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Norwegian Army

The Norwegian Army is the land warfare service branch of the Norwegian Armed Forces. The Army is the oldest of the Norwegian service branches, established as a modern military organization under the command of the King of Norway in 1628; the Army participated in various continental wars during the 17th, 18th and 19th century as well, both in Norway and abroad in World War II. It constitutes part of the Norwegian military contribution as a charter member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization since 1949. After the Kalmar War broke out in 1611, the Danish king, Fredrik II in the Kingdom of Denmark tried to revive the volunteer leidang, with dire results; as the Norwegian citizenry had not been armed or trained in the use of arms for nearly three centuries they were not able to fight. Soldiers were captured; the soldiers had to participate in military drills, while providing supplementary labor to the local community when not in active service. Although the army still did not represent the whole nation, as city residents were exempt from military duty, 1628 is regarded by historians as the year when the modern Norwegian army was born.

As a result of the Torstenson war lasting from 1643 to 1645, Danish–Norwegian territories were to be ceded to Sweden. This led the Danish king to invite German mercenaries to coach and command the Danish–Norwegian armed forces: a decision echoing down the centuries in traces of Germanic vocabulary used by the Norwegian military to this day. In the early 18th century the Swedes invaded Norway again, this time the Norwegian army held its own, setting the stage for nearly a century of peace – the longest yet in modern Norwegian history – during which time a distinct Norwegian identity began to evolve. German ceased to be the official language of command in the army in 1772, in favour of "Dano-Norwegian". With the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars, the kingdoms of Denmark–Norway and Sweden tried to remain neutral. By 1807, Denmark-Norway was formally at war with Great Britain; as the Napoleonic era drew to a close, the anti-French victorious allies decided to sever Norway from Denmark and unite and award Norway to neighboring Sweden in 1814 at the Congress of Vienna.

This union lasted until 1905, during which time the Norwegian Army retained a separate entity within the joint kingdom. Financial budgeting, regimental organization and uniforms were all independent of their Swedish counterparts; the basis for recruitment for the Norwegian Army was one of conscription for up to five years by lot drawn amongst rural recruits only. A framework hvervede, enlisted as long-service volunteers; as with other armies of the period, the payment of a substitute to serve in one's place was permitted. This system was replaced by one of universal conscription introduced in 1854. Enlistment in the active army was however still based on the drawing of ballots, with those escaping full-time service going to the reserve landvern, where they received brief and basic training. In 1884, the basis of service was further modified with the training period being reduced to 90 days; the regulars of the hvervede were reduced to a cadre of NCOs and other specialists. The individual Norwegian recruit now passed through three stages of service with the line regiments, the militia and the territorial reserve during the 13-year period that his liability for military service lasted.

The left-wing parties of the Storting favored the substitution of part-time volunteer rifle clubs for the regular army but this was opposed by the Storting parliamentary majority on the basis of the doubtful effectiveness of such a force. In June 1905, the Storting unilaterally dissolved the 91-year-old union with Sweden. After a short but tense period during which both armies were mobilized, Sweden agreed to the peaceful dissolution of the union. Though nominally a neutral nation during the "Great War" of World War I, Norway was in the unenviable position of being dependent on the warring sides for its trade. Coal from Britain was needed to keep the country going, Norway had thus to agree that each shipload of coal leaving Britain be matched with incoming Norwegian cargoes such as copper ore and fish; this attracted the attention of the opposing German Empire and its Imperial German Navy's numerous submarines. By 1920, the army of Norway was a national militia. Service was universal and compulsory, liability commencing at the age of 18 and continuing till the age of 56.

The men were called out at 21, for the first 12 years belonged to the line. Afterwards they passed into the landatorm, in which they remained until they attained the age of 55 years; the initial training was carried out in recruits' schools. As soon as their courses were finished the men were transferred to the units to which they would permanently belong, with them went through a further training of 30 days. Subsequent training consisted of 80 days in the second and seventh years of service; the line was organized into 6 divisions besides which there was the garrison artillery. There were 56 battalions of infantry, 5 companies of cyclists, 3 regiments of cavalry, 27 four-gun field batteries, 3 batteries of mountain artillery, 9 batteries of heavy artillery, 1 regiment and 2 bat

George Harpur Crewe

Sir George Crewe, 8th Baronet was an English Tory politician who represented the constituency of South Derbyshire. Crewe was the eldest surviving son of Sir Henry Harpur Crewe, 7th Baronet and his wife Ann Hawkins, daughter of Isaac Hawkins, his father took the name and arms of Crewe by royal sign manual in 1808. Crewe was educated at Rugby School. On 7 February 1818, at the age of 24, he succeeded his father, who died after falling from his coach box, he inherited the Baronetcy, Calke Abbey the family seat and extensive properties in Derbyshire and Leicestershire. Crewe was called upon to serve as High Sheriff of Derbyshire in 1821, one of his first acts was to do away with the Assize Ball publishing a letter "showing how cruel and heartless it appeared that any person should be found engaged in worldly mirth and amusement on so solemn an occasion, when so many poor creatures were trembling on the eve of their trial for their lives." After several years looking after his estates, he was persuaded to stand as Member of Parliament for South Derbyshire in 1835, was returned again in 1837.

His health was always poor and he retired in 1841. Crewe was a considerable philanthropist with strong Christian principles, was considered "too conscientious for a member of Parliament"; the Harpur Crewe family were great collectors, Sir George collected paintings,stuffed birds and animals. Harper Crewe became the President of the Derby Town and County Museum and Natural History Society in 1836; this organisation became Art Gallery. He died at his home at Calke Abbey aged 48. Crewe married in 1819 Jane Whitaker, daughter of the Rev. Thomas Whitaker, Vicar of Mendham, Norfolk, they had six children and he was succeeded by his son Sir John Harpur Crewe, 9th Baronet. Debrett's Baronetage of England 7th Edition pp 34/5 Leigh Rayment's list of baronets Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sir George Harpur Crewe

American Family Planning

American Family Planning known as The Ladies Center and as Community Healthcare Center, is a clinic in Pensacola, providing abortions and other women's healthcare services. It is notable as the site of a number of acts of anti-abortion violence. Best-known was the 1994 murder of Dr. John Britton. Britton was a physician working at the clinic. Barrett's wife June was wounded; the clinic had been bombed twice in 1984. These bombers stated that they were behind the June bombing. On January 1, 2012, Bobby Joe Rogers firebombed the clinic with a Molotov cocktail. Rogers told investigators that he was motivated to commit the crime by his opposition to abortion, that what more directly prompted the act was seeing a patient enter the clinic during one of the frequent anti-abortion protests there. Blanchard, Dallas A.. Religious violence and abortion: the Gideon Project. University Press of Florida. Official website

Il filosofo di campagna

Il filosofo di campagna is a dramma giocoso per musica in 3 acts by composer Baldassare Galuppi. The opera uses an Italian language libretto by Carlo Goldoni; the work premiered at the Teatro San Samuele in Venice on 26 October 1754. Il filosofo di campagna, defined a "masterly opera", obtained a great success, with many performances throughout Europe. Tritemio wants his daughter Eugenia to marry Nardo, a rich farmer, known as "the Philosopher", but Eugenia is in love with the nobleman Rinaldo. Lesbina, housemaid of Tritemio, in order to avoid that Nardo meets Eugenia, takes the place of the girl. Nardo, who has never seen Eugenia before, ends up falling in love with Lesbina, convinced that she is the true daughter of Tritemio. After a series of misunderstandings Nardo learns of the true identity of Lesbina, but he accepts the housemaid all the same and remains in love with her. Lesbina persuades Tritemio that she wants to marry him and a notary is called; when the notary arrives, without Tritemio knowing it, a double wedding is celebrated, between Nardo and Lesbina and between Rinaldo and Eugenia.

Tritemio has to resign himself to the situation, but he finds his consolation marrying Lena, a niece of Nardo. Notes Sources Monson, Dale E.. "Il filosofo di campagna". In Sadie, Stanley; the New Grove Dictionary of Opera. 2. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-522186-2. Mellace, Raffaele. "Il filosofo di campagna". In Gelli, Piero. Dizionario dell'opera. Milano: Baldini&Castoldi. ISBN 88-8089-177-4. Italian libretto

Lucas-Tooth baronets

There have been two baronetcies created for persons with the surname Lucas-Tooth, both in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom. The Lucas-Tooth Baronetcy, of Queen's Gate, was created in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom on 26 July 1906 for the brewer Robert Lucas-Tooth. Born Robert Tooth, he had assumed by Royal licence the additional surname of Lucas in 1904, he was succeeded by the second Baronet. Like his two elder brothers, he died in the First World War in 1918; as none of the brothers left male issue the baronetcy became extinct. The Lucas-Tooth Baronetcy, of Bught in the County of Inverness, was created in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom on 1 December 1920 for the seventeen-year-old Hugh Lucas-Tooth, he was the son of Major Hugh Warrand and his wife Beatrice Maude, eldest daughter of the first Baronet of the 1906 creation. The baronetcy was created with remainder, failing male issue of the body of the grantee, to the other heirs male of the body of his mother. Born Hugh Warrand, he assumed by Royal licence the surname of Lucas-Tooth in lieu of his patronymic in 1920.

Lucas-Tooth became a successful Conservative politician. In 1965 he assumed for himself only the additional surname of Munro. Sir Robert Lucas Lucas-Tooth, 1st Baronet Sir Archibald Leonard Lucas Lucas-Tooth, 2nd Baronet Sir Hugh Vere Huntly Duff Munro-Lucas-Tooth, 1st Baronet Sir John Lucas-Tooth, 2nd Baronet Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Leigh Rayment's list of baronets – Baronetcies beginning with "L" Biography of Sir Robert Lucas-Tooth, 1st Baronet, at the Australian Dictionary of Biography Online Edition "Kameruka - History of the Tooth Dynasty in Australia". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2010-11-28

Kildare–McCormick House

The Kildare–McCormick House is a historic residence in Huntsville, Alabama. The ornate, Queen Anne-style mansion was built in 1886–87, its early owners contributed to the development of Huntsville, both through industrial projects and philanthropic efforts. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982; the house was built by industrialist Michael O'Shaugnessey, who had come to Huntsville from Nashville in 1881 with his brother to open a cottonseed oil factory. He was a member of the North Alabama Improvement Company, which invested in infrastructure and industry and were the main backers of Dallas Mill. O'Shaugnessey built his mansion in 1886 on 71 acres, naming it Kildare, after the county in Ireland where he was born. O'Shaugnessey returned to Nashville in 1900, sold the house to Mary Virginia McCormick, daughter of Cyrus McCormick, another industrial magnate who invented the mechanical reaper. Virginia McCormick lived in the house as a winter residence with her caretaker Grace Walker.

McCormick and Walker were involved in philanthropic efforts in the city. McCormick funded several YMCAs in the mill villages surrounding town, an African-American wing for the then-segregated Huntsville Hospital, a hospital at Alabama A&M University; the house was used for many social events, including Christmas parties for children, Easter egg hunts, a celebration for Virginia's birthday in May. During McCormick's tenure, a conservatory was added to the side of the ballroom and a porch added to the rear of the house. McCormick moved out of the house in 1931, the family subdivided and sold the property the next year. Over the next 40 years, the house had no fewer than 10 owners who repurposed the house as a hotel, boarding house, health spa, antique shop, brothel. After years of neglect, the house was purchased in 1975 by James Reeves, who restored the house over the next 20 years; the current owners purchased the house in 2007 with plans to construct a protective barrier around it. The Kildare–McCormick House is three stories, plus an English basement, contains 40 rooms and 17,000 square feet of living space.

The house has a central block with a southern wing with a rectangular ell on one corner and a cylindrical tower on the other, a northwestern wing with an semicircular section. Designed in a decorated Queen Anne style, the exterior combines a variety of materials and colors; the basement and first floor, as well as second floor on the southeast bay and tower, are covered in limestone block, the first floor more smooth than the basement. Red brick is used for quoins and window surrounds on the southeast bay, for the third floor of the tower; the gable end of the southeast bay contains an intricate terra cotta relief. The upper floors are faced with tan river stones, divided into panels with green-painted wood. Windows on the first floor are one-over-one sashes, some with sidelights and stained glass or leaded glass transoms. On the main block of the second floor, windows are one-over-one sashes with the upper pane surrounded by a row of small panes. Third floor windows have the entire upper sash composed of small panes.

The irregular-shaped slate roof is punctuated by numerous gables and dormers, as well as four brick chimneys with recessed panels in each side and tapered tops. Wooden brackets project from the eaves. A flat roofed porch extends across the front of the house, the northern portion of, supported by wooden posts and a short rail; the portion over the main entrance has a limestone wall on the south end with a terra cotta-framed arched opening with an ornamental hipped roof and finial. A pyramidal roofed porte-cochère with terra cotta ridges and a finial extends from the porch over the semicircular driveway; the main entrance opens into a hall with a stairway, doors to two parlors to the right, the dining room at the rear, the ballroom to the south. The ballroom contains the southeastern bay and tower, opens into the conservatory, added in the early 20th century. A porch and breakfast room are behind the dining room; the northwestern wing contains the butler's pantry, stairs to the kitchen in the basement, a bathroom, the library.

The second floor contains seven bedrooms. The third floor, reached by a separate flight of stairs from the second floor hall, contains four further bedrooms and a billiard room