England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The turbofan or fanjet is a type of airbreathing jet engine, used in aircraft propulsion. The word "turbofan" is a portmanteau of "turbine" and "fan": the turbo portion refers to a gas turbine engine which achieves mechanical energy from combustion, the fan, a ducted fan that uses the mechanical energy from the gas turbine to accelerate air rearwards. Thus, whereas all the air taken in by a turbojet passes through the turbine, in a turbofan some of that air bypasses the turbine. A turbofan thus can be thought of as a turbojet being used to drive a ducted fan, with both of these contributing to the thrust; the ratio of the mass-flow of air bypassing the engine core divided by the mass-flow of air passing through the core is referred to as the bypass ratio. The engine produces thrust through a combination of these two portions working together. Most commercial aviation jet engines in use today are of the high-bypass type, most modern military fighter engines are low-bypass. Afterburners are not used on high-bypass turbofan engines but may be used on either low-bypass turbofan or turbojet engines.
Modern turbofans have either a smaller fan with several stages. An early configuration combined a low-pressure fan in a single rear-mounted unit. Turbofans were invented to circumvent an awkward feature of turbojets, that they were inefficient for subsonic flight. To raise the efficiency of a turbojet, the obvious approach would be to increase the burner temperature, to give better Carnot efficiency and fit larger compressors and nozzles. However, while that does increase thrust somewhat, the exhaust jet leaves the engine with higher velocity, which at subsonic flight speeds, takes most of the extra energy with it, wasting fuel. Instead, a turbofan can be thought of as a turbojet being used to drive a ducted fan, with both of those contributing to the thrust. Whereas all the air taken in by a turbojet passes through the turbine, in a turbofan some of that air bypasses the turbine; because the turbine has to additionally drive the fan, the turbine is larger and has larger pressure and temperature drops, so the nozzles are smaller.
This means. The fan has lower exhaust velocity, giving much more thrust per unit energy; the overall effective exhaust velocity of the two exhaust jets can be made closer to a normal subsonic aircraft's flight speed. In effect, a turbofan emits a large amount of air more whereas a turbojet emits a smaller amount of air, a far less efficient way to generate the same thrust; the ratio of the mass-flow of air bypassing the engine core compared to the mass-flow of air passing through the core is referred to as the bypass ratio. The engine produces thrust through a combination of these two portions working together. Most commercial aviation jet engines in use today are of the high-bypass type, most modern military fighter engines are low-bypass. Afterburners are not used on high-bypass turbofan engines but may be used on either low-bypass turbofan or turbojet engines; the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine is the ratio between the mass flow rate of the bypass stream to the mass flow rate entering the core.
A 10:1 bypass ratio, for example, means that 10 kg of air passes through the bypass duct for every 1 kg of air passing through the core. Turbofan engines are described in terms of BPR, which together with overall pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature and fan pressure ratio are important design parameters. In addition bpr is quoted for turboprop and unducted fan installations because their high propulsive efficiency gives them the overall efficiency characteristics of high bypass turbofans; this allows them to be shown together with turbofans on plots which show trends of reducing specific fuel consumption with increasing BPS. BPR can be quoted for lift fan installations where the fan airflow is remote from the engine and doesn't physically touch the engine core. Bypass provides a lower fuel consumption for the same thrust. If all the gas power from a gas turbine is converted to kinetic energy in a propelling nozzle, the aircraft is best suited to high supersonic speeds. If it is all transferred to a separate big mass of air with low kinetic energy, the aircraft is best suited to zero speed.
For speeds in between, the gas power is shared between a separate airstream and the gas turbine's own nozzle flow in a proportion which gives the aircraft performance required. The trade off between mass flow and velocity is seen with propellers and helicopter rotors by comparing disc loading and power loading. For example, the same helicopter weight can be supported by a high power engine and small diameter rotor or, for less fuel, a lower power engine and bigger rotor with lower velocity through the rotor. Bypass refers to transferring gas power from a gas turbine to a bypass stream of air to reduce fuel consumption and jet noise. Alternatively, there may be a requirement for an afterburning engine where the sole requirement for bypass is to provide cooling air; this sets the lower limit for bpr and these engines have been called "leaky" or continuous bleed turbojets and low bpr turbojets. Low bpr has bee
The Northrop YA-9 was a prototype attack aircraft developed for the United States Air Force A-X program. The YA-9 was passed over in preference for the Fairchild Republic YA-10 that entered production as the A-10 Thunderbolt II. Criticism that the U. S. Air Force did not take close air support prompted a few service members to seek a specialized attack aircraft. In the Vietnam War, large numbers of ground-attack aircraft were shot down by small arms, surface-to-air missiles, low-level anti-aircraft gunfire, prompting the development of an aircraft better able to survive such weapons. Fast jets such as the North American F-100 Super Sabre, Republic F-105 Thunderchief, McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II proved for the most part to be ineffective for close air support; the Douglas A-1 Skyraider was the USAF's primary close air support aircraft. In mid-1966, the U. S. Air Force formed the Attack Experimental program office. On 6 March 1967, the Air Force released a request for information to 21 defense contractors for the A-X.
The objective was to create a design study for a low-cost attack aircraft. Discussions with A-1 Skyraider pilots operating in Vietnam and analysis of the effectiveness of current aircraft used in the role indicated the ideal aircraft should have long loiter time, low-speed maneuverability, massive cannon firepower, extreme survivability. While turboprop engines were requested in the initial request, by May 1969, requirements had changed to specify use of turbofan engines. In May 1970, the USAF issued a modified, much more detailed request for proposals; the threat of Soviet armored forces and all-weather attack operations had become more serious. Now included in the requirements was that the aircraft would be designed for the 30 mm cannon; the RFP called for an aircraft with a maximum speed of 460 mph, takeoff distance of 4,000 feet, external load of 16,000 pounds, 285-mile mission radius, a unit cost of US$1.4 million. Simplicity and low cost were vital requirements, with a maximum flyaway cost of $1.4 million based on a 600 aircraft production run.
Performance was to be sacrificed where necessary to keep development and production costs under control. During this time, a separate RFP was released for A-X's 30 mm cannon with requirements for a high rate of fire and a high muzzle velocity. Six companies submitted proposals to the USAF, with Northrop and Fairchild Republic selected on December 18, 1970 to build prototypes: the YA-9A and YA-10A, respectively. Meanwhile, General Electric and Philco-Ford were selected to test GAU-8 cannon prototypes; the A-9 was a shoulder-wing monoplane of all-riveted aluminum alloy construction, with honeycomb structures and chemically milled skins. The required twin turbofans were fitted in nacelles under the aircraft's wing roots. Northrop selected the 7,200 pounds-force Lycoming YF102 engine for the YA-9 rather than the more powerful General Electric TF34 used by the A-10, although either engine could be accommodated; the F-102 engine was a new design, based on the T55 turboshaft that powered the CH-47 helicopter, selected in order to minimize costs.
The aircraft had a large cruciform stabilizer in order to improve directional stability for low-level flight. Split ailerons were fitted; when these airbrakes were operated asymmetrically in conjunction with the aircraft's rudder, sideways control forces could be applied without yawing or banking, easing weapon aiming. The pilot sat under a large bubble canopy well ahead of the leading edge of the wings; the cockpit was surrounded by a bathtub of armor while the wing-mounted fuel tanks were self-sealing and filled with foam to minimize the potential for fires or massive fuel loss. Dual redundant hydraulic flight control systems were fitted, with a further manual backup to prevent a single hit from causing control failure; these design features were hoped to reduce combat losses by as much as 90% in Vietnam-type operations. A single 30 mm Gatling gun was to be fitted in the belly of the aircraft, with the gun barrels extending under the nose; as the gun was mounted on the aircraft's centerline, the undercarriage nosewheel was offset one foot to the left.
As the GAU-8 Avenger cannon was not ready, both the YA-9 prototypes were instead fitted with the smaller 20 mm M61 Vulcan. Ten underwing hardpoints were fitted, allowing up to 16,000 pounds of weapons, including bombs and AGM-65 Maverick air-to-ground missiles, to be carried; the YA-9 took its first flight on 30 May 1972, with the second prototype flying on 23 August. Northrop's flight testing was successful, with the aircraft claimed to have "fighter-like" handling and to be a good weapon platform. A fly-off by USAF test pilots of the two competing designs took place between 10 October and 9 December 1972. While the YA-9 met the USAF's requirements, the YA-10 was declared the winner on 18 January 1973; the use of the established TF34 engine rather than the untried F102 by the YA-10 may have been preferred by the Air Force, while Fairchild had no alternative work available and was unlikely to survive if it did not win the A-X contract. The two YA-9 prototypes were subsequently relegated to NASA for continued flight testing before being retired.
When retired, the YA-9s' custom-built engines were removed and were mated to a C-8 Buffalo airframe as part of the NASA-Boeing joint Quiet Short-haul Research Aircraft study into a quiet short-haul commercia
Northrop Grumman Corporation is an American global aerospace and defense technology company formed by Northrop's 1994 purchase of Grumman. The company reported revenues in excess of $30 billion in 2018 and was the fourth-largest arms trader in the world in 2017 with about 84% of all revenue coming from defense related activities. Northrop Grumman is made up of four main business sectors: Aerospace Systems, Mission Systems, Technology Services and Innovation Systems; the corporate headquarters is located in Virginia. Northrop Grumman ranks number 118 on the 2018 Fortune 500 list of America's largest corporations, it ranks in the top ten military-friendly employers and top 50 companies for diversity. Northrop Grumman and its industry partners have won the Collier Trophy eight times, most for developing the Northrop Grumman X-47B, the first unmanned, autonomous air system operating from an aircraft carrier. In 2004, Scaled Composites, a subsidiary of Northrop Grumman, won the Collier Trophy for the SpaceShipOne, successful developed for the first financed and flown space vehicle.
Northrop Grumman has been the sponsor of the Military Bowl since 2010. Northrop Grumman is made up of four main business sectors: Aerospace Systems, Mission Systems, Technology Services, Innovation Systems. Aerospace Systems, headquartered in Redondo Beach, produces aircraft, high-energy laser systems and microelectronics for the U. S. and other nations. This includes surveillance and reconnaissance, protected communications, battle management, strike operations, electronic warfare, missile defense to Earth observation, space science and space exploration; the B-2 Spirit strategic bomber, the E-8C Joint STARS surveillance aircraft, the RQ-4 Global Hawk, the T-38 Talon supersonic trainer are used by the US Air Force. The US Army uses Northrop Grumman's RQ-5 Hunter unmanned air vehicle, in operational use since 1995; the U. S. Navy uses Northrop Grumman-built aerial vehicles such as the BQM-74 Chukar, RQ-4 Global Hawk based MQ-4C Triton, MQ-8 Fire Scout, Grumman C-2 Greyhound, Grumman E-2 Hawkeye, the EA-6B Prowler.
Northrop Grumman provides major components and assemblies for different aircraft such as F/A-18 Hornet, F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, EA-18G Growler. and the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II. Aerospace systems serves as the contractor for numerous space payloads and is the prime contractor for the James Webb Space Telescope Northrop Grumman Mission Systems, headquartered in Linthicum, Maryland creates military radar and related products, including C4I radar systems for air defense, Airspace Management radar systems such as AMASS, battlefield surveillance systems like the Airborne Reconnaissance Low. Tactical aircraft sensors include the AN/APG-68 radar, the AN/APG-80 AESA radar, the AN/APG-83 AESA radar upgrade for the F-16 Fighting Falcon, the AN/APG-77 AESA radar for the F-22 Raptor, the AN/APG-81 AESA radar for the F-35 Lightning II, the AN/AAQ-37 electro-optical Distributed Aperture System for the F-35, the APQ-164 Passive Electronically Scanned Array radar for the B-1 Lancer. Mission Systems produces and maintains the AWACS aerial surveillance systems for the U.
S. the United Kingdom, NATO, others. Northrop Grumman is the prime contractor for the development and integration of the Air Force's $2-billion Multi-Platform Radar Technology Insertion Program. Northrop Grumman supports the U. S. ballistic missile program, integrates various command and intelligence systems and provides technical and management services to governmental and military customers, all with an emphasis on cyber security. Many other smaller products are made by Northrop Grumman, such as night vision goggles and secure communications equipment; the Technology Services sector headquartered in McNair, works on "the entire life cycle of civil and defense platforms and capabilities through a range of services". Vinnell, a Northrop Grumman subsidiary, provides training and communications for the military. In 2003, it landed a $48 million contract to train the Iraqi Army. In 2005 the company won a $2 billion contract with Virginia to overhaul most of the state's IT operations; that year, The United Kingdom paid $1.2 billion in a contract with the company to provide maintenance of the country's defensive radar.
Northrop Grumman performs various functions in the War on Drugs. The company sends planes to spray herbicides on suspected cocaine fields in Colombia and opium poppy fields in Afghanistan. On June 7, 2018, the acquisition of Orbital ATK was completed and the former company was absorbed in Northrop Grumman as a new business sector called Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems. Innovation system is headquartered in Virginia. Remotec, a subsidiary, is a manufacturer of remote control vehicles for explosive ordnance disposal and hazardous material handling. A UK-based subsidiary, Park Air Systems, provides VHF and UHF ground-to-air communications systems for the civil and defense markets. Northrop Grumman has worked with Antenna Associates, Inc. a manufacturer of Identification friend or foe /Secondary Surveillance Radar antennas located in Massachusetts. In August 2007, Northrop Grumman acquired Scaled Composites in which it had owned a 40% stake. In 2008, Northrop Grumman began working with DHS Systems LLC, manufacturer of the Deployable Rapid Assembly Shelter in New York, as part of the U.
S. Army's Standard Integrated Command Post System program. Northrop Grumman can trace its lineage back to the beginning of the 20th century and has created a myriad of products such as ballistic missiles, all-weather radars, Apollo Lunar Mo
El Segundo, California
El Segundo is a city located in Los Angeles County, United States. El Segundo, from Spanish, means "The Second" in English. Located on the Santa Monica Bay, it was incorporated on January 18, 1917, part of the South Bay Cities Council of Governments; the population was 16,654 at the 2010 census up from 16,033 at the 2000 census. The El Segundo and Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva Native American tribes thousands of years ago; the area was once a part of Rancho Sausal Redondo. Rancho Sausal Redondo extended from Playa Del Rey in the North to Redondo Beach in the South. A Mexican land grant owned by Antonio Ygnacio Avila, the rancho was purchased by a Scottish baronet named Sir Robert Burnett. After his return to Scotland, the property was purchased by current manager of the rancho, Daniel Freeman. Daniel Freeman sold portions of the rancho to several persons. George H. Peck owned the 840 acres of land. Peck developed land in neighboring El Porto where a street still bears his name.
The city earned its name as it was the site of the second Standard Oil refinery on the West Coast, when Standard Oil of California purchased the 840 acres of farm land in 1911. The city was incorporated in 1917; the Standard Oil Company was renamed Chevron in 1984. The El Segundo refinery entered its second century of operation in 2011; the Douglas Aircraft Company plant in El Segundo was one of the major aircraft manufacturing facilities in California during World War II. It was one of the major producers of SBD Dauntless dive bombers, which achieved fame in the Battle of Midway; the facility, now operated by Northrop Grumman, is still an aircraft plant. The north and south boundaries of the town are Los Angeles International Airport and Manhattan Beach, with the Pacific Ocean as the western boundary, its eastern boundary is Aviation Blvd. El Segundo is located at 33°55′17″N 118°24′22″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.5 square miles, over 99% of, land.
Guinness World Records has listed El Segundo as having the most roads with a grade. The 2010 United States Census reported that El Segundo had a population of 16,654; the population density was 3,047.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of El Segundo was 12,997 White, 337 African American, 68 Native American, 1,458 Asian, 38 Pacific Islander, 799 from other races, 957 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 2,609 persons; the Census reported that 16,578 people lived in households, 66 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 10 were institutionalized. There were 7,085 households, out of which 2,183 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 3,050 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 729 had a female householder with no husband present, 326 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 369 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships. 2,254 households were made up of individuals and 570 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.34. There were 4,105 families; the population was spread out with 3,719 people under the age of 18, 1,120 people aged 18 to 24, 5,182 people aged 25 to 44, 4,955 people aged 45 to 64, 1,678 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.8 males. There were 7,410 housing units at an average density of 1,356.1 per square mile, of which 3,034 were owner-occupied, 4,051 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.4%. 8,177 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 8,401 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, El Segundo had a median household income of $84,341, with 4.8% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the 2000 Census, the population density was 2,894.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,261 housing units at an average density of 1,310.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 83.61% White, 1.17% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 6.41% Asian, 0.29% Pacific Islander, 3.51% from other races, 4.55% from two or more races. 11.01% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,060 households out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.5% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.6% were non-families. 34.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 38.7% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $61,341, the median income for a family was $74,007.
Males had a median income of $52,486 versus $41,682 for females. The per capita income for
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18