Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, engineering mathematics, materials science principles to design, analyze and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the broadest of the engineering disciplines; the mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, product life cycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery and cooling systems, transport systems, watercraft, medical devices and others, it is the branch of engineering that involves the design and operation of machinery. Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century. In the 19th century, developments in physics led to the development of mechanical engineering science.
The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements. It overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, other engineering disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may work in the field of biomedical engineering with biomechanics, transport phenomena, bionanotechnology, modelling of biological systems; the application of mechanical engineering can be seen in the archives of various ancient and medieval societies. In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes influenced mechanics in the Western tradition and Heron of Alexandria created the first steam engine. In China, Zhang Heng improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, Ma Jun invented a chariot with differential gears; the medieval Chinese horologist and engineer Su Song incorporated an escapement mechanism into his astronomical clock tower two centuries before escapement devices were found in medieval European clocks.
He invented the world's first known endless power-transmitting chain drive. During the Islamic Golden Age, Muslim inventors made remarkable contributions in the field of mechanical technology. Al-Jazari, one of them, wrote his famous Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206 and presented many mechanical designs. Al-Jazari is the first known person to create devices such as the crankshaft and camshaft, which now form the basics of many mechanisms. During the 17th century, important breakthroughs in the foundations of mechanical engineering occurred in England. Sir Isaac Newton formulated Newton's Laws of Motion and developed Calculus, the mathematical basis of physics. Newton was reluctant to publish his works for years, but he was persuaded to do so by his colleagues, such as Sir Edmond Halley, much to the benefit of all mankind. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is credited with creating Calculus during this time period. During the early 19th century industrial revolution, machine tools were developed in England and Scotland.
This allowed mechanical engineering to develop as a separate field within engineering. They brought with them manufacturing machines and the engines to power them; the first British professional society of mechanical engineers was formed in 1847 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, thirty years after the civil engineers formed the first such professional society Institution of Civil Engineers. On the European continent, Johann von Zimmermann founded the first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz, Germany in 1848. In the United States, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers was formed in 1880, becoming the third such professional engineering society, after the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Institute of Mining Engineers; the first schools in the United States to offer an engineering education were the United States Military Academy in 1817, an institution now known as Norwich University in 1819, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1825. Education in mechanical engineering has been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science.
Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at various universities worldwide. Mechanical engineering programs take four to five years of study and result in a Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science Engineering, Bachelor of Technology, Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering, or Bachelor of Applied Science degree, in or with emphasis in mechanical engineering. In Spain and most of South America, where neither B. Sc. nor B. Tech. Programs have been adopted, the formal name for the degree is "Mechanical Engineer", the course work is based on five or six years of training. In Italy the course work is based on five years of education, training, but in order to qualify as an Engineer one has to pass a state exam at the end of the course. In Greece, the coursework is based on a five-year curriculum and the requirement of a'Diploma' Thesis, which upon completion a'Diploma' is awarded rather than a B. Sc. In the United States, most undergraduate mechanical engineering programs are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology to ensure similar course requirements and standards a
Kongsberg Gruppen is an international technology group that supplies high-technology systems and solutions to customers in the merchant marine, aerospace, offshore oil and gas industries, renewable and utilities industries. In 2016 Kongsberg had revenues of NOK 15,845 million, 7,159 employees in more than 25 countries; the company is headquartered in Kongsberg. It comprises three business areas: Kongsberg Maritime Kongsberg Defence Systems Kongsberg DigitalKongsberg is a continuation of Kongsberg Weapons Factory. After KV’s restructuring in 1987, defence activities continued as the company Norsk Forsvarsteknologi. In 1995 the company changed its name to Kongsberg Gruppen. Kongsberg is a public company; the Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Fisheries is the largest shareholder with a 50.001 percent interest. Markets outside of Norway pose a growing and important part of business and represented 80% of revenue in 2015; the company’s origin and background dates back to the early 1600s. The discovery of silver in the mountains around Kongsberg in 1624 meant that the city became an important mineral resource for the Danish Norwegian kingdom.
When the Danish-Norwegian union was dissolved about 200 years there was a need to build up a strong defence that would contribute to independence and security for Norway. There was a need for a domestic defence industry, Kongsberg had expertise after centuries of mining. On 20 March 1814 Poul Steenstrup founded Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk. 1814 was an important year for Norway. The nation wrote its constitution and in conjunction to this Kongsberg Weapons Factory was founded by mining superintendent Poul Steenstrup on March 20, 1814; the weapons factory was one of the nation's first industrial factories. Kongsberg Silver Mines experienced a recession and as a consequence Kongsberg suffered distress and poverty. There was a need to create new jobs. In addition Norway was marked by the desire for national independence, the Weapons factory would make the newly established state self-supplied with weapons. Kongsberg's mining traditions - established over several centuries - provided a good basis for building a knowledge-based business.
Skilled mining engineers were now assigned to develop the new cornerstone company. The Weapons Factory began producing rifles for the Norwegian Armed Forces. A number of models were delivered throughout the 19th century; the major international breakthrough came in 1888 when director Ole Herman Johannes Krag and corps gunsmith Erik Jørgensen showcased a new type of rifle. International breakthrough came with the Krag–Jørgensen rifle in 1892; the officer Ole Herman Johannes Krag and gunsmith Erik Jørgensen wanted to produce a new type of precision rifle, both easy to use, inexpensive to manufacture and which had revolutionary functionality. The rifle's mechanism proved to be something quite revolutionary in the arms industry; the Krag–Jørgensen rifle was first adopted as a service rifle by the Danish Army in 1889. Three years the rifle became a world-known concept when the United States decided to equip their soldiers with the rifle. "The Krag" turned out to be one of the first major export contracts for the Norwegian industry.
During a six-year period the U. S. alone produced well over half a million rifles on licence. In 1894 the weapon was adopted as army rifle for the Norwegian Army; the weapon was in service until World War II. "The Krag" became Norway's first large-scale industrial export and helped to establish an important relationship with the U. S. military. The Krag–Jørgensen rifle dominated production at Kongsberg until the end of World War I; when the war was over there was a significant decline in military orders. The company therefore used its position and expertise from the defence industry to enter new markets and seek new business opportunities. Production of civilian products such as civil weapons and parts for the shipping industry and whaling fleet began 1918. Other departments made bicycle components, while the cannon department made shafts, connecting rods and whale guns. Kongsberg launched its first civil products in 1921; the products won gold medal at the World Exposition in Barcelona in 1929. During World War II Kongsberg was under German control.
Production, never came up to such numbers as the occupation forces wanted. This was due to access to raw materials, but resistance among factory workers. After the war Kongsberg was designated as one of the major industrial builders in Norway; the company produced everyday necessities such as pots and pans, contributed to the development of the defence and maritime industry. The weapons factory was no longer under military command, in 1953, the Norwegian Parliament, adopted a large-scale modernization and expansion of the company; the aim was to build a national high-tech defence industry that met the needs of the Norwegian Armed Forces as well as those of NATO. The creation of the Forsvarets Forskningsinstitutt at Kjeller in 1947 was part of the same strategy; this cooperation has from the 1950s and up till present given rise to a number of defence systems such as the Penguin missile, NASAMS 2 air defence system, HUGIN AUV and Naval Strike Missile. After an agreement with Volvo in 1957, the production of automobile parts became a considerable business for KONGSBERG.
At first the company produced drive shafts, other components for heavy trucks, buses and agricultural machinery. The division was reorganized into the company Kongsberg Automotive. Having had a national focus in the post-war period, KONGSBERG again directed i
Gløshaugen is a neighborhood in the city of Trondheim in Trøndelag county, Norway. It is located in the borough of Lerkendal 2 kilometres southeast of Midtbyen, the downtown center of Trondheim, it is situated east of the neighborhood of Elgeseter, west of Singsaker, north of Lerkendal. Gløshaugen is the site of NTNU Gløshaugen, the main campus and buildings of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, it was the the site of the Norwegian Institute of Technology which became a part of the NTNU merger. Most of the university science and engineering buildings are located at Gløshaugen. NTNU Gløshaugen website Media related to NTNU Gløshaugen at Wikimedia Commons
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design and maintenance of the physical and built environment, including public works such as roads, canals, airports, sewerage systems, structural components of buildings, railways. Civil engineering is traditionally broken into a number of sub-disciplines, it is considered the second-oldest engineering discipline after military engineering, it is defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering. Civil engineering takes place in the public sector from municipal through to national governments, in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies. Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles for solving the problems of society, its history is intricately linked to advances in the understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history; because civil engineering is a wide-ranging profession, including several specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geology, hydrology, environment and other fields.
Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans, such as stonemasons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Knowledge was retained in guilds and supplanted by advances. Structures and infrastructure that existed were repetitive, increases in scale were incremental. One of the earliest examples of a scientific approach to physical and mathematical problems applicable to civil engineering is the work of Archimedes in the 3rd century BC, including Archimedes Principle, which underpins our understanding of buoyancy, practical solutions such as Archimedes' screw. Brahmagupta, an Indian mathematician, used arithmetic in the 7th century AD, based on Hindu-Arabic numerals, for excavation computations. Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence; the earliest practice of civil engineering may have commenced between 4000 and 2000 BC in ancient Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization, Mesopotamia when humans started to abandon a nomadic existence, creating a need for the construction of shelter.
During this time, transportation became important leading to the development of the wheel and sailing. Until modern times there was no clear distinction between civil engineering and architecture, the term engineer and architect were geographical variations referring to the same occupation, used interchangeably; the construction of pyramids in Egypt were some of the first instances of large structure constructions. Other ancient historic civil engineering constructions include the Qanat water management system the Parthenon by Iktinos in Ancient Greece, the Appian Way by Roman engineers, the Great Wall of China by General Meng T'ien under orders from Ch'in Emperor Shih Huang Ti and the stupas constructed in ancient Sri Lanka like the Jetavanaramaya and the extensive irrigation works in Anuradhapura; the Romans developed civil structures throughout their empire, including aqueducts, harbors, bridges and roads. In the 18th century, the term civil engineering was coined to incorporate all things civilian as opposed to military engineering.
The first self-proclaimed civil engineer was John Smeaton. In 1771 Smeaton and some of his colleagues formed the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers, a group of leaders of the profession who met informally over dinner. Though there was evidence of some technical meetings, it was little more than a social society. In 1818 the Institution of Civil Engineers was founded in London, in 1820 the eminent engineer Thomas Telford became its first president; the institution received a Royal Charter in 1828, formally recognising civil engineering as a profession. Its charter defined civil engineering as:the art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of man, as the means of production and of traffic in states, both for external and internal trade, as applied in the construction of roads, aqueducts, river navigation and docks for internal intercourse and exchange, in the construction of ports, moles and lighthouses, in the art of navigation by artificial power for the purposes of commerce, in the construction and application of machinery, in the drainage of cities and towns.
The first private college to teach civil engineering in the United States was Norwich University, founded in 1819 by Captain Alden Partridge. The first degree in civil engineering in the United States was awarded by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1835; the first such degree to be awarded to a woman was granted by Cornell University to Nora Stanton Blatch in 1905. In the UK during the early 19th century, the division between civil engineering and military engineering, coupled with the demands of the Industrial Revolution, spawned new engineering education initiatives: the Class of Civil Engineering and Mining was founded at King's College London in 1838 as a response to the growth of the railway system and the need for more qualified engineers, the private College for Civil Engineers in Putney was established in 1839, the UK's first Chair of Engineering was established at the University of Glasgow in 1840. Civil engineers possess an academic degree in civil engineering; the length of study is three to five years, the completed degree is designated as a bachelor
DNO ASA ‘DNO’ is a Norwegian oil and gas operator focused on the Middle East and the North Sea. Founded in 1971 and listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange, the Company holds stakes in onshore and offshore licenses at various stages of exploration and production in the Kurdistan region of Iraq, the United Kingdom and Yemen. DNO is Norway's oldest oil company and the first to list on the Oslo Stock Exchange in 1981. During the last two decades the company's focus has shifted from the North Sea to the Middle East region. In 2004, DNO was the first international oil company to enter the Kurdistan region of Iraq, at a time when the Kurdish region's oil industry was non-existent; the company began production from its flagship Tawke oil field in Kurdistan in 2007 – just two years after the start of exploration activities. The neighboring Peshkabir field was brought on production in 2018. DNO is now the leading international operator in Kurdistan in terms of production and reserves; the company re-entered the North Sea as well in 2017, acquiring offshore exploration licenses in Norway and the United Kingdom.
This has since expanded to include the Barents Sea. DNO now has a leading position in reserves and production. DNO re-entered Norway in 2017 through the acquisition of Origo Exploration and now holds twenty-one licenses on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. DNO entered the United Kingdom in 2017 through the acquisition of Origo Exploration and now holds three licenses to the UK Continental Shelf. DNO was the company's first foray into the Middle East. Bijan Mossavar-Rahmani is an experienced oil and gas executive and has served as DNO's Executive Chairman of the Board of Directors since 2011. Mr. Mossavar-Rahmani serves concurrently as Executive Chairman of Oslo-listed RAK Petroleum plc, DNO's largest shareholder, he is a member of the remuneration committees. Lars Arne Takla has extensive experience from various managerial and board positions in the international oil and gas industry, he is a member of the HSSE committee. Elin Karfjell is Managing Partner of Aelika AS and has held various management positions across a broad range of industries.
Ms. Karfjell is a member of the audit committee. Gunnar Hirsti has executive experience from various managerial and board positions in the oil and gas industry as well as the information technology industry in Norway, he was elected to DNO's Board of Directors in 2007 and is a member of the audit and remuneration committees. Shelley Watson began her career as a reservoir surveillance and facilities engineer with Esso Australia in its offshore Bass Strait operation, she is a member of the audit committee. The Norwegian National Contact Point concluded in 2018 that DNO had not met the expectations expressed in the OECD Guidelines on prior notice and consultation with the employees of DNO Yemen in connection with suspension of the company's Yemeni operations in 2015; the key issue in the complaint concerned lack of prior notice and consultation between DNO and the employee representatives in Yemen in connection with collective dismissals and suspension of production in the war-like situation that prevailed in 2015.
The complaint concerned the question of whether DNO had obstructed the workers’ right to organize and collective bargaining in Yemen, the validity of dismissals as part of the downsizing process. Industri Energi had for some time tried to help the workers of DNO Yemen after having received desperate appeals from the workers who were sacked by text messages and e-mails when the company withdrew from the country, not been given the wages and benefits they were enitled to. Still the workers have not received the compensation they are entitled to according to court decisions in Yemen. Official website Norwegian Petroleum Directorate´s fact page on DNO Stock information on DNO Reports and presentations
Ralph Høibakk is a Norwegian entrepreneur. He established the Tandberg Data company in 1978, which produced ergonomically designed laptops and keyboards. Høibakk left the company in 1986, started Høibakk Invest, which provides management consulting for new enterprises, he is a mountaineer, has climbed the Tirich Mir, Mount Everest and Drangnag Ri mountains in Asia with Norwegian philosopher Arne Næss and Arne Næss, Jr. Høibakk obtained a PhD in mathematics in 2017 at the University of Tromsø. Høibakk was born to his wife Mary Wilthil. In 1965, Høibakk married Inger Holm, but divorced her in 1998. Høibakk grew up at Rjukan and took examen artium in 1956. After that, he studied at the Norwegian Institute of Technology until 1962, he served his conscription at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment at Kjeller. During his conscription, he became familiar with the Manchester computer named FREDERIC, imported from the University of Manchester. From 1963 to 1965, Høibakk worked at the SINTEF research centre in Trondheim.
After he left SINTEF, Høibakk was appointed managing director of the computer technology company Nor-Data, which he remained for 13 years. In 1978, he was appointed chairman of Tandberg Radio's data division. In the same year the Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to bankrupt Tandberg Radio, the first time the Norwegian government had decided to bankrupt a company. Høibakk decided to start Tandberg Data, it gained surplus in the first years, in 1978 it released its first product. In the following years, Tandberg Data produced keyboards and personal computers which were ergonomically designed. In the 1980s, Tandberg Data without success. In 1986, Høibakk resigned from his position in the company, established Høibakk Invest AS, where he was managing director. In 2000, he was appointed Professor II at the Narvik University College. Høibakk is a noted mountaineer. In 1958, he was part of the first climbing of Trollryggen, he climbed the mountain Tirich Mir in an expedition led by the Norwegian philosopher Arne Næss in 1964.
In 1985, Høibakk climbed the Mount Everest with a group of 25 Norwegians, led by Arne Næss, Jr.. Ten years Høibakk climbed the Drangnag Ri mountain in Tibet with Chris Bonington and Bjørn Myhrer Lund. Høibakk and Bonington were hit by lightning at 6,800 metres above sea level. In 1990, Høibakk skied to the South Pole with a group of Norwegians who were the first Norwegians to reach the South Pole on ski since Roald Amundsen, he recalled that he found the ski trip a "bit boring". Opp stupet til østtoppen av Tirich Mir. 1964. Utvikling av on-line systemer. 1974. Sydpolen på tvers. Den norske Sydpolekspedisjonen 1990. 1991. Mine fjelleventyr. 1994. Drangnag Ri, det hellige fjellet. 1995. List of 20th-century summiters of Mount Everest
Telenor ASA is a Norwegian multinational telecommunications company headquartered at Fornebu in Bærum, close to Oslo. It is one of the world's largest mobile telecommunications companies with operations worldwide, focus in Scandinavia, Eastern Europe and Asia, it has extensive broadband and TV distribution operations in four Nordic countries, a 10-year-old research and business line for Machine-to-Machine technology. Telenor owns networks in 13 countries, has operations in 29 countries. Telenor is listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange and had a market capitalization in November 2015 of kr 225 billion, making it the third largest company listed on the OSE after DNB and Equinor. Telenor started off in 1855 as a state-operated monopoly provider of telegraph services named Telegrafverket; the first Norwegian planning for a telegraph were launched within the Royal Norwegian Navy in 1848, but by 1852, the plans were public and the Parliament of Norway decided on a plan for constructing a telegraph system throughout the country.
Televerket began by connecting Christiania to Sweden as well as Drammen. By 1857 the telegraph had reached Bergen on the west coast via Sørlandet on the south coast, by 1871 it had reached Kirkenes on the far north coast. Cable connections were opened to Denmark in 1867 and to Great Britain in 1869; the telegraph was most important for the merchant marine who now could use the electric telegraph to communicate between different locations, get a whole new advantage from better logistics. The first telephone service in Norway was offered in 1878 between Arendal and Tvedestrand, while the first international telephone service between Christiania and Stockholm was offered in 1893. Automation of the telephone system was started in 1920 and completed in 1985. In 1946 the first Telex service was offered, in 1976 satellite telephone connections to the Norwegian merchant navy, at the time the largest in the world and to oil platforms in the North Sea were made operational; this is the start of Inmarsat Satellite Communication, formed the first steps to digitalise the telephone network in 1980 - 85.
Televerket opened its first manual mobile telephone system in 1966, being replaced with the automatic NMT system in 1981 and the enhanced NMT-900 in 1986. Norway was the first country in to get an automatic mobile telephone system; the digital GSM system came into use in 1993. The third generation of mobile technology with UMTS system began full operation 2004; the Opera web browser was created in 1994 by Jon Stephenson von Tetzchner and Geir Ivarsøy during their tenure at Telenor, Opera Software was established in 1995 when they went on to continue development of their browser.. Telenor and Huawei conducted a successful test of 5G with 70 Gbit/s Speeds in Lab environment; the corporation changed its name to Televerket in 1969. In 1994 the Norwegian Telecom was established as a public corporation; the telecom sector in Norway, was deregulated in stages between 1994 and 1998. An attempt to merge Telenor with its counterpart in Sweden, failed in 1999, while both still were owned by their respective governments.
On December 4, 2000 the company was privatised and listed on Oslo Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. The privatisation gave the company NOK 15,6 billion in new capital, with the Government of Norway owning 77.7% of the company. As of 2014, the Norwegian government holds 53.97% of the Telenor shares directly and another 4.66% through the Pension Fund. In the second half of the 1990s, Telenor began mobile operations in other countries: Russia, Greece, Ireland and Austria, Malaysia and Thailand, Montenegro, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Myanmar. Operations in Greece and Germany were sold in 1999/2000 and profits were re-invested in emerging markets. In October 2005 Telenor acquired Vodafone Sweden, changing the name to Telenor in April 2006. On 31 July 2006, Telenor acquired 100 per cent share of mobile operator Mobi 63, one of two mobile operations existing in that moment in Serbia for 1.513 billion euros. In March 2018, Telenor sold its business in Southeast Europe to the PPF Group, for a sum of 2.8 billion euros.
Telenor offers a full range of telecommunication services in Norway, including mobile and fixed telephony as well as Internet access and content. Telenor still dominates the market place in Norway. However, competition has at times been intense in the mobile market and ADSL market, but Telenor remains the largest company in both sectors; the group holds a prominent position in the Scandinavian Broadband and TV market, both with regard to the number of subscribers and to the extent of coverage. The TV distribution is branded Canal Digital, it provided a range of services related to satellite communication, including voice and data before its Telenor Satellite Services division was purchased by Vizada in 2007. Telenor Maritime Radio is responsible for the infrastructure for maritime radio communication in Norway, includes five manned coast radio stations whose primary purpose is to monitor the maritime radio traffic and to assist marine vessels in distress. Telenor Cinclus develops and sells products related to automatic meter reading and other technologies related to machine to machine communication.
The group owns 30.2% of Evry (formerly held as 51.8% of the same company under the previous name EDB Business Partner, that offers a wide range of IT-services. The company i