen, I can tell you in a few words. You remember that in the beginning I said the Goths went forth from the bosom of the island of Scandza with Berig, their king, sailing in only three ships toward the hither shore of Ocean, namely to Gothiscandza. One of these three ships proved to be slower than the others, as is the case, thus is said to have given the tribe their name, for in their language gepanta means slow. Hence it came to pass that and by corruption the name Gepidae was coined for them by way of reproach. For undoubtedly they too trace their origin from the stock of the Goths, but because, as I have said, gepanta means something slow and stolid, the word Gepidae arose as a gratuitous name of reproach.
Modern historians who write of the Gepids' early history tend to apply a "mixed argumentation", combining Jordanes' narration with results of archaeological research. According to Jordanes, the Gepids decided to leave "Gepedoius" during the reign of their legendary king, Fastida, they defeated the Burgundians. After the victory, Fastida demanded land from Ostrogotha, King of the Visigoths, because the Gepids' territory was "hemmed in by rugged mountains and dense forests". Ostrogotha refused Fastida's demand and the Gepids joined battle with the Goths "at the town of Galtis, near which the river Auha" flowed, according to Jordanes, they fought until darkness when Fastida and his Gepids withdrew from the battlefield and returned to their land. Archaeologist Kurdt Horedt writes that the battle took place east of the Carpathian Mountains after 248 and before the withdrawal of the Romans from the province of Dacia in the early 270s. On the other hand, historian István Bóna says that the two armies clashed in the former province of Dacia around 290.
The Gepids invaded the Roman provinces in the Balkan Peninsula, in alliance with the Goths and other "tribes of the Scythians", in 269, but Emperor Claudius Gothicus routed them, according to the Augustan History. The same source says that Emperor Probus, who ruled between 276 and 282, settled Gepid prisoners of war in the Roman Empire in the Balkans. According to a formal speech, delivered in praise of Emperor Maximian on 1 April 291, the Thervingi—a Gothic group—joined "battle with the Vandals and Gepids" around that time; the Gepids' history in the 4th century is unknown, because no written source mentioned them during this period. The silence of the Roman sources suggests. On the basis of Jordanes' reference to the "rugged mountains" of the Gepids' land, historians locate it near the Carpathians, along the upper courses of either the Tisza or the Dniester rivers, in the late 3rd century; the exact date of the Gepids' settlement in the Carpathian Basin cannot be determined. Archaeologist István Bóna says they were present in the northeastern region in the 260s.
According to Coriolan H. Opreanu, they seem to have arrived around 300. Archaeologists Eszter Istvánovits and Valéria Kulcsár write that no archaeological evidence substantiates the Gepids' presence before around 350. Graves from the 4th century which yielded swords and shields with iron bos
Beszterce-Naszód was an administrative county of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory is now in northern Romania; the capital of the county was Beszterce. Beszterce-Naszód county shared borders with the Kingdom of Romania, the Austrian Bukovina, the Hungarian counties Máramaros, Szolnok-Doboka, Maros-Torda, Csík, its area was 4167 km² around 1910. Beszterce-Naszód county was formed in 1876, when the Transylvanian Saxon district of Beszterce/Bistritz was united with the district of Naszód and part of Doboka county. In 1920 the Treaty of Trianon assigned the territory of Beszterce-Naszód county to Romania. In 1940 by the Second Vienna Award it was returned to Hungary and was occupied until 1944 during World War II; the territory of the county is now in the Romanian county Bistrița-Năsăud. In 1900, the county had a population of 119,014 people and was composed of the following linguistic communities:Total: Romanian: 82,256 German: 26,036 Hungarian: 8,475 Ruthenian: 165 Slovak: 128 Serbian: 4 Croatian: 9 Other or unknown: 1,941 According to the census of 1900, the county was composed of the following religious communities:Total: Greek Catholic: 66,078 Lutheran: 22,874 Eastern Orthodox: 15,290 Jewish: 6,385 Roman Catholic: 4,927 Calvinist: 3,349 Unitarian: 101 Other or unknown: 10 In 1910, county had a population of 127,843 people and was composed of the following linguistic communities:Total: Romanian: 87,564 German: 25,609 Hungarian: 10,737 Ruthenian: 213 Slovak: 37 Croatian: 11 Serbian: 6 Other or unknown: 3,666 According to the census of 1910, the county was composed of the following religious communities:Total: Greek Catholic: 72,494 Lutheran: 22,415 Eastern Orthodox: 16,615 Jewish: 7,254 Roman Catholic: 5,083 Calvinist: 3,781 Unitarianist: 200 Other or unknown: 1 In the early 20th century, the subdivisions of the county Beszterce-Naszód were
The Romanians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language, descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well. Romanians are an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central Eastern Europe in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars and the Romanian Academy as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, Vlachs in Serbia, in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Inhabited by the ancient Dacians, part of today's territory of Romania was conquered by the Roman Empire in 106, when Trajan's army defeated the army of Dacia's ruler Decebalus. The Roman administration withdrew two centuries under the pressure of the Goths and Carpi. Two theories account for the origin of the Romanian people. One, known as the Daco-Roman continuity theory, posits that they are descendants of Romans and Romanized indigenous peoples living in the Roman Province of Dacia, while the other posits that the Romanians are descendants of Romans and Romanized indigenous populations of the former Roman provinces of Illyria, Moesia and Macedon, the ancestors of Romanians migrated from these Roman provinces south of the Danube into the area which they inhabit today. According to the first theory, the Romanians are descended from indigenous populations that inhabited what is now Romania and its immediate environs: Thracians and Roman legionnaires and colonists. In the course of the two wars with the Roman legions, between AD 101–102 and AD 105–106 the emperor Trajan succeeded in defeating the Dacians and the greatest part of Dacia became a Roman province.
The colonisation with Roman or Romanized elements, the use of the Latin language and the assimilation of Roman civilisation as well as the intense development of urban centres led to the Romanization of part of the autochthonous population in Dacia. This process was concluded by the 10th century when the assimilation of the Slavs by the Daco-Romanians was completed. According to the south-of-the-Danube origin theory, the Romanians' ancestors, a combination of Romans and Romanized peoples of Illyria and Thrace, moved northward across the Danube river into modern-day Romania. Small population groups speaking several versions of Romanian still exist south of the Danube in Greece, Macedonia and Serbia, but it is not known whether they themselves migrated from more northern parts of the Balkans, including Dacia; the south-of-the Danube theory favours northern Albania and/or Moesia as the more specific places of Romanian ethnogenesis. Small genetic differences were found among Southeastern European populations and those of the Dniester–Carpathian region.
Despite this low level of differentiation between them, tree reconstruction and principal component analyses allowed a distinction between Balkan–Carpathian and Balkan Mediterranean population groups. The genetic affinities among Dniester–Carpathian and southeastern European populations do not reflect their linguistic relationships. According to the report, the results indicate that the ethnic and genetic differentiations occurred in these regions to a considerable extent independently of each other. During the Middle Ages Romanians were known as Vlachs, a blanket term of Germanic origin, from the word Walha, used by ancient Germanic peoples to refer to Romance-speaking and Celtic neighbours. Besides the separation of some groups during the Age of Migration, many Vlachs could be found all over the Balkans, in Transylvania, across Carpathian Mountains as far north as Poland and as far west as the regions of Moravia, some went as far east as Volhynia of western Ukraine, the present-day Croatia where the Morlachs disappeared, while the Catholic and Orthodox Vlachs took Croat and Serb national identity.
Because of the migrations that followed – such as those of Slavs, Bulgars and Tatars – the Romanians were organised in agricultural communes, developing large centralised states only in the 14th century, when the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia emerged to fight the Ottoman Empire. During the late Middle Ages, prominent medieval Romanian monarchs such as Bogdan of Moldavia, Stephen the Great, Mircea the Elder, Michael the Brave, or Vlad the Impaler took part in the history of Central Europe by waging tumultuous wars and leading noteworthy crusades against the continuously expanding Ottoman Empire, at ti
Annexation is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible acquisition of one state's territory by another state. It is held to be an illegal act, it is distinct from conquest, which refers to the acquisition of control over a territory involving a change of sovereignty, differs from cession, in which territory is given or sold through treaty, since annexation is a unilateral act where territory is seized and held by one state. It follows military occupation of a territory. Annexation can be legitimized via general recognition by international bodies. International law regarding the use of force by states has evolved in the 20th century. Key agreements include the 1907 Porter Convention, the 1920 Covenant of the League of Nations and the 1928 Kellogg–Briand Pact, culminating in Article 2 of Chapter I of the United Nations Charter, in force today: "All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations".
Since the use of force against territorial integrity or political independence is illegal, the question as to whether title or sovereignty can be transferred in such a situation has been the subject of legal debate. It is held that countries are under obligation to abide by the Stimson Doctrine that a state: "cannot admit the legality of any situation de facto nor... recognize any treaty or agreement entered into between those Governments... not... recognize any situation, treaty or agreement which may be brought about by means contrary to the covenants and obligations of the Pact of Paris of August 27, 1928". These principles were reconfirmed by the 1970 Friendly Relations Declaration. During World War II, the use of annexation deprived whole populations of the safeguards provided by international laws governing military occupations; the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 amplified the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 with respect to the question of the protection of civilians. The authors of the Fourth Geneva Convention made a point of giving the rules regarding inviolability of rights "an absolute character", thus making it much more difficult for a state to bypass international law through the use of annexation.
GCIV Article 47, in the first paragraph in Section III: Occupied territories, restricted the effects of annexation on the rights of persons within those territories: Protected persons who are in occupied territory shall not be deprived, in any case or in any manner whatsoever, of the benefits of the present Convention by any change introduced, as the result of the occupation of a territory, into the institutions or government of the said territory, nor by any agreement concluded between the authorities of the occupied territories and the Occupying Power, nor by any annexation by the latter of the whole or part of the occupied territory. In 1954, the residents of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, a Portuguese enclave within India, ended Portuguese rule with the help of nationalist volunteers. From 1954 to 1961, the territory enjoyed de facto independence. In 1961, the territory was merged with India after its government signed an agreement with the Indian government. In 1961, India and Portugal engaged in a brief military conflict over Portuguese-controlled Goa and Daman and Diu.
India invaded and conquered the areas after 36 hours of fighting, ending 451 years of Portuguese colonial rule in India. The action was viewed in India as a liberation of Indian territory. A condemnation of the action by the United Nations Security Council was vetoed by the Soviet Union. Goa and Daman and Diu were incorporated into India. During the British colonial rule in India, Sikkim had an ambiguous status, as an Indian princely state or as an Indian protectorate. Prior to Indian independence, Jawaharlal Nehru, acting as the leader of Executive Council, agreed that Sikkim would not be treated as an Indian state. Between 1947 and 1950, Sikkim enjoyed de facto independence. However, the Indian independence spurred popular political movements in Sikkim and the ruler Chogyal came under pressure, he requested Indian help to quell the uprising, offered. Subsequently, in 1950, India signed a treaty with Sikkim bringing it under its suzerainty, controlling its external affairs, defence and communications.
A state council was established in 1955 to allow for constitutional government under the Sikkimese monarch. Meanwhile, trouble was brewing in the state after the Sikkim National Congress demanded fresh elections and greater representation for the Nepalese. In 1967 India and China went to war in Sikkim, Cho La incident where a Chinese occupation was attempted and repulsed. In 1973, riots in front of the palace led to a formal request for protection from India; the Chogyal was proving to be unpopular with the people. In 1975, the Kazi appealed to the Indian Parliament for a change in Sikkim's status so that it could become a state of India. In April, the Indian Army moved into Sikkim, seizing the city of Gangtok and disarming the Palace Guards. A referendum was held in. A few weeks on May 16, 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the monarchy was abolished. On 18 September 1955 at 10:16 am, in what would be the final territorial expansion of the British Empire, Rockall was declared annexed by the British Crown when Lieutenant-Commander