The Bristol Mercury is a nine-cylinder, air-cooled, single-row, piston radial engine. Designed by Roy Fedden of the Bristol Aeroplane Company it was used to power both civil and military aircraft of the 1930s and 1940s. Developed from the earlier Jupiter engine variants could produce 800 horsepower from its capacity of 1,500 cubic inches by use of a geared supercharger. 21,000 engines were produced, with a number being built in Europe under licence. At least three Bristol Mercuries remain airworthy in 2010, with other preserved examples on public display in aviation museums; the Mercury was developed by the Bristol Aeroplane Company in 1925 as their Bristol Jupiter was reaching the end of its lifespan. Although the Mercury failed to attract much interest, the Air Ministry funded three prototypes and it became another winner for the designer Roy Fedden. With the widespread introduction of superchargers to the aviation industry in order to improve altitude performance, Fedden felt it was reasonable to use a small amount of boost at all times in order to improve performance of an otherwise smaller engine.
Instead of designing an new block, the existing Jupiter parts were re-used with the stroke reduced by one inch. The smaller capacity engine was boosted back to Jupiter power levels, while running at higher rpm and thus requiring a reduction gear for the propeller; the same techniques were applied to the original Jupiter-sized engine to produce the Pegasus. The Mercury's smaller size was aimed at fighter use and it powered the Gloster Gauntlet and its successor, the Gloster Gladiator, it was intended that the larger Pegasus would be for bombers but as the power ratings of both engines rose, the Mercury found itself being used in all roles. Its most famous use was in a twin-engine light bomber, the Bristol Blenheim. In 1938 Roy Fedden pressed the Air Ministry to import supplies of 100 octane aviation spirit from the USA; this new fuel would allow aero engines to run at higher compression ratios and supercharger boost pressure than the existing 87-octane fuel, thus increasing the power. The Mercury XV was one of the first British aero engines to be type-tested and cleared to use the 100-octane fuel in 1939.
This engine was capable of running with a boost pressure of +9 lbs/sq.in and was first used in the Blenheim Mk IV. The Mercury was the first British aero engine to be approved for use with variable-pitch propellers; the Bristol company and its shadow factories produced 20,700 examples of the engine. Outside the United Kingdom, Mercury was licence-built in Poland and used in their PZL P.11 fighters. It was built by NOHAB in Sweden and used in the Swedish Gloster Gladiator fighters and in the Saab 17 dive-bomber. In Italy, it was built by Alfa Romeo as the Mercurius. In Czechoslovakia it was built by Walter Engines. In Finland, it was built by Tampella and used on Bristol Blenheim bombers. Note: Mercury I 808 hp, direct drive. Schneider Trophy racing engine. Mercury II 420 hp, compression ratio 5.3:1. Mercury IIA 440 hp compression ratio 4.8:1, 0.5:1 reduction gear. Mercury IIIA Minor modification of Mercury III. Mercury IV 485 hp, 0.656:1 reduction gear. Mercury IVA 510 hp. Mercury IVS.2 510 hp. Mercury Unsuccessful experimental short stroke version, 390 hp.
Mercury V 546 hp Mercury VIS 605 hp, see specifications section. Mercury VISP 605 hp,'P' for Persia. Mercury VIS.2 605 hp. Mercury VIA 575 hp Mercury VIIA 560 hp Mercury VIII 825 hp, compression ratio 6.25:1, lightened engine. Mercury VIIIA Mercury VIII fitted with gun synchronisation gear for the Gloster Gladiator Mercury VIIIA 535 hp, second use of VIIIA designation, Mercury IX 825 hp, lightened engine. Mercury X 820 hp. Mercury XI 820 hp. Mercury XII 820 hp Mercury XV 825 hp, developed from Mercury VIII. Converted to run on 100 Octane fuel. Mercury XVI 830 hp. Mercury XX 810 hp Mercury 25 825 hp. Mercury XV with crankshaft modifications. Mercury 26 825 hp; as Mercury 25 with modified carburettor. Mercury 30 810 hp, Mercury XX with crankshaft modifications. Mercury 31 810 hp, Mercury 30 with carburettor modifications and fixed pitch propeller for Hamilcar X. Note: A Bristol Mercury powered Westland Lysander remains airworthy in 2017 at the Shuttleworth Collection, Old Warden, United Kingdom and is flown at home air displays throughout the summer months.
A second Bristol Mercury is airworthy as of 2017 at The Shuttleworth Collection, Old Warden powering the collection's Gloster Gladiator and is flown at home air displays throughout the summer months. The Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum has a Lysander IIIA in flying condition as does the Vintage Wings of Canada. A Bristol Mercury VII is on display at the Royal Air Force Museum London. Another example of a Bristol Mercury VII is on display at the Shuttleworth Collection. A sectioned Bristol Mercury is on display at RNAS Yeovilton. Data from Lumsden Type: Nine-cylinder single-row supercharged air-cooled radial engine Bore: 5.75 in Stroke: 6.5 in Displacement: 1,519 in³ Length: 47 in Diameter: 51.5 in Dry weight: 966 lb Valvetrain: Overhead valve, 4 valves per cylinder – 2 intake and 2 sodium-filled exhaust Supercharger: Single-speed centrifugal type supercharger Fuel system: Claudel-Hobson carburettor Fuel type: 87 Octane petrol Cooling system: Air-cooled Reduction gear: Farman epicyclic gearing, 0.5:1, left hand tractor Power output: 612
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The Northrop YA-13 was an attack version of the Northrop Gamma type aircraft. After receiving an engine change, the aircraft was redesignated XA-16; the Northrop Gamma 2C was a company funded demonstrator based on the Northrop Gamma 2A and 2B designs. These early designs were designed as racers or for speed record attempts; the cockpits both of the 2A and 2B aircraft were far back on the fuselage near the tail, but for the Gamma 2C the cockpit was moved forward to a more conventional position. The Air Corps evaluated the Northrop Gamma 2C attack aircraft in mid 1933. Testing revealed the need for some modifications which were done in the first part of 1934; the aircraft was returned to the Army for testing at Wright Field in the summer of 1934. By this time, the Air Corps purchased the aircraft and designated it YA-13 and assigned it the serial number 34-27. Further testing of the YA-13 revealed the aircraft to be underpowered and the Army recommended the aircraft be fitted with a more powerful engine.
The original engine was a large diameter single-row radial engine, which obstructed the pilot's forward vision. The replacement engine, a twin-row radial, had a smaller diameter; the propeller was changed from a two-blade to three-blade type also. After the engine change was completed, the aircraft was returned to Wright Field for additional testing; the Air Corps followed standard practice and re-designated the aircraft XA-16 based on the engine change. With the new more powerful engine, the aircraft went from being underpowered to overpowered. Northrop was developing another attack aircraft at this time in a more or less parallel development program; this aircraft was designated Gamma 2F and was based on an improved Gamma 2C design. This aircraft became the A-17, the primary single engine attack aircraft used by the Army Air Corps during the late 1930s. With the success of the A-17, the YA-13/XA-16 program never progressed past the test phase. YA-13 XA-16 United StatesUnited States Army Air Corps Data from General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 29 ft 8 in Wingspan: 48 ft 0 in Height: 9 ft 2 in Max.
Takeoff weight: 3061 kg Performance Maximum speed: 212 mph Cruise speed: 195 mph Range: 1,000 mi869 nm Service ceiling: 22,000 ft Armament Guns: 4 × forward firing.30 in M1919 Browning machine guns and 1 × flexible.30 in machine gun for the rear gunner Bombs: Provisions for up to 1,100 lb of bombs mounted on wing racks Related development Northrop Gamma Northrop A-17 Related lists List of military aircraft of the United States
Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp
The Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp is an American aircraft engine used in the 1930s and 1940s. Produced by Pratt & Whitney, it is a two-row, 14-cylinder, air-cooled radial design with seven cylinders on a row, it displaces 1,830 cu in and its bore and stroke are both 5.5 in. A total of 173,618 R-1830 engines were built, from their use in two of the most-produced aircraft built, the four-engined B-24 heavy bomber and twin-engined DC-3 transport, more Twin Wasps may have been built than any other aviation piston engine in history. A "bored-out" version with a higher power rating and other slight changes in detail design was produced as the R-2000. Retired today, it is still used on Douglas DC-3 and various museum aircraft and warbirds seen at airshows, it is not manufactured anymore, but spares are still available and there exists a wide market for second-hand engines and parts. R-1830-1: 800 hp R-1830-9: 850 hp, 950 hp R-1830-11: 800 hp R-1830-13: 900 hp, 950 hp, 1,050 hp R-1830-17: 1,200 hp R-1830-21: 1,200 hp R-1830-25: 1,100 hp R-1830-33: 1,200 hp R-1830-35: 1,200 hp Fitted with GE B-2 turbosupercharger R-1830-41: 1,200 hp Fitted with GE B-2 turbosupercharger R-1830-43: 1,200 hp R-1830-45: 1,050 hp R-1830-49: 1,200 hp R-1830-64: 850 hp, 900 hp R-1830-65: 1,200 hp R-1830-66: 1,000 hp, 1,050 hp, 1,200 hp R-1830-72: 1,050 hp R-1830-75: 1,350 hp R-1830-76: 1,200 hp R-1830-82: 1,200 hp R-1830-86: 1,200 hp R-1830-88: 1,200 hp R-1830-90: 1,200 hp R-1830-90-B: 1,200 hp R-1830-92: 1,200 hp R-1830-94: 1,350 hp R-1830-S1C3-G: 1,050 hp, 1,200 hp R-1830-S3C4: 1,200 hp R-1830-S3C4-G: 1,200 hp R-1830-S6C3-G: 1,100 hp R-1830-SC-G: 900 hp R-1830-SC2-G: 900 hp, 1,050 hp R-1830-SC3-G: 1,065 hp same engine built in Sweden as STWC-3G by SFA company for Swedish J-22, B-17 and B-18.
Bristol Beaufort Bloch MB.176 Boeing XB-15 Budd RB Conestoga Burnelli CBY-3 CAC Boomerang CAC Woomera Consolidated B-24 Liberator Consolidated PBY Catalina Consolidated PB2Y Coronado Consolidated PB4Y Privateer Curtiss P-36 Hawk Douglas C-47 Skytrain Douglas DC-3 Douglas DB-7 Douglas TBD Devastator FFVS J 22 Grumman F4F Wildcat I. Ae. 24 Calquin Laird-Turner Meteor LTR-14 Lioré et Olivier LeO 453 Lisunov Li-3 - A Yugoslav version of the Soviet Lisunov Li-2 Martin Maryland Restored Mitsubishi A6M Zero warbird aircraft Republic P-43 Lancer Saab 17 Saab 18 Short Sunderland V Seversky P-35 Vickers Wellington IV VL Myrsky Vultee P-66 Vanguard Model R-1830-92 displayed at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC Model R-1830-86 on display at the New England Air Museum, Bradley International Airport, Windsor Locks, Connecticut. Model R-1830 on display at the Northeast Classic Car Museum in Norwich, New York Model R-1830 on display at the Dutch aviation museum Aviodrome Model R-1830 cut-away display at Airbase Arizona Museum in Mesa, Arizona Model R-1830/65 on display at the Museo Nacional de Aeronautica, Buenos Aires, Argentina Data from Type: Fourteen-cylinder two-row supercharged air-cooled radial engine Bore: 5.5 in Stroke: 5.5 in Displacement: 1,829.4 in³ Length: 59.06 in Diameter: 48.03 in Dry weight: 1,250 lb Valvetrain: Two overhead valves per cylinder Supercharger: Single-speed General Electric centrifugal type supercharger, 1:7.15 speed increase Fuel system: Two-barrel Stromberg carburetor Fuel type: 95-100 octane rating gasoline Cooling system: Air-cooled Reduction gear: Epicyclic gearing, 2:3 Power output: 1,200 hp at 2,700 rpm for takeoff 700 hp at 2,325 rpm cruise power at 13,120 ft Specific power: 0.66 hp/in³ Compression ratio: 6.7:1 Specific fuel consumption: 0.49 lb/ Power-to-weight ratio: 0.96 hp/lb Related development Pratt & Whitney Wasp series Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp Pratt & Whitney R-1535 Twin Wasp Junior Pratt & Whitney R-2000 Twin Wasp Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major Comparable engines BMW 801 Bristol Taurus Fiat A.74 Gnome-Rhône 14N Mitsubishi Kinsei Nakajima Sakae Piaggio P.
XI Piaggio P. XIX Shvetsov ASh-82 Tumansky M-88 Wright R-1820Related lists List of aircraft engines Angelucci, Enzo. Complete Book of World War II Combat Aircraft. VMB Publishers. ISBN 978-88-540-0829-8. Bridgman, Leonard, ed. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1951–1952. London: Samson Low, Marston & Company, Ltd 1951. Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines: From the Pioneers to the Present Day. 5th edition, Stroud, UK: Sutton, 2006. ISBN 0-7509-4479-X White, Graham. Allied Aircraft Piston Engines of World War II: History and Development of Frontline Aircraft Piston Engines Produced by Great Britain and the United States During World War II. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: SAE International, 1995. ISBN 1-56091-655-9 Pratt & Whitney's R-1830 page List of R-1830 Variants
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
The Saab 17 was a Swedish bomber-reconnaissance aircraft. The project was initiated in response to a request in 1938 from the Swedish air force for a reconnaissance aircraft that could replace the Fokker S 6. Design work began at the end of the 1930s as the L 10 by ASJA, but after the merger with Saab in 1939 it was renamed Saab 17; the wings were reinforced to make it possible for use as a dive bomber. Since there was a shortage of engines the aircraft were flown to their destination, where the engines were removed and returned for use by the next delivery; the aircraft was made in three versions with different engines. Two prototype L-10 aircraft were ordered, the first being powered by a 880 hp Nohab-built Bristol Mercury XII and the second by a 1,065 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp; the production B 17A used a Swedish-built Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp, the B 17B a Svenska Flygmotor AB -built Bristol Mercury XXIV, the B 17C a Piaggio P. XI; the aircraft could be fitted with skis or floats.
A unique feature of the Saab 17 was its use of the extended landing gear assembly, with its large covers, as dive brakes. The first test flight was on 18 May 1940 and first deliveries to the Flygvapnet were in 1942. However, the development of the turbojet meant it had a short service history, but when the B 17 ended Swedish service in 1947–50, 46 were sold to Ethiopia, remaining in service until 1968. Two B 17As were sold to Finland in 1959 and 1960, serving as target tugs for the Finnish Air Force, both succumbing to accidents quickly. For some months from early 1945 fifteen B 17As were issued to DANFORCE. However, as things unfolded with the German surrender, there was no need for them in the liberation of Denmark, the aircraft were returned to the Flygvapnet a couple of months after the surrender. B 17A – Bomber version with 1,050–1,200 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830-S1C3G Twin Wasp engine. XIbis R. C.40D engine. AustriaAustrian Air Force EthiopiaImperial Ethiopian Air Force FinlandFinnish Air Force SwedenSwedish Air Force Five SAAB 17s are known to be in existence today.
The Swedish Air Force Museum in Linköping has two aircraft in their collection, one S 17BL and one B 17A, the latter being kept in airworthy condition. Another B 17A is on display at the Danish Museum of Technology in Helsingør. Two former Ethiopian B 17As were purchased by a South African collector; these are last known to have been relocated to Lithuania but their current status is not clear. Data from Saab Aircraft since 1937General characteristics Crew: two Length: 10 m Wingspan: 13.7 m Height: 4.5 m Wing area: 28.5 m2 Empty weight: 2,680 kg Gross weight: 3,870 kg Powerplant: 1 × Piaggio P. XIbis R. C.40D 9 cyl. air-cooled radial piston engine Propellers: 3-bladed Piaggio P.1001 variable pitch propellerPerformance Maximum speed: 435 km/h Cruise speed: 370 km/h Landing speed: 125 km/h Range: 1,700 km Service ceiling: 9,800 m Rate of climb: 10 m/s Wing loading: 139 kg/m2 Power/mass: 0.220 kW/kg 0.14 hp/lbArmament Guns: 2× 8 mm Ksp m/22F machine gun machine guns, fixed forward-firing 1× 8 mm Ksp m/22R machine-gun flexibly mounted in the rear cockpit Bombs: 700 kg of bombs Aircraft of comparable role and era Aichi D3A Brewster SB2A Buccaneer Douglas SBD Dauntless Fairey Battle Ilyushin Il-2 Junkers Ju 87 Northrop A-17 Sukhoi Su-2 Related lists List of bomber aircraft List of military aircraft of Sweden Andersson, Hans G..
Saab Aircraft since 1937. Washington, D. C. / London: Smithsonian Institution Press / Putnam. Pp. 59–65. ISBN 0-87474-314-1. Foreword by Bill Gunston, ed.. Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. New York & London: Military Press & Crescent Books. ISBN 1-85170-493-0