Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. The capital and largest city is Tbilisi, Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres, and its 2016 population is about 3.72 million. Georgia is a unitary, semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy, during the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia. The kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia adopted Christianity in the early 4th century, a unified Kingdom of Georgia reached the peak of its political and economic strength during the reign of King David IV and Queen Tamar in the 12th and early 13th centuries. Thereafter the kingdom declined and eventually disintegrated under hegemony of various powers, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire. Russian rule over Georgia was eventually acknowledged in various treaties with Iran. Since the establishment of the modern Georgian republic in April 1991, post-communist Georgia suffered from civil, the countrys Western orientation soon led to the worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the brief Russo-Georgian War in August 2008.
Georgia is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and it contains two de facto independent regions and South Ossetia, which gained limited international recognition after the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Georgia and a part of the international community consider the regions to be part of Georgias sovereign territory under Russian military occupation. Georgia probably stems from the Persian designation of the Georgians – gurğān, in the 11th and 12th centuries adapted via Syriac gurz-ān/gurz-iyān, starting with the Persian word gurğ/gurğān, the word was adopted in numerous other languages, including Slavic and West European languages. This term itself might have established through the ancient Iranian appellation of the near-Caspian region. The self-designation used by ethnic Georgians is Kartvelebi, the medieval Georgian Chronicles present an eponymous ancestor of the Kartvelians, Kartlos, a great-grandson of Japheth. However, scholars agree that the word is derived from the Karts, the name Sakartvelo consists of two parts.
Its root, kartvel-i, specifies an inhabitant of the core central-eastern Georgian region of Kartli, ancient Greeks and Romans referred to early western Georgians as Colchians and eastern Georgians as Iberians. Today the full, official name of the country is Georgia, before the 1995 constitution came into force the countrys name was the Republic of Georgia. The territory of modern-day Georgia was inhabited by Homo erectus since the Paleolithic Era, the proto-Georgian tribes first appear in written history in the 12th century BC. The earliest evidence of wine to date has found in Georgia. In fact, early metallurgy started in Georgia during the 6th millennium BC, the classical period saw the rise of a number of early Georgian states, the principal of which was Colchis in the west and Iberia in the east
The Republic of Adygea, known as the Adyghe Republic, is a federal subject of Russia, with its territory enclaved within Krasnodar Krai. Its area is 7,600 square kilometers with a population of 439,996, forests cover almost 40% of its territory. Borders — the Republic of Adygea is entirely surrounded by Krasnodar Krai, highest point — Chugush Mountain 3,238 m. The 870-kilometer long Kuban River is one of the navigable rivers in the Caucasus region. It forms part of the border between the Republic of Adygea and Krasnodar Krai. The republic has no large lakes, other natural resources include gold, silver and iron. Cherkess Autonomous Oblast was established within the Russian SFSR on July 27,1922, on the territories of Kuban-Black Sea Oblast, at that time, Krasnodar was the administrative center. It was renamed Adyghe Autonomous Oblast on August 24,1922 and it was renamed Adyghe Autonomous Oblast in July 1928. On January 10,1934, the autonomous oblast became part of new Azov-Black Sea Krai, Maykop was made the administrative center of the autonomous oblast in 1936.
Adyghe AO became part of Krasnodar Krai when it was established on September 13,1937, on July 3,1991, the oblast was elevated to the status of a republic under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. The first President of the republic was Aslan Aliyevich Dzharimov, elected on 5 January 1992, from 2002 to 2007, Hazret Sovmen was President. He, and most of the rest of the elite in Adygea, are Adyghes. As a reaction to that, an organization calling itself the Union of Slavs was established and they advocate the merger of Adygea with Krasnodar Krai, but have so far have had little support for that proposition from the Russian government. Relations between Adygs and ethnic Russians in Adyghe are currently good, Russians make up two-thirds of the population within Adygea and the current Head, Aslan Tkhakushinov is an ethnic Adyghe and was elected largely on the support of Russian votes. The Republic of Adygea is administratively divided into seven districts, two cities/towns, and five urban-type settlements, the republic is divided into two urban okrugs, five urban settlements, and 46 rural settlements.
Note м. р. above is an abbreviation for муниципальный район Population,439, 996 ,447, 109 ,432, 588 . Source, Russian Federal State Statistics Service According to the 2010 Census, ethnic Russians make up 63. 6% of the total population. Other groups include Armenians, Kurds, According to a 2012 official survey 35
Agglutination is a process in linguistic morphology derivation in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics. Languages that use agglutination widely are called agglutinative languages, an example of such a language is Turkish, where for example, the word evlerinizden, or from your houses, consists of the morphemes, ev-ler-iniz-den with the meanings house-plural-your-from. However, both fusional and isolating languages may use agglutination in the most-often-used constructs, and use agglutination heavily in certain contexts and this is the case in English, which has an agglutinated plural marker -s and derived words such as shame·less·ness. Agglutinative suffixes are often inserted irrespective of syllabic boundaries, for example, Agglutinative languages have large inventories of enclitics, which can be and are separated from the word root by native speakers in daily usage. Note that the term agglutination is sometimes used more generally to refer to the process of adding suffixes or other morphemes to the base of a word.
This is treated in detail in the section on other uses of the term. However, contemporary linguistics views this proposal as controversial, on the other hand, it is the case that some languages that have developed from agglutinative proto-languages have lost this feature. For example, contemporary Estonian, which is so related to Finnish that the two languages are mutually intelligible, has shifted towards the fusional type. Examples of agglutinative languages include the Uralic languages, such as Finnish and these have highly agglutinated expressions in daily usage, and most words are bisyllabic or longer. Grammatical information expressed by adpositions in Western Indo-European languages is found in suffixes. Hungarian uses extensive agglutination in almost all and any part of it, the suffixes follow each other in special order, and can be heaped in extreme amount, resulting words conveying complex meanings in very compact form. An example is fiaié where the root fi- means son, the subsequent three vowels are all separate suffixes, and the word means of his/her sons.
The nested possessive structure and expression of plurals is quite remarkable, almost all Austronesian languages, such as Malay, and most Philippine languages, belong to this category, thus enabling them to form new words from simple base forms. The Indonesian and Malay word mempertanggungjawabkan is formed by adding active-voice and transitive affixes to the compound verb tanggung jawab, in Tagalog, nakakapágpabagabag is formed from the root bagabag. Japanese is a language, adding information such as negation, passive voice, past tense, honorific degree. Common examples would be hatarakaseraretara, which combines causative, passive or potential, and if could make work, and tabetakunakatta, which combines desire and past tense conjugations to mean did not want to eat. All Dravidian languages, including Kannada, Telugu and Tamil, are agglutinative, agglutination is used to very high degrees both in formal written forms in Telugu. Agglutination is a feature of Basque
The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia and Egypt. The corresponding adjective is Middle-Eastern and the noun is Middle-Easterner. The term has come into usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Persians and Azeris constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population. Indigenous minorities of the Middle East include Jews and other Arameans, Berbers, Druze, Mandaeans, Shabaks, Tats, in the Middle East, there is a Romani community. European ethnic groups form a diaspora in the region include Albanians, Circassians, Crimean Tatars, Franco-Levantines. Among other migrant populations are Bengalis as well as other Indians, Filipinos, Pakistanis, the history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, with the importance of the region being recognized for millennia. Most of the countries border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of crude oil. The term Middle East may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office, however, it became more widely known when American naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902 to designate the area between Arabia and India.
During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying for influence in Central Asia, Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but of its center, the Persian Gulf. Mahan first used the term in his article The Persian Gulf and International Relations, published in September 1902 in the National Review, a British journal. The Middle East, if I may adopt a term which I have not seen, will some day need its Malta, as well as its Gibraltar, it does not follow that either will be in the Persian Gulf. The British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden, mahans article was reprinted in The Times and followed in October by a 20-article series entitled The Middle Eastern Question, written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. During this series, Sir Ignatius expanded the definition of Middle East to include regions of Asia which extend to the borders of India or command the approaches to India. After the series ended in 1903, The Times removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term, in the late 1930s, the British established the Middle East Command, which was based in Cairo, for its military forces in the region.
After that time, the term Middle East gained broader usage in Europe, the description Middle has led to some confusion over changing definitions. Before the First World War, Near East was used in English to refer to the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, while Middle East referred to Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Turkestan. The first official use of the term Middle East by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, the Associated Press Stylebook says that Near East formerly referred to the farther west countries while Middle East referred to the eastern ones, but that now they are synonymous
The Caucasus /ˈkɔːkəsəs/ or Caucasia /kɔːˈkeɪʒə/ is a region at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black and the Caspian seas. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, which contain Europes highest mountain, the Caucasus region is separated between northern and southern parts. The southern parts consist of independent sovereign states, and the parts are under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. The region is known for its diversity, aside from Indo-European and Turkic languages, the Kartvelian, Northwest Caucasian. Pliny the Elders Natural History derives the name of the Caucasus from Scythian kroy-khasis, German linguist Paul Kretschmer notes that the Latvian word Kruvesis means ice. According to German philologists Otto Schrader and Alfons A. Nehring, the South Caucasus region and southern Dagestan were the furthest points of Persian expansions, with areas to the north of Caucasus Mountains practically impregnable. The mythological mountain of Qaf, the worlds highest mountain that ancient lore shrouded in mystery, was said to be situated in this region, the Caucasus might be associated with the legendary mountain.
The Ciscaucasus contains the majority of the Greater Caucasus Mountain range. It includes Southwestern Russia and northern parts of Georgia and Azerbaijan, the Transcaucasus is bordered on the north by Russia, on the west by the Black Sea and Turkey, on the east by the Caspian Sea, and on the south by Iran. It includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands, all of Armenia and Georgia are in South Caucasus. The main Greater Caucasus range is generally perceived to be the line between Asia and Europe. The highest peak in the Caucasus is Mount Elbrus in the western Ciscaucasus in Russia, the Caucasus is one of the most linguistically and culturally diverse regions on Earth. The nation states that comprise the Caucasus today are the post-Soviet states Georgia, three territories in the region claim independence but are recognized as such by only a handful or by no independent states, Nagorno-Karabakh and South Ossetia. Abkhazia and South Ossetia are recognised by the majority of independent states as part of Georgia, the Russian divisions include Krasnodar Krai, Stavropol Krai, and the autonomous republics of Adygea, Karachay–Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia, Ingushetia and Dagestan.
The region has many different languages and language families, there are more than 50 ethnic groups living in the region. Russian is used as a common language, today the peoples of the Northern and Southern Caucasus tend to be either Eastern Orthodox Christians, Oriental Orthodox Christians, or Sunni Muslims. Shia Islam has had many adherents historically in Azerbaijan, located in the part of the region. Located on the peripheries of Turkey and Russia, the region has been an arena for political, religious, throughout its history, the Caucasus was usually incorporated into the Iranian world
The republic has several distinct ethnic groups, and the government recognizes five official languages. The population in 2010 was just under half a million people and it stretches for 140 kilometers from north to south and for 170 kilometers from east to west. Mountains cover 80% of the territory, Mount Elbrus, which at 5,642 meters is the highest peak in Caucasus, is located on the republics border with Kabardino-Balkaria. The republic is rich in water resources, a total of 172 rivers flow through its territory, with the largest one being the Kuban, Bolshoy Zelenchuk, Maly Zelenchuk and Laba. There are about 130 mountain lakes of glacial origin and an abundance of mineral springs, climate is moderate, with short winters and long, humid summers. The average January temperature is −3.2 °C, and the average July temperature is +20.6 °C, average annual precipitation varies from 550 millimeters in the plains to 2,500 millimeters in the mountains. Natural resources include gold, coal and more, the Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast was created 12 January 1922, in the early years of the Soviet Union.
It was split into Karachay Autonomous Oblast and Cherkess National Okrug on 26 April 1926, the Cherkess National District was elevated to an autonomous oblast status on 30 April 1928. In 1943, Karachay Autonomous Oblast was abolished, the Karachay people were accused of collaboration with the Nazis and subsequently deported to the Kazakh, most of the Karchay territory was split between Stavropol Krai and the Georgian SSR. On July 3,1991, the autonomous oblast was elevated to the status of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia, in December 1991, the words Autonomous Soviet Socialist were dropped from the official name of Karachay-Cherkessia. A commission was established Supreme Education Council three autonomous regions - Karachai and Batalpashinsk, sources,1970 to 2008, 2009-2013 According to the 2010 Census, Karachays make up 41% of the republics population, followed by Russians, and Cherkes and Abazins together make up 20%. According to a 2012 official survey 48% of the population of Karachay-Cherkessia adheres to Islam,13, in addition, 12% of the population declares to be spiritual but not religious, 7% is atheist and 4. 4% follows other religions or did not answer to the question.
The head of the government in Karachay-Cherkessia is the Head, until February 2011, the President was Boris Safarovich Ebzeyev, a former judge of the Constitutional Court of Russian Federation. Rashid Temrezov is currently the Head of the republic, ethnic tension is a considerable problem in the republic. In May 1999 Karachay-Cherkessia conducted its first ever free regional presidential election, when Vladimir Semyonov, a Karachay, won the election over Stanislav Derev, a Circassian, there were protests by supporters of Derev, with widespread allegations of fraud. A court ruling upheld the election result, prompting thousands of Derevs supporters to march in protest. Although activity by separatists in the region pales in comparison with Chechnya and Dagestan, a car-bomb that killed two people in March 2001 was blamed on Chechen separatists. Muslim separatist groups have formed and dozens of their members have killed by the Russian authorities
The Kabardino-Balkar Republic, or Kabardino-Balkaria, is a federal subject of Russia located in the North Caucasus. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 859,939 on 12,500 square km, the republic is situated in the North Caucasus mountains, with plains in the northern part. Just over half are located between the Baksan and Malka Rivers, the largest each of an area of no more than 0.01 square kilometers. Some of the lakes are, Tserikkel Lake Lower Goluboye Lake Kel-Ketchen Lake Upper Tserikkel Lake Sekretnoye Lake Tambukan Lake, the republic has a continental type climate. Average January temperature, −12 °C to −4 °C Average July temperature, +4 °C to +23 °C Average annual precipitation, 500–2,000 mm. Population,859, 939 ,901, 494 ,759, 586 . Source, Russian Federal State Statistics Service Note, TFR2009,2010,2011,2012 source, Kabardino-Balkaria includes two major ethnic communities, the Kabardins, who speak a North-West Caucasian language, and the Balkars who speak a Turkic language. According to the 2010 Census, Kabardins make up 57.
2% of the population, followed by Russians. Other groups include Ossetians, Ukrainians, Koreans, Chechens, in addition, 12% of the population declares to be spiritual but not religious,5. 4% is atheist or follows other religions. The head of government in Kabardino-Balkaria is the Head, the current Head is Yuri Kokov The legislative body of the Republic is the Parliament comprising 72 deputies elected for a five-year term. Caucasian Avars Bulgars List of the Chairmen of the Parliament of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic Mount Imeon Совет Республики Парламента Кабардино-Балкарской Республики, Закон №13-РЗ от4 августа1994 г. «О государственном гимне Кабардино-Балкарской Республики», в ред, Закона №13-РЗ от13 апреля2015 г «О внесении изменений в статьи2 и4 Закона Кабардино-Балкарской Республики О государственном гимне Кабардино-Балкарской Республики». Вступил в силу18 августа1994 г, Опубликован, Кабардино-Балкарская правда, №148,12 августа1994 г. Закона №40-РЗ от19 октября2015 г, «О поправках к Конституции Кабардино-Балкарской Республики». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования, Опубликован, Кабардино-Балкарская правда, №177,9 сентября1997 г.
Official website of the Head of the Republic Pictures of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic BBC News
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is a democratic, unitary, parliamentary republic with a cultural heritage. The country is encircled by seas on three sides, the Aegean Sea is to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, Ankara is the capital while Istanbul is the countrys largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Approximately 70-80% of the countrys citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks, other ethnic groups include legally recognised and unrecognised minorities. Kurds are the largest ethnic minority group, making up approximately 20% of the population, the area of Turkey has been inhabited since the Paleolithic by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. After Alexander the Greats conquest, the area was Hellenized, a process continued under the Roman Empire.
The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, the empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. During the war, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. Turkey is a member of the UN, an early member of NATO. Turkeys growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have led to its recognition as a regional power while her location has given it geopolitical, the name of Turkey is based on the ethnonym Türk. The first recorded use of the term Türk or Türük as an autonym is contained in the Old Turkic inscriptions of the Göktürks of Central Asia, the English name Turkey first appeared in the late 14th century and is derived from Medieval Latin Turchia. Similarly, the medieval Khazar Empire, a Turkic state on the shores of the Black.
The medieval Arabs referred to the Mamluk Sultanate as al-Dawla al-Turkiyya, the Ottoman Empire was sometimes referred to as Turkey or the Turkish Empire among its European contemporaries. The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world, various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period. Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family, in fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated. The European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty years ago. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date, the settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic Age and continued into the Iron Age
Eastern Europe, known as East Europe, is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, cultural. There are almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region, a related United Nations paper adds that every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct. One definition describes Eastern Europe as an entity, the region lying in Europe with main characteristics consisting in Byzantine, Orthodox. Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc, a similar definition names the formerly communist European states outside the Soviet Union as Eastern Europe. Historians and social scientists generally view such definitions as outdated or relegating, several definitions of Eastern Europe exist today, but they often lack precision or are extremely general. These definitions vary both across cultures and among experts, even scientists, recently becoming more and more imprecise.
The Ural Mountains, Ural River, and the Caucasus Mountains are the land border of the eastern edge of Europe. Eurovoc, a multilingual thesaurus maintained by the Publications Office of the European Union, provides entries for 23 EU languages, of these, those in italics are classified as Eastern Europe in this source. Other official web-pages of the European Union classify some of the countries as strictly Central European. The East–West Schism is the break of communion and theology between what are now the Eastern and Western churches which began in the 11th century and lasts until this very day and it divided Christianity in Europe, and consequently the world, into Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity. Since the Great Schism of 1054, Europe has been divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant churches in the West, and the Eastern Orthodox Christian churches in the east, due to this religious cleavage, Eastern Orthodox countries are often associated with Eastern Europe. A cleavage of this sort is, often problematic, for example, Greece is overwhelmingly Orthodox, the fall of the Iron Curtain brought the end of the East–West division in Europe, but this geopolitical concept is sometimes still used for quick reference by the media.
The Baltic states have seats in the Nordic Council as observer states and they are members of the Nordic-Baltic Eight whereas Eastern European countries formed their own alliance called the Visegrád Group. Estonia Latvia Lithuania The Caucasus nations may be included in the definitions of Eastern Europe, the extent of their geographic or political affiliation with Europe varies by country and source. All three states are members of the European Unions Eastern Partnership program and the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly, on 12 January 2002, the European Parliament noted that Armenia and Georgia may enter the EU in the future. Georgia — in modern geography, Georgia has been classified as part of Eastern Europe. Under the European Union’s geographic criteria, Georgia is viewed as part of Eastern Europe and is the only Caucasus country to be actively seeking EU membership and it is a member of Council of Europe and Eurocontrol
Abkhazia is a partially recognised state on the eastern coast of the Black Sea and the south-western flank of the Caucasus Mountains, south of Russia and northwest of Georgia proper. It covers 8,660 square kilometres and has a population of around 240,000, the separatist Abkhazian polity, formally the Republic of Abkhazia or Apsny, is recognised only by Russia and a small number of other countries. The status of Abkhazia is an issue of the Georgian–Abkhazian conflict. The region enjoyed autonomy within Soviet Georgia at the time when the Soviet Union began to disintegrate in the late 1980s, despite the 1994 ceasefire agreement and years of negotiations, the dispute remained unresolved. The long-term presence of a United Nations Observer Mission and a Russian-led Commonwealth of Independent States peacekeeping force failed to prevent the flare-up of violence on several occasions. On 28 August 2008, the Parliament of Georgia declared Abkhazia a Russian-occupied territory, the Abkhazians call their homeland Аҧсны, popularly etymologised as a land/country of the soul, yet literally meaning a country of mortals.
It possibly first appeared in the century in an Armenian text as Psin. The state is designated as the Republic of Abkhazia or Apsny. The Russian Абхазия is adapted from the Georgian აფხაზეთი, in Mingrelian, Abkhazia is known as აბჟუა or სააფხაზო. Between the 9th and 6th centuries BC, the territory of modern Abkhazia was part of the ancient Georgian kingdom of Colchis and this kingdom was subsequently absorbed in 63 BC into the Kingdom of Egrisi, known to Byzantine Roman sources as Lazica. Classical authors described various peoples living in the region and the multitude of languages they spoke. Arrian and Strabo have given accounts of the Abasgoi and Moschoi peoples somewhere in modern Abkhazia on the shore of the Black Sea. Around the mid 6th century AD, the Byzantines and the neighbouring Sassanid Persia fought for supremacy over Abkhazia for 20 years, Abkhazia, or Abasgia in classic sources, formerly part of Colchis and of Egrisi until the late 690s, was a princedom under Byzantine authority.
The country was mostly Christian, with the seat in Pityus. An Arab incursion into Abkhazia led by Marwan II, was repelled by Leon I jointly with his Egrisian and Kartlian allies in 736, after acquiring Egrisi via a dynastic union in the 780s the Kingdom of Abkhazia was established and became a dominant power in western Caucasus. During this period the Georgian language replaced Greek as the language of literacy, the western Georgian kingdom flourished between 850 and 950 when it annexed significant parts of central Georgia. In the 16th century, after the break-up of the Georgian Kingdom into small kingdoms and principalities, since the 1570s, when the Ottoman navy occupied the fort of Tskhumi, Abkhazia came under the influence of the Ottoman Empire and Islam. Under Ottoman rule, the majority of Abkhaz elite converted to Islam, the principality retained a degree of autonomy
In linguistics, branching refers to the shape of the parse trees that represent the structure of sentences. The direction of branching reflects the position of heads in phrases, English has both right-branching and left-branching structures, although it is more right-branching than left-branching. Some languages such as Japanese and Turkish are almost fully left-branching, some languages are mostly right-branching, for example, Arabic. Languages typically construct phrases with a word and zero or more dependents. The following phrases show the heads in bold. On a DP-analsyis, the phrase the house would be right-branching instead of left-branching, left- and right-branching structures are illustrated with the trees that follow. The first group of trees illustrate left-branching, The upper row shows the structures. In the constituency-based structures, left-branching is present in so far as the daughter is to the left of the head. In the corresponding dependency-based structures in the row, the left-branching is clear, the dependent appears to the left of its head.
The following structures demonstrate right-branching, The upper row shows the constituency-based structures. The constituency-based structures are right-branching insofar as the daughter is to the right of the head. This right-branching is completely visible in the row of dependency-based structures. The -examples contain one instance of right-branching and one instance of left-branching, the head appears in a medial position, which means that the phrase combines both types of branching. Note that the -trees contain a PP phrase that is an instance of pure right-branching, the nature of branching is most visible with full trees. The following trees have been chosen to best illustrate the extent to which a structure can be entirely left- or entirely right-branching. The following sentence is completely left-branching, the constituency-based trees are on the left, and the dependency-based trees are on the right, The category Po is used to label possessive s. The following sentence is completely right-branching, Most structures in English are, not completely left- or completely right-branching, in the big picture, right-branching structures tend to outnumber the left-branching structures in English, which means that trees usually grow down to the right.
The X-bar schema combines left- and right-branching, the standard X-bar schema has the following structure, This structure is both left- and right branching
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians