The skin of most fishes is covered with protective scales, which can provide effective camouflage through the use of reflection and colouration, as well as possible hydrodynamic advantages. Scales vary enormously in size, shape and extent, ranging from strong and rigid armour plates in fishes such as shrimpfishes and boxfishes, to microscopic or absent in fishes such as eels and anglerfishes; the morphology of a scale can be used to identify the species of fish. Cartilaginous fishes are covered with placoid scales. Most bony fishes are covered with the cycloid scales of salmon and carp, or the ctenoid scales of perch, or the ganoid scales of sturgeons and gars; some species are covered instead by scutes, others have no outer covering on the skin. Fish scales are part of the fish's integumentary system, are produced from the mesoderm layer of the dermis, which distinguishes them from reptile scales; the same genes involved in tooth and hair development in mammals are involved in scale development.
The placoid scales of cartilaginous fishes are called dermal denticles and are structurally homologous with vertebrate teeth. It has been suggested that the scales of bony fishes are similar in structure to teeth, but they originate from different tissue. Most fish are covered in a protective layer of mucus; the bony scales of thelodonts, the most abundant form of fossil fish, are well understood. The scales were formed and shed throughout the organisms' lifetimes, separated after their death. Bone, a tissue, both resistant to mechanical damage and prone to fossilization preserves internal detail, which allows the histology and growth of the scales to be studied in detail; the scales comprise a non-growing "crown" composed of dentine, with a sometimes-ornamented enameloid upper surface and an aspidine base. Its growing base is made of cell-free bone, which sometimes developed anchorage structures to fix it in the side of the fish. Beyond that, there appear to be five types of bone-growth, which may represent five natural groupings within the thelodonts—or a spectrum ranging between the end members meta- dentine and mesodentine tissues.
Each of the five scale morphs appears to resemble the scales of more derived groupings of fish, suggesting that thelodont groups may have been stem groups to succeeding clades of fish. However, using scale morphology alone to distinguish species has some pitfalls. Within each organism, scale shape varies hugely according to body area, with intermediate forms appearing between different areas—and to make matters worse, scale morphology may not be constant within one area. To confuse things further, scale morphologies are not unique to taxa, may be indistinguishable on the same area of two different species; the morphology and histology of thelodonts provides the main tool for quantifying their diversity and distinguishing between species, although using such convergent traits is prone to errors. Nonetheless, a framework comprising three groups has been proposed based upon scale morphology and histology. Comparisons to modern shark species have shown that thelodont scales were functionally similar to those of modern cartilaginous fish, has allowed an extensive comparison between ecological niches.
Cosmoid scales are found in several ancient lobe-finned fishes, including some of the earliest lungfishes, were derived from a fusion of placoid scales. They are composed of a layer of dense, lamellar bone called isopedine, above, a layer of spongy bone supplied with blood vessels; the bone layers are covered by a complex dentine layer called cosmine and a superficial outer coating of vitrodentine. Cosmoid scales increase in size through the growth of the lamellar bone layer. Ganoid scales are found in the sturgeons, gars and bichirs, they are derived from cosmoid scales and have serrated edges. They are covered with a layer of hard enamel-like dentine in the place of cosmine, a layer of inorganic bone salt called ganoine in place of vitrodentine. Most are diamond-shaped and connected by peg-and-socket joints, they are thick and have a minimal amount of overlap as compared to other scales. In this way, ganoid scales are excellent protection against predation. In sturgeons, the scales are enlarged into armour plates along the sides and back, while in the bowfin the scales are reduced in thickness to resemble cycloid scales.
Native Americans and people of the Caribbean used the tough ganoid scales of the alligator gar for arrow heads, as shielding to cover plows. In current times jewellery is made from these scales. Elasmoid scales are thin, imbricated scales composed of a layer of dense, lamellar bone called isopedine, above, a layer of tubercles composed of bone, as in Eusthenopteron; the layer of dentine, present in the first sarcopterygians is reduced, as in the extant coelacanth, or absent, as in extant lungfish and in the Devonian Eusthenopteron. Elasmoid scales have appeared several times over the course of fish evolution, they are present in some lobe-finned fishes: coelacanths, all extant and some extinct lungfishes, some tetrapodomorphs like Eusthenopteron and teleosts, whose cycloid and ctenoid scales represent the least mineralized elasmoid scales. Placoid scales are found in the cartilaginous fishes: sharks and chimaeras, they are called dermal denticles. Placoid scales are structurally homologous with vertebrate teeth, having a central pulp cavity supplied with blood vessels, surrounded by a conical layer of dentine, all of which sits on top of a r
Eucyclogobius is a genus of fish in the family Gobiidae endemic to California in United States. There are 2 recognized species in this genus: Eucyclogobius kristinae Swift, Ellingson & Jacobs, 2016 Eucyclogobius newberryi
Mendocino County, California
Mendocino County is a county located on the north coast of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 87,841; the county seat is Ukiah. Mendocino County comprises CA Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is located west of the Central Valley. The county is noted for its distinctive Pacific Ocean coastline, its location along California's "Lost Coast", Redwood forests, wine production and liberal views about the use of cannabis and support for its legalization. In 2009 it was estimated that one-third of the economy was based on the cultivation of marijuana; the notable historic and recreational attraction of the "Skunk Train" connects Fort Bragg with Willits in Mendocino County via a steam-locomotive engine, along with other vehicles. Mendocino County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Due to an minor white American population, it did not have a separate government until 1859 and was under the administration of Sonoma County prior to that.
Some of the county's land was given to Sonoma County between 1850 and 1860. The county derives its name from Cape Mendocino, named in honor of either Antonio de Mendoza, Viceroy of New Spain, 1535–1542, or Lorenzo Suárez de Mendoza, Viceroy from 1580 to 1583. Mendocino is the adjectival form of the family name of Mendoza. Neither Spanish nor Mexican influence extended into Mendocino County beyond establishing two Mexican land grants in southern Mendocino County: Rancho Sanel in Hopland, in 1844 and Rancho Yokaya that forms the majority of the Ukiah Valley, in 1845. In the 19th century, despite the establishment of the Mendocino Indian Reservation and Nome Cult Farm in 1856, the county witnessed many of the most serious atrocities in the extermination of the Californian Native American tribes who lived in the area, like the Yuki, the Pomo, the Cahto, the Wintun; the systematic occupation of their lands, the reduction of many of their members into slavery and the raids against their settlements led to the Mendocino War in 1859, where hundreds of Indians were killed.
Establishment of the Round Valley Indian Reservation in March 30, 1870, did not prevent the segregation that continued well into the 20th century. Other tribes from the Sierra Nevada mountains were relocated to the Round Valley Indian Reservation during the "California Trail Of Tears", where the Natives were forced to march in bad conditions to their new home in Round Valley. Many of these tribes thrown together were not friends with the other tribes they were forced to live with on the reservation, resulting in tensions still evident today. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,878 square miles, of which 3,506 square miles is land and 372 square miles is water. Humboldt County - north Trinity County - north Tehama County - northeast Glenn County - east Lake County - east Sonoma County - south The 2010 United States Census reported that Mendocino County had a population of 87,841; the racial makeup of Mendocino County was 67,218 White, 622 African American, 4,277 Native American, 1,450 Asian, 119 Pacific Islander, 10,185 from other races, 3,970 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 19,505 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 86,265 people, 33,266 households, 21,855 families residing in the county; the population density was 25 people per square mile. There were 36,937 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 80.8% White, 0.6% Black or African American, 4.8% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 8.6% from other races, 3.9% from two or more races. 16.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 12.2% were of German, 10.8% English, 8.6% Irish, 6.1% Italian and 5.6% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 84.4% spoke English and 13.2% Spanish as their first language. There were 33,266 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.3% were non-families. 27.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 27.1% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.1 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,996, the median income for a family was $42,168. Males had a median income of $33,128 versus $23,774 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,443. About 10.9% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.5% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over. As of 2018, the district attorney of Mendocino County is C. David Eyster, the elected sheriff-coroner is Thomas D. Allman, the chief executive officer is Carmel J. Angelo. Mendocino County is legislatively governed by a board of five supervisors, each with a separate district.
The first district is represented by Carre Brown, serves the central-eastern region of the county, including Potter Valley, Redwood Valley and Talmage. The second district, represented by John McCowen, serves Ukiah; the third district, in the nort
Countershading, or Thayer's law, is a method of camouflage in which an animal's coloration is darker on the upper side and lighter on the underside of the body. This pattern is found in many species of mammals, birds and insects, both predators and prey, has occurred since at least the Cretaceous period; when light falls from above on a uniformly coloured three-dimensional object such as a sphere, it makes the upper side appear lighter and the underside darker, grading from one to the other. This pattern of light and shade makes the object appear solid, therefore easier to detect; the classical form of countershading, discovered in 1909 by the artist Abbott Handerson Thayer, works by counterbalancing the effects of self-shadowing, again with grading from dark to light. In theory this could be useful for military camouflage, but in practice it has been applied, despite the best efforts of Thayer and in the Second World War, of the zoologist Hugh Cott; the precise function of various patterns of animal coloration that have been called countershading has been debated by zoologists such as Hannah Rowland, with the suggestion that there may be multiple functions including flattening and background matching when viewed from the side.
A related mechanism, counter-illumination, adds the creation of light by bioluminescence or lamps to match the actual brightness of a background. Counter-illumination camouflage is common in marine organisms such as squid, it has been studied up to the prototype stage for military use in ships and aircraft, but it too has or never been used in warfare. The reverse of countershading, with the belly pigmented darker than the back, enhances contrast and so makes animals more conspicuous, it is found in animals, such as skunks. The pattern is used both in startle or deimatic displays and as a signal to warn off experienced predators. However, animals that habitually live upside-down but lack strong defences, such as the Nile catfish and the Luna moth caterpillar, have upside-down countershading for camouflage; the English zoologist Edward Bagnall Poulton, author of The Colours of Animals discovered the countershading of various insects, including the pupa or chrysalis of the purple emperor butterfly, Apatura iris, the caterpillar larvae of the brimstone moth, Opisthograptis luteolata and of the peppered moth, Biston betularia.
However he did he suggest that the effect occurred widely. The New Hampshire artist Abbott Handerson Thayer was one of the first to study and write about countershading. In his 1909 book Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom, he described and illustrated countershading with photographs and paintings, but wrongly claimed that all animals are countershaded. For this reason countershading is sometimes called Thayer's law. Thayer wrote: Animals are painted by Nature darkest on those parts which tend to be most lighted by the sky's light, vice versa.... The fact that a vast majority of creatures of the whole animal kingdom wear this gradation, developed to an exquisitely minute degree, are famous for being hard to see in their homes, speaks for itself. Thayer observed and painted a number of examples, including the Luna moth caterpillar Actias luna, both in its habitual upside-down feeding position, where its countershading makes it appear flat, artificially inverted from that position, where sunlight and its inverted countershading combine to make it appear shaded and therefore solid.
Thayer obtained a patent in 1902 to paint warships, both submarines and surface ships, using countershading, but failed to convince the US Navy to adopt his ideas. Hugh Bamford Cott in his 1940 book Adaptive Coloration in Animals described many instances of countershading, following Thayer in general approach but criticising Thayer's excessive claim that all animals are camouflaged with countershading. Cott called this "Thayer straining the theory to a fantastic extreme". Both Thayer and Cott included in their books photographs of a non-countershaded white cockerel against a white background, to make the point that in Thayer's words "a monochrome object can not be'obliterated', no matter what its background" or in Cott's words "Colour resemblance alone is not sufficient to afford concealment". Cott explained that Contrary to what might have been expected by any one lacking in artistic perception, the bird appears conspicuous, the back looking lighter, the breast darker, than the background, although in actual fact, back and breast are all pure white."
Countershading is observed in a wide range of animal groups, both terrestrial, such as deer, marine, such as sharks. It prey, it is used alongside other forms of camouflage including colour matching and disruptive coloration. Among predatory fish, the gray snapper, Lutianus griseus, is flattened by its countershading, while it hunts an "almost invisible" prey, the hardhead fish, Atherina laticeps which swims over greyish sands. Other countershaded marine animals include blue shark and dolphin, it tones the canvas on which are painted the Leopard's spots, the Tiger's stripes... It is the dress universally worn by rodents... It is the essential uniform adopt
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
Santa Ynez River
The Santa Ynez River is one of the largest rivers on the Central Coast of California. It is 92 miles long, flowing from east to west through the Santa Ynez Valley, reaching the Pacific Ocean at Surf, near Vandenberg Air Force Base and the city of Lompoc; the river drains the north slope of the Santa Ynez Mountains, the south slope of the San Rafael Mountains, as well as much of the southern half of Santa Barbara County. Its drainage basin is 896 square miles in area; the river's flow is variable. It dries up completely in the summer, but can become a raging torrent in the winter; the river has three dams. The river was first named by the Spanish Portolà expedition, first European land exploration of Alta California, which camped near the river mouth on August 30, 1769. Unable to agree on a single name, expedition diarists recorded three. Engineer Miguel Costanso wrote "Río Grande de San Verardo". Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi noted two additional names. None of the three names remain attached to any feature in the area.
Instead, the river and mountains took the name of Mission Santa Inés, established in 1804. According to the USGS, variant and historical names of the Santa Ynez River include La Purisima River, Rio De La Purisima, Rio De Calaguasa, Rio Santa Rosa, Rio De Santa Ines, Rio De Santa Ynes; the Santa Ynez River originates in Los Padres National Forest, on the northern slope of the Santa Ynez Mountains near Divide Peak and the Ventura County border. The river flows west; the Upper Santa Ynez Campground is located near the river's source. After flowing through Billiard Flats the river enters Jameson Lake, the reservoir impounded by Juncal Dam. Below the dam, Alder Creek joins the Santa Ynez River from the south. At times water from Alder Creek is diverted into Jameson Lake via a tunnel. Continuing its westward course, the Santa Ynez flows by several campgrounds and canyons, including Blue Canyon. Mono Creek joins from the north just as the Santa Ynez flows into Gibraltar Reservoir, impounded by Gibraltar Dam.
Below this dam the river passes several campgrounds as well as facilities such as the Los Prietos Ranger Station. Paradise Road runs along the river. Continuing west, the river passes Fremont Campground near the mouth of Red Rock Canyon. West of Red Rock Canyon the river leaves Los Padres National Forest and its valley widens considerably. Kelly Creek joins from draining Los Laureles Canyon and Cold Spring Canyon. State Route 154, which crosses the Santa Ynez Mountains via San Marcos Pass, enters the Santa Ynez River valley at this point and follows the river for several miles to the west. Hot Spring Canyon joins from the south. Lake Cachuma, the largest reservoir on the river, is five miles in length. Several tributaries join the Santa Ynez River in Lake Cachuma, including Santa Cruz Creek and Cachuma Creek from the north and a number of smaller streams from the south; the lake area is designated as the Lake Cachuma Recreation Area. Cachuma County Park, near Tequepis Point, provides lake access.
Water from the lake is diverted into the Tecolote Tunnel, which passes south under the mountains to the Santa Barbara area. Below Lake Cachuma, the Santa Ynez River continues its westward course, its valley contains ranches and other development. The river passes by the cities of Solvang and Buellton. In Buellton the river is crossed by U. S. Route 101. Several tributaries join the river in this area, including Quiota Creek, Alisal Creek, Nojoqui Creek and Falls from the south, Santa Agueda Creek, Zanja de Cota Creek, Alamo Pintado Creek and Zaca Creek from the north. West of Buellton the Santa Ynez River flows between the Santa Rita Hills and Purisima Hills to the north and the Santa Rosa Hills to the south, it is joined by Santa Rosa Creek from Salsipuedes Creek from the south. Just west of Salsipuedes Creek the Santa Ynez River flows past the largest city in the valley, Lompoc. A few miles west of Lompoc the river reaches the Pacific Ocean at a location known as Surf, where there is a beach and an Amtrak station.
While there is public access to Surf and the mouth of the Santa Ynez River, most of the land between Lompoc and the ocean is part of Vandenberg Air Force Base. The USGS operates several stream gages along the Santa Ynez river. Gage 11133000 is located near Lompoc; the mean annual discharge recorded over the period since flow regulation by Lake Cachuma, in 1952, up to 2009, is 127 cubic feet per second. The maximum discharge was 80,000 cubic feet per second, recorded on January 25, 1969; the maximum discharge predating the stream gage was an estimated 120,000 cubic feet per second, during the flood of January 9, 1907. There is no flow at all for several months each year. There are three reservoirs on the river, the largest of, Lake Cachuma, with a capacity of 205,000 acre feet. Bradbury Dam, which forms the lake, was built by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation. Water from Lake Cachuma is diverted into the Tecolote Tunnel, which passes south under the Santa Ynez Mountains; the tunnel supplies water to the city of Santa Barbara, the Goleta Water District, the Carpinteria Valley Water District, the Montecito Water District.
Water from Lake Cachuma is released into the Santa Ynez River below Bradbury Dam in order to satisfy downstream water rights. The other two reservoirs are Gibraltar Res
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat