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Northgate railway station, Brisbane

Northgate railway station is located on the North Coast line in Queensland, Australia. It serves the Brisbane suburb of Northgate. North of the station, the Shorncliffe line branches off. Northgate station opened in 1882 as Toombul with the opening of the North Coast line, it was renamed Northgate Junction and shortened to Northgate. Northgate is served by Redcliffe Peninsula, Sunshine Coast & Shorncliffe line services. See Inner City timetable Brisbane Transport operates one route via Northgate station: 306: Nudgee Beach to Cultural Centre busway station Media related to Northgate railway station at Wikimedia Commons Northgate station Queensland Rail Northgate station Queensland's Railways on the Internet Northgate station TransLink travel information

Carlos Martínez (pitcher, born 1982)

Carlos M. Martínez is a former relief pitcher in Major League Baseball who played for the Miami Marlins. Marlins' fans nicknamed him K-Mart. Martínez throws right-handed, he made his major league debut on April 3, 2006. The Marlins signed Martínez out of the Dominican Republic as an undrafted free agent, he began his professional playing career the following season, at the age of 19, for the Dominican Marlins in the Dominican Summer League. He was a starting pitcher. In 2002, the Marlins converted Martínez into a reliever. In his first season in the United States, he played for the Gulf Coast Marlins, finishing with a record of 1-2, an ERA of 1.11, seven saves. In 2003, he again played in 3 games for the Gulf Coast Marlins and one for the Jamestown Jammers, but his other 15 games were for the Marlins' South Atlantic League affiliate, the Greensboro Grasshoppers, he spent the whole 2004 season with Greensboro. Martínez moved to the Jupiter Hammerheads of the High-A Florida State League for the 2005 season.

There, he became the team's closer, earning 22 saves to go with a 4-5 record and 3.12 ERA. He was able to see some time with the Marlins' two top minor-league affiliates. Martínez started the 2006 season in relative obscurity, since he had played only three games above Single-A prior to that season. However, in spring training, he impressed the Marlins giving up only one run and two hits in 8​2⁄3 innings for a 1.04 ERA. As a result, he beat out another hard-throwing young reliever, Travis Bowyer, former Atlanta Braves closer Kerry Ligtenberg for a spot in the Marlins' bullpen in 2006; the Marlins, who fielded a young team in 2006, started the season with nine rookies on their Opening Day roster, including five players with no major league experience: Martínez, Dan Uggla, Eric Reed, Reggie Abercrombie, Ricky Nolasco. Martínez appeared in 12 games with the Marlins in 2006, going 0-1 with a 1.74 ERA in 10​1⁄3 innings of work. He allowed no home runs, struck out 11 batters, walked six, his loss came in his first game of the year on April 9.

Martínez pitched in three games in four days from April 13 to April 16. After returning to action, he pitched 3​2⁄3 scoreless innings over six games, he made his last appearance of the year on June 22, when he allowed one hit, but did not retire any batters. He went back on the disabled list, having aggravated his elbow injury, he returned to the Marlins on August 3, 2007, pitched 1 inning while striking out 1 batter and giving up 2 earned runs. Martinez was outrighted to Triple-A New Orleans on June 4, 2009, thus taking him off the 40-man roster. Martínez throws a 96 mph four-seam fastball along with a split-finger fastball, a two-seam fastball, a slider. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference

Units of transportation measurement

The units of transportation measurement describes the unit of measurement used to measure the quantity and traffic of transportation used in transportation statistics and their related fields. The popular units are: kilometre or kilometer is a metric unit used to measure the length of a journey outside the USA. Vehicle-kilometre as a measure of traffic flow, determined by multiplying the number of vehicles on a given road or traffic network by the average length of their trips measured in kilometres. Vehicle-mile same as before but measures the trip expressed in miles. Passenger or person Passenger-distance is the distance travelled by passengers on transit vehicles. Passenger-kilometre or pkm internationally. A transit system serving a community with a dispersed population must operate circuitous routes that tend to carry fewer passengers per distance. A higher number is more favorable. A simple unit of freight is the kilogram-kilometre, the service of moving one kilogram of payload a distance of one kilometre.

Kilogram, the standard SI unit of mass. Tonne, a non-SI but an accepted metric unit, defined as 1,000 kilograms. "short ton" is used in the USA. Kilogram-kilometre or kgkm, moving 1 kg of cargo a distance of 1 km. In the USA, sometimes United States customary units are used; the dimension of the measure is the product of the payload mass and the distance transported. A semi truck traveling from Los Angeles to Chicago carrying 14 short tons of cargo delivers a service of 14 * 2,015 = 28,210 ton-miles of freight. Intermodal container traffic is measured in twenty-foot equivalent units, rather than cargo weight, e.g. a TEU-km would be the equivalent of one twenty-foot container transported one kilometer. Transportation density can say passenger / day or tonne / day; this can be used as the measure of intensity of the transportation on a particular section or point of transportation infrastructure, say road or railway. This can be used in comparison with the construction. Fatalities by VMT is a unit for assessing road traffic fatalities.

This metric is computed by dividing the fatalities by the estimated VMT. Transport risk is computed by reference to the distance traveled by people, while for road traffic risk, only vehicle traveled distance is taken into account. In the United-States, the unit is used as an aggregate in yearly federal publications, while its usage is more sporadic in other countries. For instance, it appears to compare different kind of roads in some publications as it had been computed on a fiver years period between 1995 and 2000. In the United States, it is computed per 100 million miles traveled, while internationally it is computed in 100 million or 1 billion kilometers traveled. According to the Minnesota Department of Public Safety, Office of Traffic Safety Volume of traffic, or vehicle miles traveled, is a predictor of crash incidence. All other things being equal, as VMT increases, so will traffic crashes; the relationship may not be simple, however. Energy efficiency in transport can be measured in L/100 km or miles per gallon.

This can be normalized per vehicle, as in fuel economy in automobiles, or per seat, as for example in fuel economy in aircraft. Rail usage statistics by country Scheduled Passengers Carried, World Air Transport Statistics 51st Edition, IATA provides an example of transportation statistics

David X. Cohen

David Samuel Cohen, better known as David X. Cohen, is an American television writer, he began working on Beavis and Butt-Head, has written for The Simpsons, served as the head writer and executive producer of Futurama. Cohen is a producer of Matt Groening's series for Netflix. Cohen was born in New York City as David S. Cohen, he changed his middle initial around the time Futurama debuted due to Writers' Guild policies prohibiting more than one member from having the same name. Both of his parents were biologists, growing up Cohen had always planned to be a scientist, though he enjoyed writing and drawing cartoons. Cohen graduated from Dwight Morrow High School in Englewood, New Jersey, where he wrote the humor column for the high school paper and was a member of the school's state champion mathematics team. Cohen graduated from Harvard University with a B. A. in physics, the University of California, with a M. S. in computer science. At Harvard, he served as President of the Harvard Lampoon. In high school Cohen wrote in MOS 6502 assembly language an Apple II compiler and computer game, unsuccessfully tried to publish the latter through Broderbund.

His most notable academic publication concerned the theoretical computer science problem of pancake sorting, the subject of an academic publication by Bill Gates and Christos Papadimitriou. After three years of graduate school, Cohen took a leave of absence and started writing sample TV scripts. In 1992, this landed him a job writing two of Butt-Head episodes. In 1993, Cohen began writing or co-writing thirteen episodes. Nearly five years Cohen would team with Matt Groening to develop Futurama, where he served as writer or co-writer of seven episodes and executive producer and head writer of the series' entire run. Cohen has won two for The Simpsons. Cohen co-developed Futurama, along with The Simpsons creator Matt Groening. Cohen served as head writer, executive producer, voice director of the series, he was the voice director of the Futurama video game. After spending a few years researching science fiction, Groening got together with Cohen in 1997 and developed Futurama, an animated series about life in the year 3000.

By the time they pitched the series to Fox in April 1998, Groening and Cohen had composed many characters and storylines. Groening described trying to get the show on the air as "by far the worst experience of grown-up life"; the show premiered on March 28, 1999. After four years on the air, the series was canceled by Fox. In a situation similar to the animated Family Guy, strong DVD sales and stable ratings on Adult Swim brought Futurama back to life; when Comedy Central began negotiating for the rights to air Futurama reruns, Fox suggested that there was a possibility of creating new episodes. When Comedy Central committed to sixteen new episodes, it was decided that four straight-to-DVD films—Bender's Big Score, The Beast with a Billion Backs, Bender's Game and Into the Wild Green Yonder —would be produced. Since no new Futurama projects were in production, the movie Into the Wild Green Yonder was designed to stand as the Futurama series finale. However, Groening had expressed a desire to continue the Futurama franchise in some form, including as a theatrical film.

In an interview with CNN, Groening said that "we have a great relationship with Comedy Central and we would love to do more episodes for them, but I don't know... We're having discussions and there is some enthusiasm but I can't tell if it's just me."Comedy Central picked up the show for 26 new half-hour episodes that began airing in mid-2010. Cohen told Newsday in August 2009 that the reported 26-episode order means "t will be up to 26. I can't guarantee it will be 26, but I think there's a pretty good chance it'll be 26. Fox has been a little bit cagey about it internally, but nobody's too concerned. We're plunging ahead." Two episodes were in the process of being voice-recorded at that time, with an additional "six scripts... in the works, ranging in scale from'it's a crazy idea that someone's grandmother thought of' to'it's all on paper'...."The first episode is tentatively titled'Rebirth' — and in a literal fashion, as things turn out". It aired June 24 on Comedy Central. Cohen designed one of the robots in the robot strip club which he said was "his one artistic contribution to the show".

The robot's waist gyrated sexily using a planetary gear. In an episode's commentary, this artistic contribution is discussed by Futurama co-creator Matt Groening, who describes Cohen as being particular about how the animators used his design, that Cohen's original drawing is still framed in his office, he makes some brief cameo appearances in cartoon form, first in the Futurama episode "A Bicyclops Built for Two", along with several other people who worked on the show, second on "I Dated a Robot" as a member of the eBay audience. Both appearances are pointed out during DVD commentaries; when the FOX prime-time animated shows unionized in 1998, Cohen was forced to use a different name for professional purposes as there was another member credited as David S. Cohen and the Writers Guild of America does not allow members to use the same name for onscreen credits. Instead of using his full middle name, he chose to use the middle initial "X"—because it sounded "sci-fi-ish"—and has jokingly said that the "X" would make him "the David Cohen people would remember".

The "X" does not stand for anything, but Cohen included a period "so people don't think it's some mathematical formula:'David times C

Voltage clamp

The voltage clamp is an experimental method used by electrophysiologists to measure the ion currents through the membranes of excitable cells, such as neurons, while holding the membrane voltage at a set level. A basic voltage clamp will iteratively measure the membrane potential, change the membrane potential to a desired value by adding the necessary current; this "clamps" the cell membrane at a desired constant voltage, allowing the voltage clamp to record what currents are delivered. Because the currents applied to the cell must be equal to the current going across the cell membrane at the set voltage, the recorded currents indicate how the cell reacts to changes in membrane potential. Cell membranes of excitable cells contain many different kinds of ion channels, some of which are voltage-gated; the voltage clamp allows the membrane voltage to be manipulated independently of the ionic currents, allowing the current–voltage relationships of membrane channels to be studied. The concept of the voltage clamp is attributed to Kenneth Cole and George Marmont in the spring of 1947.

They began to apply a current. Cole discovered that it was possible to use two electrodes and a feedback circuit to keep the cell's membrane potential at a level set by the experimenter. Cole developed the voltage clamp technique before the era of microelectrodes, so his two electrodes consisted of fine wires twisted around an insulating rod; because this type of electrode could be inserted into only the largest cells, early electrophysiological experiments were conducted exclusively on squid axons. Squids squirt jets of water when they need to move as when escaping a predator. To make this escape as fast as possible, they have an axon; the squid giant axon was the first preparation that could be used to voltage clamp a transmembrane current, it was the basis of Hodgkin and Huxley's pioneering experiments on the properties of the action potential. Alan Hodgkin realized that, to understand ion flux across the membrane, it was necessary to eliminate differences in membrane potential. Using experiments with the voltage clamp and Andrew Huxley published 5 papers in the summer of 1952 describing how ionic currents give rise to the action potential.

The final paper proposed the Hodgkin–Huxley model which mathematically describes the action potential. The use of voltage clamps in their experiments to study and model the action potential in detail has laid the foundation for electrophysiology; the voltage clamp is a current generator. Transmembrane voltage is recorded through a "voltage electrode", relative to ground, a "current electrode" passes current into the cell; the experimenter sets a "holding voltage", or "command potential", the voltage clamp uses negative feedback to maintain the cell at this voltage. The electrodes are connected to an amplifier, which measures membrane potential and feeds the signal into a feedback amplifier; this amplifier gets an input from the signal generator that determines the command potential, it subtracts the membrane potential from the command potential, magnifies any difference, sends an output to the current electrode. Whenever the cell deviates from the holding voltage, the operational amplifier generates an "error signal", the difference between the command potential and the actual voltage of the cell.

The feedback circuit passes current into the cell to reduce the error signal to zero. Thus, the clamp circuit produces a current opposite to the ionic current; the two-electrode voltage clamp technique is used to study properties of membrane proteins ion channels. Researchers use this method most to investigate membrane structures expressed in Xenopus oocytes; the large size of these oocytes allows for easy manipulability. The TEVC method utilizes two low-resistance pipettes, one sensing voltage and the other injecting current; the microelectrodes are filled with conductive solution and inserted into the cell to artificially control membrane potential. The membrane acts as a dielectric as well as a resistor, while the fluids on either side of the membrane function as capacitors; the microelectrodes compare the membrane potential against a command voltage, giving an accurate reproduction of the currents flowing across the membrane. Current readings can be used to analyze the electrical response of the cell to different applications.

This technique is favored over single-microelectrode clamp or other voltage clamp techniques when conditions call for resolving large currents. The high current-passing capacity of the two-electrode clamp makes it possible to clamp large currents that are impossible to control with single-electrode patch techniques; the two-electrode system is desirable for its fast clamp settling time and low noise. However, TEVC is limited in use with regard to cell size, it is more difficult to use with small cells. Additionally, TEVC method is limited in that the transmitter of current must be contained in the pipette, it is not possible to manipulate the intracellular fluid while clamping, possible using patch clamp techniques. Another disadvantage involves "space clamp" issues. Cole's voltage clamp used a long wire. TEVC microelectrodes can provide only a spatial point source of current that may not uniformly affect all parts of an irregularly shaped cell; the dual-cell voltage clamp technique is a specialized variation of the two electrode voltage clamp, is on

Museum of Local History in Ulcinj

Museum of Local History in Ulcinj or Museum of Ulcinj is a local museum located in Kalaja, part of Ulcinj, Montenegro. Through exhibits from the archaeological and artistic collection, in the Museum of Local History you can learn about life in Ulcinj from the 5th century BC to the Turkish period; the museum is located in the Church-Mosque, built as a church in 1510, had been transformed to a mosque by the Turks in 1571. Within the archaeological collection, there is an exhibition of antique Greek and Roman ceramics, coins as well as items which show the time of the sovereignty of the Montenegrin dynasties of Vojislavljević and Balšić. In the part of the exhibition that displays items from the ethnographic collection, there are traditional costumes Albanian and local handcraft which show the variety of folklore creativity in this area; the museum is divided into: Archaeological Museum Ethnological Museum Art Gallery Other archaeological exhibits Kalaja History of Montenegro Timeline of Ulcinj history