The source or headwaters of a river or stream is the furthest place in that river or stream from its estuary or confluence with another river, as measured along the course of the river. The United States Geological Survey states that a river's "length may be considered to be the distance from the mouth to the most distant headwater source, or from the mouth to the headwaters of the stream known as the source stream"; as an example of the second definition above, the USGS at times considers the Missouri River as a tributary of the Mississippi River. But it follows the first definition above in using the combined Missouri - lower Mississippi length figure in lists of lengths of rivers around the world. Most rivers have numerous tributaries and change names often; this most identified definition of a river source uses the most distant point in the drainage basin from which water runs year-around, or, alternatively, as the furthest point from which water could flow ephemerally. The latter definition includes sometimes-dry channels and removes any possible definitions that would have the river source "move around" from month to month depending on precipitation or ground water levels.
This definition, from geographer Andrew Johnston of the Smithsonian Institution, is used by the National Geographic Society when pinpointing the source of rivers such as the Amazon or Nile. A definition given by the state of Montana agrees, stating that a river source is never a confluence but is "in a location, the farthest, along water miles, from where that river ends." Under this definition neither a lake nor a confluence of tributaries can be a true river source, though both provide the starting point for the portion of a river carrying a single name. For example, National Geographic and every other geographic authority and atlas define the source of the Nile River not as Lake Victoria's outlet where the name "Nile" first appears, which would reduce the Nile's length by over 900 km, but instead use the source of the largest river flowing into the lake, the Kagera River; the source of the Amazon River has been determined this way though the river changes names numerous times along its course.
However, the source of Thames in England is traditionally reckoned according to the named river Thames rather than its longer tributary, the Churn — although not without contention. When not listing river lengths, alternative definitions may be used; the Missouri River's source is named by some USGS and other federal and state agency sources, following Lewis and Clark's naming convention, as the confluence of the Madison and Jefferson Rivers, rather than the source of its longest tributary. This is contradicted by a US Army Corps of Engineers official on a USGS site who states the most common definition: "Geographers follow the longest tributary to identify the source of rivers and streams. In the case of the Missouri River and Clark would have had to travel to the east...to reach the source"... He states that the Missouri River source is well upstream from Lewis and Clark's confluence, "following the Jefferson River to the Beaverhead River to Red Rock River Red Rock Creek to Hell Roaring Creek."
Sometimes the source of the most remote tributary may be in an area, more marsh-like, in which the "uppermost" or most remote section of the marsh would be the true source. For example, the source of the River Tees is marshland; the furthest stream is often called the headstream. Headwaters are small streams with cool waters because of shade and melted ice or snow, they may be glacial headwaters, waters formed by the melting of glacial ice. Headwater areas are the upstream areas of a watershed, as opposed to the outflow or discharge of a watershed; the river source is but not always on or quite near the edge of the watershed, or watershed divide. For example, the source of the Colorado River is at the Continental Divide separating the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean watersheds of North America. A river is considered a linear geographic feature, with one source. For an example, note how the Mississippi River and Missouri River sources are defined: "Largest Rivers in the United States". United States Geological Survey.
U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Mississippi River, Length: 2,340 miles, Source: 47°14′22″N 95°12′29″W U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Missouri River, Length: 2,540 miles, Source: 45°55′39″N 111°30′29″W The verb "rise" can be used to express the general region of a river's source, is qualified with an adverbial expression of place. For example: The River Thames rises in Gloucestershire; the White Nile rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa. The word "source", when applied to lakes rather than rivers or streams, refers to the lake's inflow. Source of the Amazon River Source of the Nile Spring Strahler number Water well
Sligo Creek is a free-flowing tributary of the Northwest Branch of the Anacostia River in Maryland. The creek is 9.1 miles long, with a drainage area of about 11.6 square miles. The creek rises in the Kemp Mill section of Silver Spring in Montgomery County and joins with Northwest Branch near the city of Hyattsville in Prince George's County; the lower portion of the creek has been channelized. Elevations in the subwatershed range from 450 feet above sea level to 35 feet at the confluence with Northwest Branch. Contributing streams that flow into the creek include Wheaton Branch, Comstock Branch, Takoma Park Branch, Long Branch. Sligo Creek is one of the most urbanized subwatersheds in the Anacostia watershed, with a population density of 7,081 people per mi2. 75% of the watershed is in Montgomery County, 20% is in Prince George's County, 5% is in the District of Columbia. Less than 15% of the subwatershed is undeveloped, only 10% is forested. Less than 0.01% of the area is wetlands. From its source to the confluence with the Northwest Branch, the creek crosses through the communities of Silver Spring, Takoma Park, Carole Highlands and Hyattsville.
In these towns, the banks of the creek are in many stretches maintained as public parkland, with grassy lawns and playing fields. The Sligo Creek Trail, a hiker-biker trail, runs along the creek from Wheaton to the confluence, where it connects with the Anacostia Tributary Trail System. An automobile parkway runs along many parts of the creek in Montgomery County; the Sligo Creek watershed is a urbanized area, as a result the water quality in the creek and tributaries is degraded. In 2002 the Maryland Department of the Environment classified the creek as having poor water quality; the Montgomery County Government began installing several stormwater management and stream restoration projects in the watershed in 1989, by 2009 MDE had recognized some improvements in stream quality. Additional county projects are ongoing as of 2018. Sligo Creek was named after the crossroads named "Sligo" founded in the mid 19th century by Irish immigrant workers on the C&O Canal, it may have been named after County Sligo in Ireland.
The crossroads was located at Colesville Road and the 7th Street Pike the corner of Colesville Road and Georgia Avenue in Silver Spring. At the time of the Civil War, Sligo had a toll gate on the 7th Street Pike, an inn and a post office. A half mile from the Sligo crossroads Colesville Road crosses Sligo Creek. Over the years, Sligo Creek has served many purposes for area residents, including powering grist mills and as a drinking water source. In the Takoma Park section of the creek, the remains of a dam and associated building foundations for the Sligo Creek Waterworks can still be seen. From 1900 to 1930, the waterworks served the city of Takoma Park. After the sale of the water system to the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission in 1919, it served Silver Spring and Bethesda. Another dam, located where Flower Avenue crosses Sligo Creek, served Sligo Mill, located where the current New Hampshire Avenue crosses Sligo Creek. Sligo Mill was built in 1812 by investors that included several members of the prominent Maryland Carroll family.
In addition to milling grain for local farmers, Sligo Mill distilled whiskey. The mill was demolished in the 1920s. Overlooking the dam and millpond for Sligo Mill on the right bank of Sligo Creek, the Glen Sligo Hotel and Wildwood Amusement Park were built in 1900; the hotel and amusement park ceased operations in 1903. Sligo Creek served as the inspiration and title for "Sligo River Blues", a song by Takoma Park guitarist John Fahey, who popularized the area amongst folk artists. Another prominent folk guitarist, Al Petteway, composed "Sligo Creek" while living in the Takoma Park area; this Scots-influenced guitar tune was featured as the theme song of The National Parks, a PBS miniseries directed by Ken Burns."Sligo Creek" is an Irish traditional reel composed by an American banjo, mandolin and guitar player, Danny Noveck, named after the creek he was living near at the time he composed the melody. The creek inspired Katherine Paterson to write the Newbery Medal award-winning book Bridge to Terabithia.
List of Maryland rivers "Sligo Creek - Watershed Assessment". Montgomery County Department of Environmental Protection. "Friends of Sligo Creek". "Current Conditions for Sligo Creek near Takoma Park, MD". USGS Station ID 01650800 Protection. Retrieved 2012-05-07
Kemp Mill, Maryland
Kemp Mill is a census-designated place and an unincorporated census area in Montgomery County, United States. The population was 12,564 at the 2010 census. Kemp Mill census area consists of the separate communities of Kemp Mill Farms; as an unincorporated area, Kemp Mill does not have defined boundaries. However, Kemp Mill is recognized by the United States Census Bureau as a census-designated place, by the United States Geological Survey as a populated place located at 39°2′2″N 77°1′28″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the neighborhood has a total area of 2.54 square miles, all of it land. Kemp Mill is considered by many of its residents those members of the Orthodox Jewish community, to be part of unincorporated Silver Spring, Maryland, it is served by the Wheaton Post Office. Kemp Mill is home to the largest Orthodox Jewish community on the East Coast between Baltimore and Miami. Kemp Mill hosts a number of synagogues serving Orthodox Jews including Young Israel Shomrai Emunah, Silver Spring Jewish Center, Kemp Mill Synagogue, the Yeshiva of Greater Washington, Chabad of Silver Spring, Kehillas Ohr Hatorah and Minchas Yitzhak.
Additionally, there are many smaller Orthodox Jewish minyanim throughout the neighborhood including a Sephardic Minyan that meets at Shomrai Emunah and the Lower Lamberton Minyan. There are many in the area that are served by Conservative synagogues, such as Har Tzeon Agudath Achim, other branches of Judaism. Several Jewish and Catholic parochial schools are located there including the boys division of the Yeshiva of Greater Washington, Silver Spring Learning Center, the Jewish Montessori School. Two public schools are situated in the area, including Kemp Mill Elementary and Colonel E. Brooke Lee Middle School; the former Spring Mill Elementary school is now an administrative office. The Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission's Kemp Mill Recreation Center offers users a baseball diamond and tennis courts, a meeting space, a playground. Sligo Creek rises in Kemp Mill, the hiker-biker trail that runs alongside the creek from Wheaton Regional Park to the Anacostia River passes through the community.
The eastern end of Kemp Mill is bounded by the Northwest Branch, which flows south to the Anacostia. Deer are a frequent sight in the neighborhood. Kemp Mill Urban Park, centrally located on Arcola Avenue, has long served as a popular meeting place and playground; the park was closed in February 2016 for renovations and reopened in May 2017. A Kemp Mill Village is being formed to serve the needs of disabled residents. Montgomery County has established the position of Village Coordinator to assist communities with establishing villages. Kemp Mill Shopping Center is the commerce hub of the neighborhood, it contains: Shalom Kosher, a kosher butcher and grocery store Holy Chow, a kosher Chinese restaurant CVS Health, pharmacy Elli Chai Gifts, a Judaica store Nova Europa Restaurant, a European-style restaurant specializing in Portuguese cuisine Ben Yehuda's, a vegetarian kosher pizzeria The Pastry Oven, a vegetarian kosher pastry shop and cafe The Candy Man, candy store and gourmet chocolatier Kemp Mill Cleaners The Little Gym SunTrust Bank Capital One bank Kemp Mill Beer, Wine & Deli Bright Star Nails Norma’s Hair Design Martial Arts training facility Kemp Mill Optical Center Dentist and doctorThe Giant Food grocery store that anchored the Kemp Mill Shopping Center for decades closed on September 27, 2007.
Magruder's, a small local chain of grocery stores, renovated the former Giant and opened on November 7, 2007, closed in July, 2012. In July 2012, Shalom Kosher, which has a kosher store in Wheaton, purchased Magruder's. On October 31, 2012, Shalom Kosher opened at 1361 Lamberton Drive. Two private swimming pools, Parkland Pool and Kemp Mill Swim Club, serve the community. Kemp Mill is serviced by Ride On bus number 8, 9 and during rush hours, number 31. Washington Metro service is available in nearby Silver Spring and Wheaton. Montgomery County Public Schools operates public schools. Kemp Mill Elementary, Col. E. Brooke Lee Middle School, Northwood High School is within the Kemp Mill CDP; as of the census of 2000, there were 9,956 people, 3,386 households, 2,654 families residing in the area. The population density was 4,126.3 people per square mile. There were 3,448 housing units at an average density of 1,429.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the area was 68.45% White, 15.30% African American, 0.23% Native American, 8.18% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 4.91% from other races, 2.84% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.80% of the population. There were 3,386 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.3% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.6% were non-families. 17.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.89 and the average family size was 3.22. Twenty-seven percent of Kemp Mill residents hold a graduate degree. In the area, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 24.7% from 45 to 64, 18.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.5 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $89,294, the median income for a family was $111,985. Males had a median income of $52,244 versus $41,285 for females.
The per capita income for the area was $34,570. Abou
The Potomac River is located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States and flows from the Potomac Highlands into the Chesapeake Bay. The river is 405 miles long, with a drainage area of about 14,700 square miles. In terms of area, this makes the Potomac River the fourth largest river along the Atlantic coast of the United States and the 21st largest in the United States. Over 5 million people live within the Potomac watershed; the river forms part of the borders between Maryland and Washington, D. C. on the left descending bank and West Virginia and Virginia on the river's right descending bank. The majority of the lower Potomac River is part of Maryland. Exceptions include a small tidal portion within the District of Columbia, the border with Virginia being delineated from "point to point". Except for a small portion of its headwaters in West Virginia, the North Branch Potomac River is considered part of Maryland to the low water mark on the opposite bank; the South Branch Potomac River lies within the state of West Virginia except for its headwaters, which lie in Virginia.
The Potomac River runs 405 miles from Fairfax Stone Historical Monument State Park in West Virginia on the Allegheny Plateau to Point Lookout and drains 14,679 square miles. The length of the river from the junction of its North and South Branches to Point Lookout is 302 miles; the average daily flow during the water years 1931-2018 was 11,498 cubic feet /s. The highest average daily flow recorded on the Potomac at Little Falls, was in March 1936 when it reached 426,000 cubic feet /s; the lowest average daily flow recorded at the same location was 601.0 cubic feet /s in September 1966 The highest crest of the Potomac registered at Little Falls was 28.10 ft, on March 19, 1936. The river has two sources; the source of the North Branch is at the Fairfax Stone located at the junction of Grant and Preston counties in West Virginia. The source of the South Branch is located near Hightown in northern Highland Virginia; the river's two branches converge just east of Green Spring in Hampshire County, West Virginia, to form the Potomac.
As it flows from its headwaters down to the Chesapeake Bay, the Potomac traverses five geological provinces: the Appalachian Plateau, the Ridge and Valley, the Blue Ridge, the Piedmont Plateau, the Atlantic coastal plain. Once the Potomac drops from the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain at the Atlantic Seaboard fall line at Little Falls, tides further influence the river as it passes through Washington, D. C. and beyond. Salinity in the Potomac River Estuary increases thereafter with distance downstream; the estuary widens, reaching 11 statute miles wide at its mouth, between Point Lookout and Smith Point, before flowing into the Chesapeake Bay. "Potomac" is a European spelling of Patawomeck, the Algonquian name of a Native American village on its southern bank. Native Americans had different names for different parts of the river, calling the river above Great Falls Cohongarooton, meaning "honking geese" and "Patawomke" below the Falls, meaning "river of swans"; the spelling of the name has taken many forms over the years from "Patawomeck" to "Patomake", "Patowmack", numerous other variations in the 18th century and now "Potomac".
The river's name was decided upon as "Potomac" by the Board on Geographic Names in 1931. The river itself is at least 3.5 million years old extending back ten to twenty million years before present when the Atlantic Ocean lowered and exposed coastal sediments along the fall line. This included the area at Great Falls, which eroded into its present form during recent glaciation periods; the Potomac River brings together a variety of cultures throughout the watershed from the coal miners of upstream West Virginia to the urban residents of the nation's capital and, along the lower Potomac, the watermen of Virginia's Northern Neck. Being situated in an area rich in American history and American heritage has led to the Potomac being nicknamed "the Nation's River." George Washington, the first President of the United States, was born in, spent most of his life within, the Potomac basin. All of Washington, D. C. the nation's capital city lies within the watershed. The 1859 siege of Harper's Ferry at the river's confluence with the Shenandoah was a precursor to numerous epic battles of the American Civil War in and around the Potomac and its tributaries, such as the 1861 Battle of Ball's Bluff and the 1862 Battle of Shepherdstown.
General Robert E. Lee crossed the river, thereby invading the North and threatening Washington, D. C. twice in campaigns climaxing in the battles of Antietam and Gettysburg. Confederate General Jubal Early crossed the river in July 1864 on his attempted raid on the nation's capital; the river not only divided the Union from the Confederacy, but gave name to the Union's largest army, the Army of the Potomac. The Patowmack Canal was intended by George Washington to connect the Tidewater region near Georgetown with Cumberland, Maryland. Started in 1785 on the Virginia side of the river, it was not completed until 1802. Financial troubles led to the closure of the canal in 1830; the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal operated along the banks of the Potomac in Maryland from 1831 to 1924 and connected Cumberland to Washington, D. C; this allowed freight to be transported around the rapids known as the
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the bed and banks of a channel. The stream encompasses surface and groundwater fluxes that respond to geological, geomorphological and biotic controls. Depending on its location or certain characteristics, a stream may be referred to by a variety of local or regional names. Long large streams are called rivers. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, corridors for fish and wildlife migration; the biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. Given the status of the ongoing Holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity; the study of streams and waterways in general is known as surface hydrology and is a core element of environmental geography. Brook A stream smaller than a creek one, fed by a spring or seep, it is small and forded. A brook is characterised by its shallowness.
Creek In North America and New Zealand, a small to medium-sized natural stream. Sometimes navigable by motor craft and may be intermittent. In parts of Maryland, New England, the UK and India, a tidal inlet in a salt marsh or mangrove swamp, or between enclosed and drained former salt marshes or swamps. In these cases, the stream is the tidal stream, the course of the seawater through the creek channel at low and high tide. River A large natural stream, which may be a waterway. Runnel the linear channel between the parallel ridges or bars on a shoreline beach or river floodplain, or between a bar and the shore. Called a swale. Tributary A contributory stream, or a stream which does not reach a static body of water such as a lake or ocean, but joins another river. Sometimes called a branch or fork. There are a number of regional names for a stream. Allt is used in Highland Scotland. Beck is used in Lincolnshire to Cumbria in areas which were once occupied by the Danes and Norwegians. Bourne or winterbourne is used in the chalk downland of southern England.
Brook. Burn is used in North East England. Gill or ghyll is seen in Surrey influenced by Old Norse; the variant "ghyll" is used in the Lake District and appears to have been an invention of William Wordsworth. Nant is used in Wales. Rivulet is a term encountered in Victorian era publications. Stream Syke is used in lowland Cumbria for a seasonal stream. Branch is used to name streams in Virginia. Creek is common throughout the United States, as well as Australia. Falls is used to name streams in Maryland, for streams/rivers which have waterfalls on them if such falls have a small vertical drop. Little Gunpowder Falls and The Jones Falls are rivers named in this manner, unique to Maryland. Kill in New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey comes from a Dutch language word meaning "riverbed" or "water channel", can be used for the UK meaning of'creek'. Run in Ohio, Michigan, New Jersey, Virginia, or West Virginia can be the name of a stream. Run in Florida is the name given to streams coming out of small natural springs.
River is used for larger springs like the Silver Rainbow River. Stream and brook are used in Midwestern states, Mid-Atlantic states, New England. Bar A shoal that develops in a stream as sediment is deposited as the current slows or is impeded by wave action at the confluence. Bifurcation A fork into two or more streams. Channel A depression created by constant erosion. Confluence The point at which the two streams merge. If the two tributaries are of equal size, the confluence may be called a fork. Drainage basin The area of land. A large drainage basin such as the Amazon River contains many smaller drainage basins. Floodplain Lands adjacent to the stream that are subject to flooding when a stream overflows its banks. Gaging station A site along the route of a stream or river, used for reference marking or water monitoring. Headwaters The part of a stream or river proximate to its source; the word is most used in the plural where there is no single point source. Knickpoint The point on a stream's profile where a sudden change in stream gradient occurs.
Mouth The point at which the stream discharges via an estuary or delta, into a static body of water such as a lake or ocean. Pool A segment where the water is deeper and slower moving. Rapids A turbulent, fast-flowing stretch of a stream or river. Riffle A segment where the flow is shallower and more turbulent. River A large natural stream, which may be a waterway. Run A somewhat smoothly flowing segment of the stream. Source The spring, or other point of origin of a stream. Spring The point at which a stream emerges from an underground course through unconsolidated sediments or through caves. A stream can with caves, flow aboveground for part of its course, underground for part of its course. Stream bed The bottom of a stream. Stream corridor Stream, its floodplains, the transitional upland fringe Streamflow The water moving through a stream channel. Thalweg The river's longitudinal section, or the line joining the deepest point in the channel at each stage from source to mouth. Waterfall or cascade The fall of water where the stream goes over a sudden drop called a knickpoint.
The stream expends kinetic energy in "trying" to eliminate the
Colesville is a census-designated place and an unincorporated area in Montgomery County, Maryland, in the United States. As an unincorporated area, Colesville's boundaries are not defined. In fact, many residents consider the town to be one of the many neighborhoods of Silver Spring, Maryland. Colesville is recognized by the United States Postal Service as an acceptable city name in two northeastern Montgomery County ZIP codes, with Silver Spring being the preferred city name, it is recognized by the United States Census Bureau as a census-designated place, by the United States Geological Survey as a populated place located at 39°4′47″N 77°0′12″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the place has a total area of 9.2 square miles, all of it land. Colesville's accepted boundaries extend between the Northwest and Paint Branches of the Anacostia River, its northern and southern boundaries are not as well-defined, but are assumed to run from Springbrook High School in the south to Cloverly in the north.
The first land was purchased in Colesville from the Lords Baltimore in 1714, when Archibald Edmonston patented "Easy Purchase", a 900-acre tract that extended from Meadowood south to near present-day Route 29. In 1715, "Easy Purchase" was bought by James Beall, Sr. who that year patented "Drumeldry", a 225-acre tract from the Northwest Branch across Notley Road to Shannon Drive. In 1718, his nephew William Beall patented "Wolf's Den", a 317-acre tract that straddled today's Bonifant Road and ran from Notley Road to Pebblestone Drive, southwest across the Northwest Branch. However, none of these early landowners resided in Colesville. Robert Lazenby, thought to be the son of Henry Lazenby, High Sheriff of Anne Arundel County, purchased 217 acres of the southern part of "Wolfs Den" from William Beall in 1723, became the first resident farmer in Colesville. In 1747, James Odell, grandson of James Beall Sr. was deeded 300 acres of a tract known as "Beal Christie" from his parents, took to farming it.
It was located east of today's New Hampshire Avenue near. In the 1790s, Peter Kemp built a saw and grist mill on Paint Branch where it is crossed by today's Randolph Road; the mill was rebuilt twice, what is seen today in Valley Mill Park is the 1879 mill built by Franklin Pilling, which ceased to operate by 1930. The earliest recorded use of the "Colesville" name was on January 25, 1806, when the General Assembly of Maryland changed the place of holding elections of the Fourth Election District of Montgomery County to "Edward Berry's called Coale's-Ville", it is unknown where this name came from, but it may have come from the maiden name of Elizabeth Snowden, wife of Richard Snowden, the owner of "Snowden's Manor" in nearby Sandy Spring and began living there in 1728. By 1824 the name was known as "Coalsville", was sometimes referred to as such as late as 1906; the oldest standing house in Colesville is "Milimar" at 410 Randolph Road, in the National Register of Historic Places and was built around 1790.
It is known as "The Old Lazanby Home", but was built by Samuel and Mary Peach, who purchased the 164.5-acre tract it is on known as "Peaches Lot" from Evan Thomas shortly after he freed his slaves. The New York Times reported that President Franklin Pierce purchased a farm of 600 acres in Colesville in 1855. Joseph F. Burr started purchasing Colesville-area land in 1869. By 1872, he had amassed nearly 1,000 acres and lived in a beautiful mansion on the property known as Valley View; the mansion was located on the north side of today's Randolph Road, on the site of today's Holy Family Seminary. Burr was a friend of President Grover Cleveland. An old house built in 1850 is still standing at 13910 Notley Road, it was used as a school by a Miss Laxbenny in the late 1800s and was known as "Drumeldra". In 1927, the Smithville Colored School was founded in Colesville, it was one of sixteen schools for African Americans constructed in the county with financial assistance from the Julius Rosenwald Fund.
It was closed in 1952. Colesville United Methodist Church is located in Maryland; the Holy Family Seminary, headquarters of the American Delegation of the catholic order of the Sons of the Holy Family, is located in Colesville, since 1946. Colesville hosts the Strawberry Festival every May; the festival is located at the corner of New Hampshire Avenue. Vendors sell strawberries and ice cream, volunteers organize carnival games for kids. On February 6, 2010, Colesville had a record regional snowfall of 40 inches; as of the 2010 United States Census, Colesville's population was 44.8% White, 28.3% African-American, 0.3% American Indian or Alaska Native, 16.1% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 6.6% from some other race and 3.9% from two or more races. 14.9 % of the population was Latino. White Hispanics/Latinos and Hispanics/Latinos from some other race comprised 6.6% and 6.1% of Colesville's population, respectively. 38.2% of Colesville's residents are non-Hispanic White Americans, 27.7% are non-Hispanic African Americans and 16% are non-Hispanic Asian Americans.
As of 2010, Colesville's Hispanic and Latino population was 46% Central American, 35% being of Salvadoran descent and 6% being of Guatemalan descent. 21% of Colesville's Hispanic/Latino population was of South American descent, 8% were of Mexican descent, 6% were of Peruvian descent, 5% were of Puerto Rican descent, 4% were of Cuban descent, 3