The Northrop N-3PB Nomad was a single-engined American floatplane of the 1940s. Northrop developed the N-3PB as an export model based on the earlier Northrop A-17 design. A total of 24 were purchased by Norway, but were not delivered until after the Fall of Norway during the Second World War. Exiled Norwegian forces used them from 1941, operating from Iceland, for convoy escort, anti-submarine patrols, training purposes from "Little Norway" in Canada. Within two years of delivery, the design was obsolete in its combat role, the remaining N-3PBs were replaced by larger aircraft in 1943. Following increased international tension surrounding the German annexation of the Sudetenland in 1938, the Norwegian parliament granted extraordinary appropriations to modernize the Norwegian Armed Forces; the Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service and the Norwegian Army Air Service were prioritized for funds from the 50,000,000 kr Norwegian Neutrality Fund. The RNNAS' share of the funds were designated to buy 12 Heinkel He 115 torpedo bombers and 24 reconnaissance aircraft, as well as several new naval air stations.
The Dornier Do 22, Northrop 8-A, Northrop 2GP and Vultee V-11 GB were considered and proposals retrieved. The commission decided the Vultee V-11 GB was the best aircraft to satisfy both air services' needs. On the part of the Royal Norwegian Air Service, the requirements were for a reconnaissance aircraft with a range of 1,500 kilometres, a top speed of no less than 320 kilometres per hour and a payload of a 900 kilograms torpedo or the equivalent in bombs. On 30 December 1939, Norway sent a purchasing commission to the United States, consisting of a Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service contingent headed by Cmdr. Kristian Østby, a Norwegian Army Air Service contingent led by Birger Fredrik Motzfeldt; the goal of the commission was to inspect the Vultee V-11, which would serve as a new common reconnaissance bomber for the two air services. Amongst the requirements the commission hoped to fill was replacing the Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service's M. F.11 biplane patrol aircraft. Once in the US, the commission found that Vultee would not be able to deliver the V-11 within a reasonable amount of time so another aircraft had to be found.
Motzfeldt found that the Douglas 8A-5N would satisfy the NOAAS' requirements. As the Douglas 8A-5N could not be fitted with floats, Østby continued to look for an aircraft suitable for the RNNAS. After visits to many of the aviation companies in February 1940, Østby determined that only one manufacturer had both a design and available production capacity, Northrop Aircraft Incorporated; the commission ordered 24 floatplanes based on the Model 8-A, renamed the N-3PB, "off the drawing board" from Northrop on 8 March 1940, at a total cost of 6,550,000 kr to meet this requirement. Half the amount was paid shortly before the German invasion of Norway on 9 April 1940; the Model 8-A, the export model of the Northrop Attack Bomber series was never intended to serve as the basis of a floatplane and had to be redesigned to meet the requirements of the Norwegian order. The new N-3PB was the first product of Northrop Aircraft, which had reformed in 1939, was a low-winged cantilever monoplane fitted with twin floats.
First intended for a lower powered engine, the N-3PB was powered by a Wright Cyclone radial engine, of the same type specified for the Douglas 8A-5N bombers and Curtiss Hawk 75A-8s ordered by Norway at the same time, simplifying the eventual maintenance and operation requirements for the entire Norwegian military aircraft fleets. With the Norwegian operation requirements drawn up for a coastal reconnaissance floatplane, a series of modifications were requested to the original design; the changes included a redesign of the float structure to accommodate either a torpedo or bomb load carried under the center fuselage to supplement five underwing bomb racks. Additional armament changes led to a combination of six machine guns replacing the four machine gun /one cannon arrangement, in the initial design. Provision for a rear under-fuselage gun was made. Further equipment requirements including fitting a rear fuselage-mounted camera as well as changes to instrumentation and radio equipment. Before Northrop could complete any aircraft, Norway was invaded by Germany.
The invasion and occupation of Norway necessitated that the armament of the N-3PB to be installed in Norway, had to be changed. Initial specifications listed one Oerlikon 20 mm cannon in each wing, as well as two 7.9 mm Fabrique Nationale machine guns each in both fuselage and rear gunner stations. Owing to the lack of availability of the specified armament, Norwegian-manufactured Colt heavy machine guns were substituted with four Colt MG53A.50 cal. machine guns in the wings and two.30 cal. Colt MG40s mounted in ventral positions of the gunner's rear cockpit. Northrop's Chief Test Pilot Vance Breese flew the first N-3PB on 22 December 1940 from Lake Elsinore, California; the flight test and customer acceptance trials were completed using the first production aircraft. Due to the use of the more powerful Cyclone engine, all performance estimates were exceeded and flight characteristics including maneouverability were considered "excellent." All 24 aircraft were delivered to the exiled Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service by the end of March 1941.
In late February 1941, six production N-3PBs were flown to RCAF Station Patricia Bay, Vancouver Island in Canada, one of the Canadian winter bases of the Flyvåpnenes Treningsleir Norwegian training bases known as "Little Norway". The N-3PB's service as an advanced tr
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Saab 37 Viggen
The Saab 37 Viggen is a retired Swedish single-seat, single-engine, short-medium range combat aircraft. Development work on the type was initiated at Saab in 1952 and, following the selection of a radical delta wing configuration, the resulting aircraft performed its first flight on 8 February 1967 and entered service in 21 June 1971; the Viggen holds the distinction of being the first canard design to be produced in quantity. The Viggen was the most advanced fighter jet in Europe until the introduction of the Panavia Tornado into operational service in 1981. Several distinct variants of the Viggen were produced to perform the roles of strike fighter, aerial reconnaissance, maritime patrol aircraft and a two-seat trainer. In the late 1970s, the all-weather fighter-interceptor aircraft JA. In November 2005, the Viggen was retired from service by the Swedish Air Force, the only operator, having been replaced by the newer Saab JAS 39 Gripen; the Viggen was developed as an intended replacement for the Saab 32 Lansen in the attack role and the Saab 35 Draken as a fighter.
In 1955, as Saab's prototype Draken, the most aerodynamically advanced fighter in the world at that point, performed its first flight, the Swedish Air Force was forming a series of requirements for the next generation of combat aircraft. Between 1952 and 1957, the first studies towards what would become the Viggen were carried out, involving the Finnish aircraft designer Aarne Lakomaa. Over 100 different concepts were examined in these studies, involving both single- and twin engine configurations, both traditional and double delta wings, canard wings. VTOL designs were considered, with separate lift engines, but were soon identified as being unacceptable. From the onset, the Viggen was planned as an integrated weapon system, to be operated in conjunction with the newest revision of Sweden's national electronic air defense system, STRIL-60, it was used as the nation's standard platform, capable of being efficiently adapted to perform all tactical mission roles. Other requirements included supersonic ability at low level, Mach 2 performance at altitude, the ability to make short landings at low angles of attack.
The aircraft was designed from the beginning to be easy to repair and service for personnel without much training. One radical requirement of the proposed aircraft was the ability for it to be operated from short runways only 500 meters long. Bas 60 revolved around force dispersal of aircraft across many wartime air bases, including road runways acting as backup runways. Utilizing destroyed runways was another factor that motivated STOL capability. Bas 60 was developed into Bas 90 in the 1970s and 1980s, included short runways only 800 meters in length. Enabling such operations imposed several critical demands upon the design, including a modest landing speed, no-flare touchdown, powerful post-landing deceleration, accurate steering in crosswinds on icy surfaces, high acceleration on take-off. In 1960, the U. S. National Security Council, led by President Eisenhower, formulated a security guarantee for Sweden, promising U. S. military help in the event of a Soviet attack against Sweden. In what was known as the "37-annex", Sweden was allowed access to advanced U.
S. aeronautical technology that made it possible to design and produce the Viggen much faster and more cheaply than would otherwise have been possible. According to research by Nils Bruzelius at the Swedish National Defence College, the reason for this unexplained U. S. support was to protect U. S. Polaris submarines deployed just outside the Swedish east coast against the threat of Soviet anti-submarine aircraft. However, Bruzelius' theory has been discredited by Jerker Widén; the connection appears doubtful due to the time scale – the Viggen's strike version only became operational in 1971, the fighter version in 1978, by which time Polaris had been retired. In December 1961, the Swedish government gave its approval for the development of Aircraft System 37, which would become the Viggen. By 1962, all elements for the project either existed or were close to developed. In February 1962, approval of the overall configuration was given and was followed by a development contract in October 1962.
According to aviation authors Bill Gunston and Peter Gilchrist, the project was "by far the largest industrial development task attempted in Sweden". During the 1960s, the Viggen accounted for 10 per cent of all Swedish R&D funding. In 1963, Saab finalized the aerodynamic design of the aircraft. Canard aircraft have since become common in fighter aircraft, notably with the Eurofighter Typhoon, Dassault Rafale, Saab JAS 39 Gripen and the IAI Kfir, but principally for the purposes of providing agi
Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2
The Royal Aircraft Factory B. E.2 was a British single-engine tractor two-seat biplane designed and developed at the Royal Aircraft Factory. Most production aircraft were constructed under contract by various private companies, both established aircraft manufacturers and firms that had not built aircraft. Around 3,500 were manufactured in all. Early versions of the B. E.2 entered squadron service with the Royal Flying Corps in 1912. It was used as a front-line reconnaissance aircraft and light bomber. By late 1915, the B. E.2 was proving inadequate in defending itself against German fighters such as the new Fokker Eindecker, leading to increased losses during the period known as the Fokker Scourge. Although by now obsolete, it had to remain in front-line service while suitable replacements were designed and brought into service. Following its belated withdrawal from operations, the type served in various second line capacities, seeing use as a trainer and communications aircraft, as well as performing anti-submarine coastal patrol duties.
The B. E.2 has always been a subject of controversy, both at the time and in historical assessment. From the B. E.2c variant on it had been adapted to be "inherently stable", this feature was considered helpful in its artillery observation and aerial photography duties: most of which were assigned to the pilot, able to fly without constant attention to his flight controls. In spite of a tendency to swing on take off and a reputation for spinning, the type had a low accident rate; the stability of the type was however achieved at the expense of heavy controls, making rapid manoeuvring difficult. The observer not carried because of the B. E.'s poor payload, occupied the front seat. The B. E.2 was one of the first fixed-wing aircraft to be designed at what was called the Royal Balloon Factory. The team responsible for its design came under the direction of British engineer Mervyn O'Gorman, the factory's superintendent; the B. E.2 designation was formulated in accordance with the system devised by O'Gorman, which classified aircraft by their layout: B.
E. stood for Blériot Experimental, was used for aircraft of tractor configuration. At first, the activities of the Factory were limited to the conduct of research into aerodynamics and aircraft design and the construction or design of actual aircraft was not sanctioned. O'Gorman got around this restriction by using the factory's responsibility for the repair and maintenance of aircraft belonging to the Royal Flying Corps; the first pair of B. E. aircraft were flown within two months of each other and had the same basic design, the work of Geoffrey de Havilland, at the time both the chief designer and the test pilot at the Balloon Factory. The layout of these aircraft came to be seen as conventional, but when it first appeared this was not the case. Rather, in common with the contemporary Avro 500, the B. E.2 was one of the designs which established the tractor biplane as the dominant aircraft layout for a considerable time. Following its first public appearance in early January 1912, aviation publication Flight commented that: "everything one could see of the machine was of singular interest".
This was ostensibly a rebuild of a Voisin biplane, powered by a 60 hp water-cooled Wolseley engine. E.1 used only the engine and radiator from this machine, the radiator being mounted between the front pair of cabane struts. The B. E.1 was a two-bay tractor biplane - it had parallel-chord unstaggered wings with rounded ends, using wing warping for roll control. The wings were of unequal span: upper wingspan was 36 feet 7 1⁄2 inches and lower 34 feet 11 1⁄2 inches; the fuselage was a rectangular section fabric-covered wire-braced structure, with the pilot seated aft, behind the wings and the observer in front, under the centre section. This arrangement was adopted so that the aircraft could be flown "solo" without affecting the aircraft's centre of gravity. Behind the pilot's position, a curved top decking extended aft to the tail, although the forward decking and cowling of variants was not fitted at this stage; the aircraft's tail surfaces consisted of a half-oval horizontal stabiliser with a split elevator mounted above the upper longerons and an ovoid rudder hinged to the sternpost.
The main undercarriage consisted of a pair of skids each carried on an inverted V-strut at their rear and a single raked strut at the front: an axle carrying the wheels was bound to the skids by bungee cords and restrained by radius rods. A sprung tailskid was fitted, while the wings were protected by semicircular skids located beneath the lower wings; the B. E.1 represented several firsts for aviation, including being the first aeroplane to be outfitted with radio apparatus. It was first flown by de Havilland on 4 December 1911; the aircraft was not flown again until 27 December, modified by the substitution of a Claudel carburettor in place of the original Wolseley, which allowed no throttle control. Other minor modifications were made over the following weeks: the undercarriage wheels were moved back 12 in, the wings (which had no dihed
Lockheed F-104 Starfighter
The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter is a single-engine, supersonic interceptor aircraft which became used as an attack aircraft. It was developed by Lockheed for the United States Air Force, but was produced by several other nations, seeing widespread service outside the United States. One of the Century Series of fighter aircraft, it was operated by the air forces of more than a dozen nations from 1958 to 2004, its design team was led by Kelly Johnson, who contributed to the development of the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, Lockheed U-2, Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird, other Lockheed aircraft. The F-104 set numerous world records, including altitude records, its success was marred by the Lockheed bribery scandals, in which Lockheed had given bribes to a considerable number of political and military figures in various nations to influence their judgment and secure several purchase contracts. The poor safety record of the Starfighter brought the aircraft into the public eye in German Air Force service. Fighter ace Erich Hartmann was forced to retire from the Luftwaffe due to his outspoken opposition to selection of the F-104.
The final production version of the fighter model was the F-104S, an all-weather interceptor designed by Aeritalia for the Italian Air Force, equipped with radar-guided AIM-7 Sparrow missiles. An advanced F-104 with a high-mounted wing, known as the CL-1200 Lancer, was considered, but did not proceed past the mock-up stage. Clarence "Kelly" Johnson, the chief engineer at Lockheed's Skunk Works, visited Korea in December 1951 and spoke with fighter pilots about what sort of aircraft they wanted. At the time, the U. S. pilots were confronting the MiG-15 with North American F-86 Sabres, many felt that the MiGs were superior to the larger and more complex American design. The pilots requested a simple aircraft with excellent performance. Armed with this information, Johnson started the design of such an aircraft on his return to the United States. In March, his team was assembled. To achieve the desired performance, Lockheed chose a minimalist approach - a design that would achieve high performance by wrapping the lightest, most aerodynamically efficient airframe possible around a single powerful engine.
The engine chosen was the new General Electric J79 turbojet, an engine of improved performance in comparison with contemporary designs. The small L-246 design powered by a single J79 remained identical to the L-083 Starfighter as delivered; the design was presented to the Air Force in November 1952, they were interested enough to create a General Operating Requirement for a lightweight fighter to replace the North American F-100. Three additional companies replied to the requirement: Republic Aviation with the AP-55, an improved version of its prototype XF-91 Thunderceptor. Although all were interesting, Lockheed had what proved to be an insurmountable lead, was granted a development contract in March 1953 for two prototypes. Work progressed with a mock-up ready for inspection at the end of April, work starting on two prototypes late in May. Meanwhile, the J79 engine was not ready; the first prototype was completed by early 1954 and first flew on 4 March at Edwards AFB. The total time from contract to first flight was less than a year.
When the USAF revealed the existence of the XF-104, they only gave a vague description of it. A drawing in the August 1954 edition of Popular Mechanics was close to the actual design; the prototype had hopped into the air on 18 February, but, not counted as a first flight. On the first official flight, it experienced landing gear retraction problems; the second prototype was destroyed a few weeks during gun-firing trials, but in November 1955, the XF-104 was accepted by the USAF. Based on the XF-104 testing and evaluations, the next variant, the YF-104A, was lengthened and fitted with a General Electric J79 engine, modified landing gear, modified air intakes; the first YF-104A flew on 17 February 1956, with the other 16 trial aircraft, were soon carrying out aircraft and equipment evaluation and tests. Modifications were made to the aircraft including airframe adding a ventral fin. Problems were encountered with the J79 afterburner. On 28 January 1958, the first F-104A to enter service was delivered to the 83rd Fighter Intercepter Wing.
A total of 2,578 F-104s was produced under license by various foreign manufacturers. The F-104 featured a radical wing design. Most jet fighters of the period used a swept-wing or delta-wing design, which provided a reasonable balance between aerodynamic performance and internal space for fuel and equipment; the Lockheed tests, determined that the most efficient shape for high-speed supersonic flight was a small, mid-mounted, trapezoidal wing. The new wing design was thin, with a thickness-to-chord ratio of only 3.36% and an aspect ratio of 2.45. The wing's leading edges were so thin that they presented a cut hazard to ground crews: protective guards had to be installed on the edges during ground operations maintenance; the thinness of the wings re
Lockheed C-130 Hercules
The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is an American four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft designed and built by Lockheed. Capable of using unprepared runways for takeoffs and landings, the C-130 was designed as a troop and cargo transport aircraft; the versatile airframe has found uses in a variety of other roles, including as a gunship, for airborne assault and rescue, scientific research support, weather reconnaissance, aerial refueling, maritime patrol, aerial firefighting. It is now the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. More than 40 variants of the Hercules, including civilian versions marketed as the Lockheed L-100, operate in more than 60 nations; the C-130 entered service with the U. S. in 1956, followed by many other nations. During its years of service, the Hercules family has participated in numerous military and humanitarian aid operations. In 2007, the C-130 became the fifth aircraft to mark 50 years of continuous service with its original primary customer, which for the C-130 is the United States Air Force.
The C-130 Hercules is the longest continuously produced military aircraft at over 60 years, with the updated Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules being produced. The Korean War showed that World War II-era piston-engine transports—Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcars, Douglas C-47 Skytrains and Curtiss C-46 Commandos—were no longer adequate. Thus, on 2 February 1951, the United States Air Force issued a General Operating Requirement for a new transport to Boeing, Fairchild, Martin, Chase Aircraft, North American and Airlifts Inc; the new transport would have a capacity of 92 passengers, 72 combat troops or 64 paratroopers in a cargo compartment, 41 feet long, 9 feet high, 10 feet wide. Unlike transports derived from passenger airliners, it was to be designed as a combat transport with loading from a hinged loading ramp at the rear of the fuselage. A key feature was the introduction of the Allison T56 turboprop powerplant, developed for the C-130. At the time, the turboprop was a new application of gas turbines, which offered greater range at propeller-driven speeds compared to pure turbojets, which were faster but consumed more fuel.
They produced much more power for their weight than piston engines. The Hercules resembled a larger four-engine brother to the C-123 Provider with a similar wing and cargo ramp layout that evolved from the Chase XCG-20 Avitruc, which in turn, was first designed and flown as a cargo glider in 1947; the Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter had a rear ramp, which made it possible to drive vehicles onto the plane. The ramp on the Hercules was used to airdrop cargo, which included low-altitude extraction for Sheridan tanks and dropping large improvised "daisy cutter" bombs; the new Lockheed cargo plane design possessed a range of 1,100 nmi, takeoff capability from short and unprepared strips, the ability to fly with one engine shut down. Fairchild, North American and Northrop declined to participate; the remaining five companies tendered a total of ten designs: Lockheed two, Boeing one, Chase three, Douglas three, Airlifts Inc. one. The contest was a close affair between the lighter of the two Lockheed proposals and a four-turboprop Douglas design.
The Lockheed design team was led by Willis Hawkins, starting with a 130-page proposal for the Lockheed L-206. Hall Hibbard, Lockheed vice president and chief engineer, saw the proposal and directed it to Kelly Johnson, who did not care for the low-speed, unarmed aircraft, remarked, "If you sign that letter, you will destroy the Lockheed Company." Both Hibbard and Johnson signed the proposal and the company won the contract for the now-designated Model 82 on 2 July 1951. The first flight of the YC-130 prototype was made on 23 August 1954 from the Lockheed plant in Burbank, California; the aircraft, serial number 53-3397, was the second prototype. The YC-130 was piloted by Stanley Beltz and Roy Wimmer on its 61-minute flight to Edwards Air Force Base. Kelly Johnson flew chase in a Lockheed P2V Neptune. After the two prototypes were completed, production began in Marietta, where over 2,300 C-130s have been built through 2009; the initial production model, the C-130A, was powered by Allison T56-A-9 turboprops with three-blade propellers and equipped with the blunt nose of the prototypes.
Deliveries began in December 1956, continuing until the introduction of the C-130B model in 1959. Some A-models were equipped with skis and re-designated C-130D; as the C-130A became operational with Tactical Air Command, the C-130's lack of range became apparent and additional fuel capacity was added with wing pylon-mounted tanks outboard of the engines. The C-130B model was developed to complement the A-models, delivered, incorporated new features increased fuel capacity in the form of auxiliary tanks built into the center wing section and an AC electrical system. Four-bladed Hamilton Standard propellers replaced the Aeroproducts three-blade propellers that distinguished the earlier A-models; the C-130B had ailerons with boost increased from 2,050 psi to 3,000 psi, as well as uprated engines and four-blade propellers that were standard until the J-model's introduction. An electronic reconnaissance variant of the C-130B was designated C-130B-II. A total of 13 aircraft were converted. T
The Blackburn B-24 Skua was a carrier-based low-wing, two-seater, single-radial engine aircraft operated by the British Fleet Air Arm which combined the functions of a dive bomber and fighter. It was designed in the mid-1930s and saw service in the early part of the Second World War, it took its name from the sea bird. Built to Air Ministry specification O.27/34, it was a low-wing monoplane of all-metal construction, with a retractable undercarriage and enclosed cockpit. It was the Fleet Air Arm's first service monoplane and was a radical departure for a force, equipped with open-cockpit biplanes such as the Fairey Swordfish. Performance for the fighter role was compromised by the aircraft's naval requirements for folding wings, large fuel capacity, heavy armament with large ammunition supply, rear gunner and lack of power of contemporary aircooled engines, resulting in a low speed; these naval fighters compared unfavourably with land based fighters such as the Messerschmitt Bf 109 which reached 290 mph at sea level over the Skua's 225 mph and the Gloster Sea Gladiator's 209 mph.
The armament of four fixed, forward-firing 0.303 in Browning machine guns in the wings and a single flexible, rearward-firing.303 in Vickers K machine gun was effective for the time. For the dive-bombing role, a 250 lb or 500 lb bomb was carried on a special swinging "trapeze" crutch under the fuselage, which enabled the bomb to clear the propeller arc on release. Four 40 lb bombs or eight 20 lb Cooper bombs could be carried in racks under each wing, it had large Zap-type air brakes/flaps, which helped in dive bombing and landing on aircraft carriers at sea. Two prototypes were ordered from Blackburn in 1935 and the first, serial number K5178, first flew on 9 February 1937. Both prototypes were powered by the Bristol Mercury XII radial engine but following trials when a production order for 190 aircraft was placed, they were to have Bristol Perseus XII engines; the first unit to receive the Skua was 800 Naval Air Squadron in late 1938 at Worth Down. By November the squadron had embarked on HMS Ark Royal and was followed in 1939 by 801 and 803 squadrons.
With the start of the Second World War, Skuas were soon in action and on 14 September three took off from Ark Royal to go to the aid of the SS Fanad Head, attacked by a U-boat. When they arrived, the Fanad Head was being shelled by U-30 and all three dived to attack the submarine, which dived to safety. Two of the Skuas had to ditch. U-30 returned to Germany with the crews of the two ditched Skuas, who became the first naval airmen to be prisoners of war in the conflict. Skuas were credited with the first confirmed kill by British aircraft during the Second World War: a Dornier Do 18 flying boat was shot down over the North Sea on 26 September 1939 by three Skuas of 803 Naval Air Squadron, flying from Ark Royal.. On 10 April 1940, 16 Skuas of 800 and 803 NAS led by Lieutenant Commander William Lucy, flying from RNAS Hatston in the Orkney Islands, sank the German cruiser Königsberg in Bergen harbour during Operation Weserübung, the German invasion of Norway. Königsberg was the first major warship sunk in war by air attack and the first major warship to be sunk by dive bombing.
Lucy also became a fighter ace flying the Skua. These two mostly-Skua squadrons suffered heavy losses during an attempt to bomb the German battleship Scharnhorst at Trondheim on 13 June 1940. Among the latter were both squadron commanders, Captain R. T. Partridge and Lieutenant Commander John Casson. Although it fared reasonably well against Axis bombers over Norway and in the Mediterranean, the Skua suffered heavy losses when confronted with modern fighters the Bf 109, they were withdrawn from front line service in 1941. Most Skuas were replaced by another two-seater, the Fairey Fulmar, which doubled the Skua's forward armament and had a speed advantage of 50 mph. A number of aircraft were converted to target tugs, following withdrawal from front line service. Others were completed as target tugs from the factory and used by the RAF and Fleet Air Arm in this role, they were used as advanced trainers for the Fleet Air Arm. The last Skua in service was struck off charge in March 1945; the Blackburn Roc was a similar aircraft developed as a turret fighter, with all its armament in a dorsal turret.
The Roc was expected to fly with the Skua. Rocs were attached to Skua squadrons to protect the fleet anchorage at Scapa Flow in early 1940 and from HMS Glorious and Ark Royal during the Norwegian Campaign. Skuas and Rocs flew fighter sweeps and bombing sorties over the English Channel during Operation Dynamo and Operation Ariel, the evacuations of Allied forces from Dunkirk and other French ports. Skua Mk. I: two prototypes. Powered by the Bristol Mercury, it had distinctive fairings to the engine cowling over the tappet valves of the Mercury; the first prototype, K5178, had a much shorter nose while K5179, the second prototype, had a lengthened nose to improve longitudinal stability. Skua Mk. II: Production aircraft powered by the sleeve valve Bristol Perseus. Long nose as with a shorter, smooth cowling. Two-seat fighter and dive bomber for the Royal Navy. No intact Skuas s