Domesday Book is a manuscript record of the Great Survey of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states, Then, at the midwinter, was the king in Glocester with his council. After this had the king a large meeting, and very deep consultation with his council, about this land, how it was occupied and it was written in Medieval Latin, was highly abbreviated, and included some vernacular native terms without Latin equivalents. The assessors reckoning of a mans holdings and their values, as recorded in Domesday Book, was dispositive, the name Domesday Book came into use in the 12th century. As Richard FitzNeal wrote in the Dialogus de Scaccario, for as the sentence of that strict and terrible last account cannot be evaded by any skilful subterfuge and its sentence cannot be quashed or set aside with impunity. That is why we have called the book the Book of Judgement, because its decisions, like those of the Last Judgement, are unalterable.
The manuscript is held at The National Archives at Kew, London, in 2011, the Open Domesday site made the manuscript available online. The book is a primary source for modern historians and historical economists. Domesday Book encompasses two independent works, Little Domesday and Great Domesday, no surveys were made of the City of London, Winchester, or some other towns, probably due to their tax-exempt status. Most of Cumberland and Westmorland are missing, the omission of the other counties and towns is not fully explained, although in particular Cumberland and Westmorland had yet to be fully conquered. Little Domesday – so named because its format is smaller than its companions – is the more detailed survey. It may have represented the first attempt, resulting in a decision to avoid such level of detail in Great Domesday, some of the largest such magnates held several hundred fees, in a few cases in more than one county. For example, the chapter of the Domesday Book Devonshire section concerning Baldwin the Sheriff lists 176 holdings held in-chief by him, as a review of taxes owed, it was highly unpopular.
Each countys list opened with the demesne lands. It should be borne in mind that under the system the king was the only true owner of land in England. He was thus the ultimate overlord and even the greatest magnate could do no more than hold land from him as a tenant under one of the contracts of feudal land tenure. In some counties, one or more principal towns formed the subject of a separate section and this principle applies more specially to the larger volume, in the smaller one, the system is more confused, the execution less perfect. Domesday names a total of 13,418 places and these include fragments of custumals, records of the military service due, of markets, and so forth
Districts of England
The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. As the structure of government in England is not uniform. Some districts are styled as boroughs, cities, or royal boroughs, these are purely honorific titles, prior to the establishment of districts in the 1890s, the basic unit of local government in England was the parish overseen by the parish church vestry committee. Vestries dealt with the administraction of both parochial and secular governmental matters, parishes were the successors of the manorial system and historically had been grouped into hundreds. Hundreds once exercised some supervising administrative function, these powers ebbed away as more and more civic and judicial powers were centred on county towns. From 1834 these parishes were grouped into Poor Law Unions, creating areas for administration of the Poor Law and these areas were used for census registration and as the basis for sanitary provision. In 1894, based on these earlier subdivisions, the Local Government Act 1894 created urban districts and rural districts as sub-divisions of administrative counties, another reform in 1900 created 28 metropolitan boroughs as sub-divisions of the County of London.
Meanwhile, from this date parish-level local government administration was transferred to civil parishes, the setting-down of the current structure of districts in England began in 1965, when Greater London and its 32 London boroughs were created. They are the oldest type of still in use. In 1974, metropolitan counties and non-metropolitan counties were created across the rest of England and were split into metropolitan districts, in London power is now shared again, albeit on a different basis, with the Greater London Authority. During the 1990s a further kind of district was created, the unitary authority, metropolitan boroughs are a subdivision of a metropolitan county. These are similar to unitary authorities, as the county councils were abolished in 1986. Most of the powers of the county councils were devolved to the districts but some services are run by joint boards, the districts typically have populations of 174,000 to 1.1 million. Non-metropolitan districts are second-tier authorities, which share power with county councils and they are subdivisions of shire counties and the most common type of district.
These districts typically have populations of 25,000 to 200,000, the number of non-metropolitan districts has varied over time. Initially there were 296, after the creation of unitary authorities in the 1990s and late 2000s and these are single-tier districts which are responsible for running all local services in their areas, combining both county and district functions. They were created in the out of non-metropolitan districts, and often cover large towns. In addition, some of the smaller such as Rutland, Herefordshire
Middlesex is a historic county in south-east England. It is now entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and its area is now mostly within the ceremonial county of Greater London, with small sections in other neighbouring ceremonial counties. It was established in the Anglo-Saxon system from the territory of the Middle Saxons, the largely low-lying county, dominated by clay in its north and alluvium on gravel in its south, was the second smallest county by area in 1831. The City of London was a county in its own right from the 12th century and was able to exert control over Middlesex. Westminster Abbey dominated most of the financial and ecclesiastical aspects of the county. As London grew into Middlesex, the Corporation of London resisted attempts to expand the city boundaries into the county, in the 18th and 19th centuries the population density was especially high in the southeast of the county, including the East End and West End of London. From 1855 the southeast was administered, with sections of Kent and Surrey, the City of London, and Middlesex, became separate counties for other purposes and Middlesex regained the right to appoint its own sheriff, lost in 1199.
In the interwar years suburban London expanded further, with improvement and expansion of public transport, after the Second World War, the population of the County of London and inner Middlesex was in steady decline, with high population growth continuing in the outer parts. Since 1965 various areas called Middlesex have been used for cricket, Middlesex was the former postal county of 25 post towns. The name means territory of the middle Saxons and refers to the origin of its inhabitants. The word is formed from the Anglo-Saxon, i. e. Old English, middel, in an 8th-century charter the region is recorded as Middleseaxon and in 704 it is recorded as Middleseaxan. The Saxons derived their name from seax, a kind of knife for which they were known, the seax has a lasting symbolic impact in the English counties of Essex and Middlesex, both of which feature three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem. Their names, along with those of Sussex and Wessex, contain a remnant of the word Saxon, there were settlements in the area of Middlesex that can be traced back thousands of years before the creation of a county.
Middlesex was formerly part of the Kingdom of Essex It was recorded in the Domesday Book as being divided into the six hundreds of Edmonton, Gore, Hounslow and Spelthorne. The City of London has been self-governing since the century and became a county in its own right. Middlesex included Westminster, which had a degree of autonomy. Of the six hundreds, Ossulstone contained the districts closest to the City of London, during the 17th century it was divided into four divisions, along with the Liberty of Westminster, largely took over the administrative functions of the hundred. The divisions were named Finsbury, Holborn and Tower, the county had parliamentary representation from the 13th century
RAF Northolt is a Royal Air Force station in South Ruislip,2 nautical miles from Uxbridge in the London Borough of Hillingdon, west London. Approximately 6 mi north of London Heathrow Airport, the station handles a large number of private civil flights. Northolt has one runway in operation, spanning 1,687 m ×46 m, Northolt pre-dates the establishment of the Royal Air Force by almost three years, having opened in May 1915. Originally established for the Royal Flying Corps, it has the longest history of use of any RAF airfield. Before the outbreak of the Second World War, the station was the first to take delivery of the Hawker Hurricane. The station played a key role during the Battle of Britain and it became the first base to have squadrons operating Supermarine Spitfire aircraft within German airspace. During the construction of Heathrow Airport, Northolt was used for civil flights, becoming the busiest airport in Europe for a time. More recently the station has become the hub of British military flying operations in the London area, the station has been used as a filming location for productions made at Pinewood Studios.
Following Louis Blériots first flight across the English Channel in 1909, by May 1910, Claude Grahame-White and other aviation pioneers were flying from the flat areas around Ruislip, although they soon sought an aerodrome for London, which was eventually built at Hendon. A proposal was made in 1912 for the area around where RAF Northolt now stands to be developed as Harrow Aerodrome, the company established to develop the site was listed on the London Stock Exchange but the idea did not progress any further. The outbreak of the First World War necessitated a new aerodrome for the Royal Flying Corps and he settled on a site near Northolt Junction railway station but it was not until January 1915 that the British government officially requisitioned the land. Construction of the new aerodrome, to be named RFC Military School, Ruislip and it opened on 3 May 1915, becoming known as Northolt and home to No.4 Reserve Aeroplane Squadron which relocated from Farnborough. The airfield became Northolt despite being in neighbouring South Ruislip, most early RAF airfields were named after the nearest railway station, in this case South Ruislip station, known at that time as Northolt Junction and Northolt Halt.
In the same year the airfield was extended westwards and aircraft began flying sorties in defence of London against Zeppelin raids. No.18 Squadron was formed in the month as Northolt and equipped with Bleriot Experimental biplanes. In 1916, No.43 Squadron was formed under the command of Major Sholto Douglas, Aircraft equipping the squadron included the Sopwith 1½ Strutter, built by the Fairey Aviation company, in Hayes. The Strutter made its first test flight from Northolt in 1916 with Harry Hawker at the controls, Fairey conducted test flights at Northolt from 1917 until 1928 when the Air Ministry gave the company notice to vacate the aerodrome. Flights resumed from the Great West Aerodrome owned by Fairey in Harmondsworth, No.43 Squadron went on to fly sorties over France from 17 January 1917, taking part in the Battle of Vimy Ridge between 4 and 8 April 1917
Northolt Manor is a 1.8 hectare Scheduled Ancient Monument, Local Nature Reserve and Site of Borough Importance for Nature Conservation, Grade II, in Northolt in the London Borough of Ealing. It is owned and managed by Ealing Council, archaeological excavations from 1950 show that the site has been occupied since at least the eighth century. Around 1300 a moat was dug, and in the century the first stone buildings were erected to make a moated manor house and it was demolished in the eighteenth century. In 1935 the land was purchased by the authority for public open space. The site has meadows, woodlands and ponds, there is access from Court Farm Road
Charing Cross denotes the junction of Strand and Cockspur Street, just south of Trafalgar Square in central London. It gives its name to several landmarks, including Charing Cross railway station, Charing Cross is named after the Eleanor cross that stood on the site, in what was once the hamlet of Charing. The site of the cross has been occupied since 1675 by a statue of King Charles I. A loose Victorian replica of the cross, the Queen Eleanor Memorial Cross, was erected a short distance to the east outside the railway station. Until 1931, Charing Cross referred to the part of Whitehall between Great Scotland Yard and Trafalgar Square, at least one property retains a Charing Cross postal address, Drummonds Bank, on the corner of Whitehall and The Mall, which is designated 49 Charing Cross. Since the early 19th century, Charing Cross has often been regarded as the centre of London. Erect a rich and stately carved cross, Whereon her statue shall with glory shine, George Peele The Famous Chronicle of King Edward the First The name of the area, Charing, is derived from the Old English word cierring, referring to a bend in the River Thames.
Folk etymology suggests the name derives from chère reine — dear queen in French — and this wooden sculpted cross was the work of the medieval sculptor, Alexander of Abingdon. It was destroyed in 1647 on the orders of Parliament during the Civil War, a 70 ft -high stone sculpture in front of Charing Cross railway station is a copy of the original cross. Erected in 1865, it is situated a few hundred yards to the east of the original cross and it was designed by the architect E. M. Barry and carved by Thomas Earp of Lambeth out of Portland stone, Mansfield stone and Aberdeen granite. It is not a replica, being more ornate than the original. A variation on the name appears to be Charygcrouche, near St Martin in the Fields, since 1675 the site of the cross has been occupied by a statue of King Charles I mounted on a horse. The site is recognised by convention as the centre of London for the purpose of indicating distances by road in favour of other measurement points. Charing Cross is marked on maps as a road junction.
Since 1 January 1931 this section of road has been designated part of the Whitehall thoroughfare, the cross has given its name to a railway station, a tube station, police station, hospital, a hotel, a theatre, and a music hall. Charing Cross Road the main route from the north was named after the railway station, at some time between 1232 and 1236, the Chapel and Hospital of St Mary Rounceval was founded at Charing. It occupied land at the corner of the modern Whitehall and into the centre of Northumberland Avenue and it was an Augustinian house, tied to a mother house at Roncesvalles in the Pyrenees. The house and lands were seized for the king in 1379, protracted legal action returned some rights to the prior, but in 1414, Henry V suppressed the alien houses
Taylor Woodrow was one of the largest housebuilding and general construction companies in Britain. It was listed on the London Stock Exchange and was a constituent of the FTSE100 Index until its merger with rival George Wimpey to create Taylor Wimpey on 3 July 2007. Frank Taylor was working in the family fruit wholesaling business in Blackpool when, at the age of 16, with some capital from his father and a loan from the bank, Frank Taylor built a pair of semi detached houses, selling one at a good profit. The company built over 1,000 houses at Grange Park in Hayes, in 1935, the various housebuilding companies were amalgamated and floated on the London Stock Exchange as Taylor Woodrow Estates. In 1937, Taylor Woodrow Construction was formed and, after a modest start, with the outbreak of war in 1939, all private housing development stopped. For six years Taylor Woodrow built military camps and factories culminating in work on the Mulberry harbour units, by the end of the war, Taylor Woodrow had become a substantial construction business.
The expertise was now turned to construction work at home. The first overseas construction was in East Africa where, amongst other things, moves were into west and South Africa and, in the 1950s, Taylor Woodrow expanded into Australia, Canada and, most important of all, the middle east. In the private sector, notable contracts included terminal buildings at London Heathrow airport, Taylor Woodrows original private housebuilding business was not neglected. Once building controls were abolished, Taylor Woodrow, responded rapidly, the centrepiece was the joint venture with Costain to build the dry docks at Port Rashid Dubai, described as the largest single overseas contract ever undertaken by the British construction industry. However, by the 1980s, middle east construction was declining, Taylor Woodrow had entered the commercial property market in 1964, its flagship project being the St Katharine Docks complex. By 1989, almost 60% of group profits was coming from rents, development profits, the collapse of the property boom led to exceptional write offs of more than £100 million in 1991 and 1992.
At the same time, few in the industry were making substantial profits. Gradually, Taylor Woodrow’s construction business was reduced in size and the emphasis of the group was redirected to private housing – both in the United Kingdom and North America, by the end of the 1990s, Taylor Woodrow was describing itself as an international housing and property group. In September 2008, Taylor Woodrow finally exited the market by selling Taylor Woodrow Construction to Vinci. In January 2001, Taylor Woodrow intervened in the merger of Bryant–Beazer, buying Bryant for £632 million in cash. Adding Bryants annual sales of 4,000 to Taywoods 2,000 immediately elevated Taylor Woodrow to one of the United Kingdoms top five housebuilders, Taywoods housing was relocated to Bryants Birmingham office, and rebranded under the Bryant name. Two years the business was again enlarged, this time by the acquisition of Wilson Connolly
Public housing may be a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. Social housing can be seen as a remedy to housing inequality. Some social housing organizations construct for purchase, particularly in Spain, although the common goal of public housing is to provide affordable housing, the details, definitions of poverty and other criteria for allocation vary within different contexts. The origins of municipal housing lie in the urban population increase caused by the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century. In the large cities of the period, many commentators, such as Octavia Hill and Charles Booth reported on the squalor, sickness. Henry Mayhew, visiting Bethnal Green, wrote in the The Morning Chronicle, roads were unmade, often mere alleys, houses small and without foundations and often around unpaved courts. An almost total lack of drainage and sewerage was made worse by the ponds formed by the excavation of brickearth.
Pigs and cows in back yards, noxious trades like boiling tripe, melting tallow, or preparing cats meat, and slaughter houses and lakes of putrefying night soil added to the filth. Some philanthropists began to provide housing in tenement blocks, and some factory owners built entire villages for their workers, such as Saltaire in 1853 and it was in 1885, after the report from a Royal Commission in England, that the state first took an interest. This led to the Housing of the Working Classes Act of 1885, nearly 6,000 individuals were crammed into the packed streets, where one child in four died before his or her first birthday. Arthur Morrison wrote the influential A Child of the Jago, an account of the life of a child in the slum, construction of the Boundary Estate was begun in 1890 by the Metropolitan Board of Works and completed by the recently formed London County Council in 1900. The success of this project spurred many local councils to embark on similar construction schemes in the early 20th century.
The Arts and Crafts movement and Ebenezer Howards Garden city ideas led to the leafy London County Council cottage estates such as firstly Totterdown Fields and Wormholt and Old Oak. The First World War indirectly provided a new impetus, when the physical health. In 1916, 41% of conscripts were unfit to serve, Public housing projects were tried out in some European countries and the United States in the 1930s, but only became widespread globally after the Second World War. Minha Casa Minha Vida, the Brazilian governments social housing program, was launched in March 2009 with a budget of R$36 billion to one million homes. The second stage of the program, included within the government Growth Acceleration Program was announced in March 2010 and this stage foresees the construction of a further two million homes. Of the total 3 million homes,1, all funds for Minha Casa Minha Vida properties are provided by the Brazilian public bank, Caixa Econômica Federal
The A40 is a major trunk road connecting London to Goodwick and officially called The London to Fishguard Trunk Road in all legal documents and Acts. The road still begins and ends in the places, but a number of changes have been made to its route. The first change dates from 1935, between Ross-on-Wye and Abergavenny, the original route of the A40 was via Skenfrith, this road was renumbered the B4521. Subsequently, the A40 was rerouted within west London, Western Avenue dates from the 1930s, but was originally opened as the A403. After the Second World War, the A40 was rerouted along part of the A219, the old route was renumbered the A4020. For the A40 in London, see A40 road, in central London it is named High Holborn, Oxford Street. At Marble Arch it joins the A5 Edgware Road as far as the Marylebone Flyover to become Westway, formerly classified A40 as an elevated motorway and it takes the A40 to meet Western Avenue. With two exceptions, Western Avenue forms a grade-separated motorway standard dual-carriageway between Paddington and the M40 motorway, which continues towards Oxford and Birmingham, the two at-grade intersections are Gypsy Corner and Savoy Circus, both of which are traffic light controlled.
For the greater part, the road is six lanes wide, at Denham Roundabout, the six lane Western Avenue flows into the M40. The A40 branches off Denham roundabout and runs alongside the M40 as a dual carriageway, after the A413 branches off the A40 becomes single carriageway, still roughly following the route of the M40, passing through the towns of Beaconsfield and High Wycombe. Beyond Stokenchurch the road is much quieter, when meeting the B4009, east of Oxford the A40 becomes a busy dual carriageway again, carrying traffic from the M40 to Oxford and beyond. The route forms the eastern section of the Oxford ring road, crossing the A44, after the road passes under the A34, the A40 reverts to single carriageway for 10 miles. It turns to dual carriageway again to form the Witney bypass, the dual carriageway finishes at a roundabout. For the rest of Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire until Cheltenham, other than for a few short stretches and this section has the highest point of the entire A40 which is 250 m above sea level, located 5 km west of the A429 junction.
Before Andoversford the A436 breaks off to the west to try to take away from descending into the centre of Cheltenham itself. The road travels through Cheltenham town centre along at least two parallel routes, afterwards it becomes dual carriageway out of Cheltenham and has a junction with the M5 motorway. The junction is a three-level stacked roundabout, where neither road is interrupted, in February 2015, the Witney Oxford Transport Group proposed the reopening of Yarnton railway station as an alternative to improvements to the A40 road proposed by Oxfordshire County Council. There is a case to reopen the railway given the severe traffic congestion on the roads to
Points of the compass
The points of the compass, specifically on the compass rose, mark divisions of a compass, such divisions may be referred to as winds or directions. A compass point allows reference to a heading in a general or colloquial fashion. A compass is primarily divided into the four cardinal points—north, south and these are often further subdivided by the addition of the four intercardinal directions—northeast between north and east, southeast and northwest —to indicate the eight principal winds. In meteorological usage, further intermediate points between cardinal and ordinal points, such as north-northeast between north and northeast, are added to give the sixteen points of a wind compass, for most applications, the fractional points have been superseded by degrees measured clockwise from North. In ancient China 24 points of the compass were used, measuring fifteen degrees between points. The names of the compass directions follow the 32-point wind compass rose follow these rules, The cardinal directions are north, south, the ordinal directions are northeast, southeast and northwest, formed by bisecting the angle of the cardinal winds.
The name is merely a combination of the cardinals it bisects, the eight principal winds are the cardinals and ordinals considered together, that is N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW. Each principal wind is 45° from its neighbour, the principal winds form the basic eight-wind compass rose. The eight half-winds are the points obtained by bisecting the angles between the principal winds, the half-winds are north-northeast, east-northeast, east-southeast, south-southeast, south-southwest, west-southwest, west-northwest and north-northwest. Notice that the name is constructed simply by combining the names of the winds to either side, with the cardinal wind coming first. The eight principal winds and the eight half-winds together yield a 16-wind compass rose, all of the above named points plus the sixteen quarter winds listed in the next paragraph define the 32 points of the wind compass rose. The sixteen quarter winds are the points obtained by bisecting the angles between the points on a 16-wind compass rose.
The name of a quarter-wind is X by Y, where X is a principal wind, so northeast by east means one quarter from NE towards E, southwest by south means one quarter from SW towards S. The eight principal winds, eight half-winds and sixteen quarter winds together yield a 32-wind compass rose, in the mariners exercise of boxing the compass, all thirty-two points of the compass are named in clockwise order. The title of the Alfred Hitchcock 1959 movie, North by Northwest, is not a direction point on the 32-wind compass. The traditional compass rose of eight winds was invented by seafarers in the Mediterranean Sea during the Middle Ages. This Italianate patois was used to designate the names of the winds on the compass rose found in mariner compasses. Tramutana, Grecho, Xaloc, Libezo, Mezzodi, Magistro, etc
Agronomy is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel and land reclamation. Agronomy has come to work in the areas of plant genetics, plant physiology, meteorology. It is the application of a combination of sciences like biology, economics, earth science, agronomists of today are involved with many issues, including producing food, creating healthier food, managing the environmental impact of agriculture, and extracting energy from plants. Agronomists often specialise in such as crop rotation and drainage, plant breeding, plant physiology, soil classification, soil fertility, weed control. This area of agronomy involves selective breeding of plants to produce the best crops under various conditions, plant breeding has increased crop yields and has improved the nutritional value of numerous crops, including corn and wheat. It has led to the development of new types of plants, for example, a hybrid grain called triticale was produced by crossbreeding rye and wheat.
Triticale contains more protein than does either rye or wheat. Agronomy has been instrumental in fruit and vegetable production research, agronomists use biotechnology to extend and expedite the development of desired characteristic. Biotechnology is often a lab activity requiring field testing of the new varieties that are developed. In addition to increasing crop yields agronomic biotechnology is increasingly being applied for novel uses other than food, for example, oilseed is at present used mainly for margarine and other food oils, but it can be modified to produce fatty acids for detergents, substitute fuels and petrochemicals. Agronomists study sustainable ways to make soils more productive and profitable and they classify soils and analyze them to determine whether they contain nutrients vital to plant growth. Common macronutrients analyzed include compounds of nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, soil is assessed for several micronutrients, like zinc and boron. The percentage of organic matter, soil pH, and nutrient holding capacity are tested in a regional laboratory, agronomists will interpret these lab reports and make recommendations to balance soil nutrients for optimal plant growth.
In addition, agronomists develop methods to preserve the soil and to decrease the effects of erosion by wind, for example, a technique called contour plowing may be used to prevent soil erosion and conserve rainfall. Researchers in agronomy seek ways to use the more effectively in solving other problems. Such problems include the disposal of human and animal manure, water pollution, techniques include no-tilling crops, planting of soil-binding grasses along contours on steep slopes, and contour drains of depths up to 1 metre. Agroecology is the management of systems with an emphasis on ecological and environmental perspectives. This area is associated with work in the areas of sustainable agriculture, organic farming, and alternative food systems
Ceremonial counties of England
The ceremonial counties, referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England, are areas of England to which a Lord Lieutenant is appointed. The Local Government Act 1888 established county councils to assume the functions of Quarter Sessions in the counties. It created new entities called administrative counties, the Act further stipulated that areas that were part of an administrative county would be part of the county for all purposes. The greatest change was the creation of the County of London, which was both an administrative county and a county, it included parts of the historic counties of Middlesex, Kent. Other differences were small and resulted from the constraint that urban sanitary districts were not permitted to straddle county boundaries, apart from Yorkshire, counties that were subdivided nevertheless continued to exist as ceremonial counties. In 1974, administrative counties and county boroughs were abolished, at this time, Lieutenancy was redefined to use the new metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties directly.
Following a further rearrangement in 1996, Cleveland and Worcester, Cleveland was partitioned between North Yorkshire and Durham. Hereford and Worcester was divided into the counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire. Humberside was split between Lincolnshire and a new county of East Riding of Yorkshire. Rutland was restored as a ceremonial county, many county boroughs were re-established as unitary authorities, this involved establishing the area as an administrative county, but usually not as a ceremonial county. Most ceremonial counties are therefore entities comprising local authority areas, as they were from 1889 to 1974, the Association of British Counties, a traditional counties lobbying organisation, has suggested that ceremonial counties be restored to their ancient boundaries, as nearly as practicable. In present-day England, the ceremonial counties correspond to the shrieval counties, the Lieutenancies Act 1997 defines counties for the purposes of lieutenancies in terms of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties as well as Greater London and the Isles of Scilly.
Although the term is not used in the Act, these counties are known as ceremonial counties. gov. uk