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Norwegian campaign

The Norwegian campaign was the attempted Allied liberation of Norway from Nazi Germany during the early stages of World War II and directly following the German invasion and occupation of the Norwegian mainland and government. It took place from April 9, 1940, until June 10, 1940; the Allied campaign did not succeed, it resulted in the fleeing of King Haakon VII along with the remainder of the royal family to Great Britain. In April, the United Kingdom and France came to Norway's aid with an expeditionary force; as Plan R 4 got underway the Royal Navy began laying mines in neutral Norwegian waters as part of Operation Wilfred when the German invasion began. Despite moderate success in the northern parts of Norway, the Allies were compelled to withdraw by Germany's invasion of France in May, the Norwegian government sought exile in London; the campaign ended with the occupation of Norway by Germany, the continued fighting by exiled Norwegian forces from abroad. The 62 days of fighting made Norway the nation that withstood a German land invasion for the second longest period of time, after the Soviet Union.

Britain and France had signed military assistance treaties with Poland and two days after the German Invasion of Poland, both declared war against Nazi Germany. However, neither country mounted significant offensive operations and for several months no major engagements occurred in what became known as the Phoney War or "Twilight War". Winston Churchill in particular wished to move the war into a more active phase, in contrast to Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. During this time both sides wished to open secondary fronts. For the Allies, in particular the French, this was based on a desire to avoid repeating the trench warfare of the First World War, which had occurred along the Franco-German border. Following the outbreak of the Second World War, the Norwegian government had mobilized parts of the Norwegian Army and all but two of the Royal Norwegian Navy's warships; the Norwegian Army Air Service and the Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service were called up to protect Norwegian neutrality from violations by the warring countries.

The first such violations were the sinkings in Norwegian territorial waters of several British ships by German U-boats. In the following months aircraft from all the belligerents violated Norwegian neutrality. After the outbreak of war, the British began pressuring the Norwegian government to provide the United Kingdom with the services of the Norwegian merchant navy, themselves being in dire need of shipping in order to oppose the Nazi regime. Following protracted negotiations between 25 September and 20 November 1939, the Norwegians agreed to charter 150 tankers, as well as other ships with a tonnage of 450,000 gross tons; the Norwegian government's concern for the country's supply lines played an important role in persuading them to accept the agreement. Norway, although neutral, was considered strategically important for both sides of the war for several reasons. First was the importance of the iron ore that came through the port of Narvik, from which large quantities of iron ore from Sweden, were exported.

Narvik became of greater significance to the British when it became apparent that Operation Catherine, a plan to gain control of the Baltic Sea, would not be realized. Großadmiral Erich Raeder had pointed out several times in 1939 the potential danger to Germany of Britain seizing the initiative and launching its own invasion in Scandinavia – if the powerful Royal Navy had bases at Bergen and Trondheim, the North Sea would be closed to Germany, the Kriegsmarine would be at risk in the Baltic. Controlling Norway would be a strategic asset in the Battle of the Atlantic; the capture of ports would provide holes in the blockade of Germany, allowing the latter access to the Atlantic Ocean. With these ports, it would allow Germany to use its sea power against the Allies. Access to Norwegian air bases would allow German reconnaissance aircraft to operate far over the North Atlantic, while German U-boats and surface ships operating out of Norwegian naval bases were able to break the British blockade line across the North Sea and attack convoys heading to Great Britain.

When the Soviet Union started its attack against Finland on 30 November 1939, the Allies found themselves aligned with Norway and Sweden in support of Finland against the much larger aggressor. After the outbreak of war between Finland and the Soviet Union, Norway mobilized larger land forces than what had been considered necessary. By early 1940 their 6th Division in Finnmark and Troms fielded 9,500 troops to defend against Soviet attack, positioned in the eastern regions of Finnmark. Parts of the 6th Division's forces remained in Finnmark after the German invasion, guarding against a possible Soviet attack. During the Winter War the Norwegian authorities secretly broke the country's own neutrality by sending the Finns a shipment of 12 Ehrhardt 7.5 cm Model 1901 artillery pieces and 12,000 shells, as well as allowing the British to use Norwegian territory to transfer aircraft and other weaponry to Finland. This presented an opportunity to the Allies; the plan, promoted by the British General Edmund Ironside, included two divisions landing at Narvik, five battalions somewhere in Mid-Norway, another two divisions at Trondheim.

The French government pushed for action to be taken to confront the Germans away from France. This movement caused the Germans concern; the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact had placed Finl

Chambers Bay

Chambers Bay is a public golf course in the northwest United States, located in University Place, Washington, on the Puget Sound southwest of Tacoma. The British links-style course is owned by Pierce County and opened for play on June 23, 2007, it hosted the U. S. Amateur in 2010 and the U. S. Open in 2015. Chambers Bay was designed by Robert Trent Jones Jr; the 250-acre course is the centerpiece of a 930-acre county park. Pierce County bought the land for $33 million in 1992. During construction, 1.4 million cubic yards of dirt and sand were removed, cleaned off site, returned to sculpt the course. At the time, it was still permitted as a working mine, which meant fewer restrictions for the course architects. Five sets of tees are available, ranging from 5,250 to 7,585 yards, as a municipal course, Pierce County residents receive discounted rates; the course is for walkers only, caddies are optional. Motorized carts are permitted only for those with medical conditions or disabilities, a caddie must be hired as the driver.

The greens do not have fringes - it is a transparent transition from fairway to green. Championship Tees Navy Tees Source:Chambers Bay has just one tree, a Douglas fir behind the 15th green; the course is operated by Kemper Sports Management of Northbrook, which operates Bandon Dunes on the southern Oregon coast. The course is part of the Chambers Creek Properties which includes numerous non-golf recreational opportunities including a three-mile loop walking trail, part of which travels through the west side of the golf course. In 2016, a resort was proposed by a private developer, including an 80-room hotel and meeting space, a Tom Douglas restaurant. After the 2015 U. S Open was played at Chambers Bay, the local economy realized an estimated revenue increase of $150 million sourced from gains within the tourist and service industries. Although Pierce County taxpayers were responsible for security costs and course preparation for the US Open, other adjoining counties benefitted economically.

Chambers Bay was the site of the U. S. Amateur in 2010 and hosted the U. S. Open in 2015. Chambers Bay was set as a par-71 at 7,742 yards for the U. S. Amateur in 2010, the longest course in USGA history; the record only lasted until the following year. Eleven months prior to the event, the USGA announced in July 2014 that all final round tickets and weekly ticket passes for the 2015 U. S. Open were sold out; the tournament was won by Jordan Spieth. Chambers Bay Golf Course will host the U. S. Amateur Four-Ball Championship in 2021. Established in 2015, the "Four-Ball" as it is known, is the newest USGA championship and replaces the now-retired U. S. Amateur Public Links Championship, established in 1922. During the 2015 U. S. Open, Chambers Bay was subject to criticism for its bumpy greens, unfair course design, poor accessibility for spectators. Nine-time major champion Gary Player called it "the worst golf course I might've seen in the 63 years as a professional golfer," and Henrik Stenson said that the greens were like "putting on broccoli."In 2017, the fine fescue greens were allowed to transition to poa annua, the dominant species.

In the weeks leading up to the 2015 U. S. Open and dry weather forced extra watering of the greens, which allowed the invasive poa to thrive. Official website Chambers Bay photos

2013 Karshi Challenger

The 2013 Karshi Challenger was a professional tennis tournament played on hard courts. It was the seventh edition of the tournament, part of the 2013 ATP Challenger Tour, it took place in Qarshi, Uzbekistan between 6 and 12 May 2013. 1 Rankings are as of April 29, 2013. The following players received wildcards into the singles main draw: Sanjar Fayziev Sarvar Ikramov Temur Ismailov Nigmat ShofayzievThe following players received entry from the qualifying draw: Alexander Bury Egor Gerasimov Vaja Uzakov Alexey Vatutin 1 Rankings as of April 29, 2013; the following pairs received wildcards into the doubles main draw: Omad Boboqulov / Pavel Tsoy Sanjar Fayziev / Nigmat Shofayziev Sarvar Ikramov / Batyr Sapaev Teymuraz Gabashvili def. Radu Albot, 6–4, 6–4 Chen Ti / Guillermo Olaso def. Jordan Kerr / Konstantin Kravchuk, 7–6, 7–5 Official Website

Peter Frenkel

Peter Frenkel is an East German athlete, one of the best 20 km race walkers in the world in the late 1960s and early 1970s. He won the gold medal for East Germany in the Munich Olympics of 1972 in the 20 kilometre walk, in a time of 1:26:43, he defended his title at the 1976 Olympics held in Montreal, finishing in third place. He first competed in the Olympics at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, where he finished in tenth place, with a time of 1:37:21, he came fourth at the 1971 European Championships in a time of 1:27:52.8. He had retired early from the sport by the time of the 1974 European Championships, he used a decompression chamber belonging to the state airline Interflug in training for the 1972 Olympics, so as to simulate the effects of altitude training. He set two World Records during his racing career, the first in 1970, the second in 1972 equalling Hans-Georg Reimann's record, he served in the East German Army while training. After finishing his racing career, he became a well-known photographer in East Germany.

He was vice-president of the Union of German Olympians from 1991 to 1998. He became a press officer for OSC Potsdam athletic club, he raced for the ASK Vorwärts Potsdam club. He was coached by Wilhelm Kustak until 1968, by Hans-Joachim Pathus. In his racing years he was 1.82 m tall, weighed 76 kg. Peter Frenkel at the International Olympic Committee

Isaac J. MacCollum

Isaac James MacCollum was an American physician and politician from Wyoming, in Kent County, Delaware. He was a member of the Democratic Party. MacCollum was born at Delaware, he graduated from West Chester Normal School, now known as West Chester University in 1910 and Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia in 1914. MacCollum served on the medical advisory board during World War I and was president of the Delaware State Medical Society in 1930, he served as a member of the trustees at Delaware State Hospital for nine years, president of the State Board of Health for four years, a member of the State Parole Board for 20 years, 16 of those years as president. He was elected Lieutenant Governor of Delaware in 1940, defeating Republican candidate Earle D. Willey, Jr. of Dover, a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. He served from January 21, 1941 until January 19, 1945, alongside Republican Governor Walter W. Bacon. In 1944 he ran for Governor against Bacon, but was defeated and returned to his medical practice full-time.

MacCallum died in Delaware. He was a respected country doctor, described as "mainly just a kind, traditional doctor, he made house calls, something you don't see today. I am grateful to him -- he delivered my first baby." Elections are held the first Tuesday after November 1. U. S. Representatives have a term of two years. Delaware’s Lieutenant Governors Political Graveyard Something You Don't See Today -- House Calls Delaware Historical Society.

Marguerite Higgins

Marguerite Higgins Hall was an American reporter and war correspondent. Higgins covered World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, in the process advanced the cause of equal access for female war correspondents, she had a long career with the New York Herald Tribune, as a syndicated columnist for Newsday. She was the first woman to win a Pulitzer Prize for Foreign Correspondence awarded in 1951 for her coverage of the Korean War. In Phil Pisani's book "Maggies Wars" the main character is based on the life of Marguerite Higgins. Higgins was born in Hong Kong, where her father, Lawrence Higgins, was working at a shipping company; the family moved back to the United States three years later. She worked for The Daily Californian, the University of California, Berkeley newspaper, serving as an editor in 1940. While at Berkeley, she was a member of the Gamma Phi Beta sorority. After graduating from Berkeley in 1941 with a B. A. in French, she earned a masters degree from the Columbia University School of Journalism.

Eager to become a war correspondent, Higgins persuaded the management of the New York Herald Tribune to send her to Europe, after working for them for two years, in 1944. After being stationed in London and Paris, she was reassigned to Germany in March 1945, she witnessed the liberation of the Dachau concentration camp in April 1945 and received a U. S. Army campaign ribbon for her assistance during the surrender by its S. S. guards. She covered the Nuremberg war trials and the Soviet Union's blockade of Berlin. In 1950, Higgins was named chief of the Tribune's Tokyo bureau. Shortly after her arrival in Japan, war broke out in Korea, she came to the country as one of the first reporters on the spot. On 28 June and three of her colleagues witnessed the Hangang Bridge bombing, were trapped on the north bank of Han River as a result. After crossing the river by raft and coming to the U. S. military HQ in Suwon on the next day, she was ordered out of the country by General Walton Walker, who argued that women did not belong at the front and the military had no time to worry about making separate accommodations for them.

Higgins made a personal appeal to Walker's superior officer, General Douglas MacArthur, who subsequently sent a telegram to the Herald Tribune stating: "Ban on women correspondents in Korea has been lifted. Marguerite Higgins is held in highest professional esteem by everyone."This was a major breakthrough for all female war correspondents. As a result of her reporting from Korea, Higgins received the 1950 George Polk Memorial Award from the Overseas Press Club and shared with five male war correspondents the 1951 Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting, she contributed along with other major journalistic and political figures to the Collier's magazine collaborative special issue Preview of the War We Do Not Want, with an article entitled "Women of Russia". Higgins continued to cover foreign affairs throughout the rest of her life, interviewing world leaders such as Francisco Franco, Nikita Khrushchev, Jawaharlal Nehru. In 1955, she was chief of the Tribune's Moscow bureau. In 1963, she joined Newsday and was assigned to cover Vietnam, "visited hundreds of villages", interviewed most of the major figures, wrote a book entitled Our Vietnam Nightmare.

In 1942, she married Stanley Moore, a philosophy professor at Harvard but they divorced. In 1952, she married William Evans Hall, a U. S. Air Force Major General, whom she met while Bureau Chief in Berlin, their first daughter, born in 1953, died five days after a premature birth. In 1958, she gave birth in 1959, a daughter. While on assignment in late 1965, Higgins contracted leishmaniasis, a disease that led to her death on January 3, 1966, aged 45, in Washington, D. C, she is interred at Arlington National Cemetery with her husband Lieutenant General William Evans Hall. Fictional character based on Marguerite Higgins on-screen. Megan Fox in South Korean movie The Battle of Jangsari On September 2, 2010, South Korea posthumously awarded Order of Diplomatic Service Merit, one of its highest honors, to Marguerite Higgins. In a ceremony in the capital, her daughter and grandson accepted a national medal; the award cites Higgins' bravery in publicizing South Korea's struggle for survival in the early 1950s.

In 2016, South Korean Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs awarded Korean War's Heroine of May. War In Korea: The Report Of A Woman Combat Correspondent. New York: Doubleday & Co. 1951. News is a Singular Thing, 1955 Red Plush and Black Bread, 1955 Our Vietnam Nightmare: The story of U. S. involvement with thoughts on a future policy. New York: Harper and Row. 1965. ISBN 978-0-06-011890-7. Marguerite Higgins Hall at Arlington Cemetery Marguerite Higgins Papers at Syracuse University Marguerite Higgins at Library of Congress Authorities, with 8 catalog records "War In Korea: The Report Of A Woman Combat Correspondent" @ the Internet Archive My God! There Are Still Some Left New York Herald Tribune, Sept. 18, 1950 Marguerite Higgins at Find a Grave