It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling have called the pound. At various times, the sterling was commodity money or bank notes backed by silver or gold. The pound sterling is the worlds oldest currency still in use, the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and Jersey produce their own local issues of sterling, the Guernsey pound and the Jersey pound. The pound sterling is used in the Isle of Man, the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, and regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Sterling is the fourth most-traded currency in the exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those three currencies it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights, Sterling is the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves. The full, official name, pound sterling, is used mainly in formal contexts, otherwise the term pound is normally used.
The abbreviations ster. or stg. are sometimes used, the term British pound is commonly used in less formal contexts, although it is not an official name of the currency. The pound sterling is referred to as cable amongst forex traders, the origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the dollar/pound sterling exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex brokers are sometimes referred to as cable dealers, as another established source notes, the compound expression was derived, silver coins known as sterlings were issued in the Saxon kingdoms,240 of them being minted from a pound of silver. Hence, large payments came to be reckoned in pounds of sterlings, in 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection. And because the Leagues money was not frequently debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the Easterlings, and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called Easterlings Hall, or Esterlingeshalle.
For further discussion of the etymology of sterling, see sterling silver, the currency sign for the pound sign is £, which is usually written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is sometimes seen. The ISO4217 currency code is GBP, the abbreviation UKP is used but this is non-standard because the ISO3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes, GGP, JEP, stocks are often traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices. A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, since decimalisation in 1971, the pound has been divided into 100 pence. The symbol for the penny is p, hence an amount such as 50p properly pronounced fifty pence is more colloquially, quite often, pronounced fifty pee /fɪfti, pi and this helped to distinguish between new and old pence amounts during the changeover to the decimal system
Order of St. Olav
The Royal Norwegian Order of Saint Olav is a Norwegian order of chivalry that was instituted by King Oscar I of Norway and Sweden on August 21,1847, as a distinctly Norwegian order. It is named after King Olav II, known to posterity as St. Olav, nobility was abolished in Norway in 1821. Just before the union with Sweden was dissolved in 1905, the Order of the Norwegian Lion was instituted in 1904 by King Oscar II, the Order of St. Olav thus became the kingdoms only order of chivalry for the next 80 years. The Grand Master of the order is the monarch of Norway. It is awarded to individuals as a reward for remarkable accomplishments on behalf of the country, since 1985, the order has only been conferred upon Norwegian citizens, though foreign heads of state and royalty are awarded the order as a matter of courtesy. The Lord Chamberlain nominates the members of the commission, and the monarch approves them, nominations for the award are directed at the commission through the county governor. The order is divided into five classes and may be awarded for civilian or military contributions.
The collar is awarded as a distinction of the Grand Cross to those recipients deemed exceptionally worthy. Grand Cross of St. Olav – awarded to heads of state as a courtesy and in cases to individuals for merit, wears the badge on a collar. The insignia are expected to be returned either upon the advancement to a higher level of the order or upon his or her death. Since it was instituted, the order has been awarded approximately 19,500 times, the insignia are produced in Norway by craftsmen. The medal does not confer upon the recipient membership in an order, the badge of the Order is a white enamelled Maltese Cross, in silver for the knight class and in gilt of the higher classes, crowned monograms O appear between the arms of the cross. The cross is topped by a crown, military awards have crossed swords between the crown and the cross, the star of the Order for the Grand Cross is an eight-pointed silver star with faceted rays, bearing the obverse of the badge of the Order. The star for Commander with Star is a silver faceted Maltese Cross, the central disc is red with the golden Norwegian lion rampart bearing a battle axe, surrounded by a white-blue-white ring.
The ribbon of the Order is red with white-blue-white edge stripes, the Order of St. Olav is the highest civilian decoration currently awarded by Norway, and only ranks after the military War Cross among all Norwegian decorations still awarded in the general ranking. Bearers of the Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav are ranked 16th and this list contains holders of the Grand Cross, some of whom have been awarded the Collar and gives the year of their appointment. The list is collated alphabetically by last name, those not possessing a last name, such as royalty. Six of the listed are not heads of states or royals, before the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit was created in 1985, the Order of St Olav was awarded to members of a foreign delegation during state visits
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a states currency, money supply, and interest rates. Central banks usually oversee the commercial banking system of their respective countries, Central banks in most developed nations are institutionally designed to be independent from political interference. Still, limited control by the executive and legislative bodies usually exists, prior to the 17th century most money was commodity money, typically gold or silver. However, promises to pay were widely circulated and accepted as value at least five hundred years earlier in both Europe and Asia. The Song dynasty was the first to issue generally circulating paper currency, in 1455, in an effort to control inflation, the succeeding Ming Dynasty ended the use of paper money and closed much of Chinese trade. The Bank of Amsterdam, established in the Dutch Republic in 1609, is considered to be the forerunner to modern central banks. The Wisselbanks innovations helped lay the foundations for the birth and development of the banking system that now plays a vital role in the worlds economy.
Along with a number of local banks, it performed many functions of a central banking system. Lucien Gillard calls it the European guilder, and Adam Smith devotes many pages to explaining how the bank guilder works, the model of the Wisselbank as a state bank was adapted throughout Europe, including the Bank of Sweden and the Bank of England. Established by Dutch-Latvian Johan Palmstruch in 1668, Sveriges Riksbank is often considered by many as the worlds oldest central bank, the lenders would give the government cash and issue notes against the government bonds, which could be lent again. A Royal Charter was granted on 27 July through the passage of the Tonnage Act 1694, the bank was given exclusive possession of the governments balances, and was the only limited-liability corporation allowed to issue banknotes. The £1. 2M was raised in 12 days, half of this was used to rebuild the Navy and these modern central banking functions evolved slowly through the 18th and 19th centuries. The currency crisis of 1797, caused by panicked depositors withdrawing from the Bank led to the government suspending convertibility of notes into specie payment.
The bank was accused by the bullionists of causing the exchange rate to fall from over issuing banknotes. Nevertheless, it was clear that the Bank was being treated as an organ of the state, henry Thornton, a merchant banker and monetary theorist has been described as the father of the modern central bank. An opponent of the real bills doctrine, he was a defender of the bullionist position, thorntons process of monetary expansion anticipated the theories of Knut Wicksell regarding the cumulative process which restates the Quantity Theory in a theoretically coherent form. Until the mid-nineteenth century, commercial banks were able to issue their own banknotes, many consider the origins of the central bank to lie with the passage of the Bank Charter Act of 1844. Under this law, authorisation to issue new banknotes was restricted to the Bank of England, at the same time, the Bank of England was restricted to issue new banknotes only if they were 100% backed by gold or up to £14 million in government debt
A currency in the most specific use of the word refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins. A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money in common use, under this definition, US dollars, British pounds, Australian dollars, and European euros are examples of currency. These various currencies are recognized stores of value and are traded between nations in exchange markets, which determine the relative values of the different currencies. Currencies in this sense are defined by governments, and each type has limited boundaries of acceptance, other definitions of the term currency are discussed in their respective synonymous articles banknote and money. The latter definition, pertaining to the systems of nations, is the topic of this article. Currencies can be classified into two systems, fiat money and commodity money, depending on what guarantees the value. Some currencies are legal tender in certain jurisdictions, which means they cannot be refused as payment for debt.
Others are simply traded for their economic value, digital currency has arisen with the popularity of computers and the Internet. Currency evolved from two basic innovations, both of which had occurred by 2000 BC, originally money was a form of receipt, representing grain stored in temple granaries in Sumer in ancient Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt. In this first stage of currency, metals were used as symbols to represent value stored in the form of commodities and this formed the basis of trade in the Fertile Crescent for over 1500 years. Trade could only reach as far as the credibility of that military and it is not known what was used as a currency for these exchanges, but it is thought that ox-hide shaped ingots of copper, produced in Cyprus, may have functioned as a currency. It is thought that the increase in piracy and raiding associated with the Bronze Age collapse, possibly produced by the Peoples of the Sea, brought the trading system of oxhide ingots to an end. In Africa, many forms of value store have been used, including beads, ivory, various forms of weapons, the manilla currency, the manilla rings of West Africa were one of the currencies used from the 15th century onwards to sell slaves.
African currency is still notable for its variety, and in many various forms of barter still apply. These factors led to the metal itself being the store of value, first silver, now we have copper coins and other non-precious metals as coins. Metals were mined and stamped into coins and this was to assure the individual taking the coin that he was getting a certain known weight of precious metal. Coins could be counterfeited, but they created a new unit of account. Most major economies using coinage had several tiers of coins, using a mix of copper, gold coins were used for large purchases, payment of the military and backing of state activities, they were more often used as measures of account than physical coins
German occupation of Norway
The German occupation of Norway began on 9 April 1940 after German forces invaded the neutral Scandinavian country of Norway. Conventional armed resistance to the German invasion ended on 10 June 1940, throughout this period, Norway was continuously occupied by the Wehrmacht. This period of occupation is in Norway referred to as the war years or occupation period. By the late 1930s, the Norwegian parliament had accepted the need for a military and expanded the budget accordingly. As it turned out, most of the plans enabled by the expansion were not completed in time. Although neutrality remained the highest priority until the invasion was a fait accompli, it was throughout the government that Norway, above all. By the autumn of 1939, there was a sense of urgency that Norway had to prepare, not only to protect its neutrality. Efforts to improve military readiness and capability, and to sustain an extended blockade, were intensified between September 1939 and April 1940, several incidents in Norwegian maritime waters, notably the Altmark incident in Jøssingfjord, put great strains on Norways ability to assert its neutrality.
In March and April 1940, British plans for an invasion of Norway were prepared, mainly in order to reach and it was hoped that this would divert German forces away from France, and open a war front in south Sweden. It was agreed that mines would be laid in Norwegian waters, because of Anglo-French arguments, the date of the mining was postponed from 5 April to 8 April. A major storm on 7 April resulted in the British Navy failing to make contact with the German shipping. Consistent with Blitzkrieg warfare, German forces attacked Norway by sea, the first wave of German attackers counted only about 10,000 men. In the other cities that were attacked, the Germans faced only weak or no resistance, the surprise, and the lack of preparedness of Norway for a large-scale invasion of this kind, gave the German forces their initial success. The major Norwegian ports from Oslo northward to Narvik were occupied by advance detachments of German troops, at the same time, a single parachute battalion took the Oslo and Stavanger airfields, and 800 operational aircraft overwhelmed the Norwegian population.
The first troops to occupy Oslo entered the city brazenly, marching behind a German military brass band, on establishing footholds in Oslo and Trondheim, the Germans launched a ground offensive against scattered resistance inland in Norway. Allied forces attempted several counterattacks, but all failed, while resistance in Norway had little military success, it had the significant political effect of allowing the Norwegian government, including the royal family, to escape. The Blücher, which carried the main forces to occupy the capital, was sunk in the Oslofjord on the first day of the invasion, an improvised defence at Midtskogen prevented a German raid from capturing the king and government. The Norwegian Army rallied after the confusion and on several occasions managed to put up a stiff fight
Cupronickel is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese. Despite its high content, cupronickel is silver in colour. Cupronickel is highly resistant to corrosion in seawater because its potential is adjusted to be neutral with regard to seawater. Another common use of cupronickel is in silver-coloured modern-circulated coins, a typical mix is 75% copper, 25% nickel, and a trace amount of manganese. In the past, true silver coins were debased with cupronickel, Cupronickel alloys are used for marine applications due to their resistance to seawater corrosion, good fabricability, and their effectiveness in lowering macrofouling levels. Alloys ranging in composition from 90% Cu–10% Ni to 70% Cu–30% Ni are commonly specified in heat exchanger or condenser tubes in a variety of marine applications. Desalination plants, Cupronickel alloys are used in brine heaters, heat rejection and recovery, offshore oil and gas platforms and processing and FPSO vessels, Cupronickel alloys are used in systems and splash zone sheathings.
Power generation, Cupronickel alloys are used in steam turbine condensers, oil coolers, auxiliary cooling systems and high pressure pre-heaters at nuclear, seawater system design, Cupronickel alloys are used in tubular heat exchangers and condensers and high pressure systems. Seawater system components, Cupronickel alloys are used in condenser and heat exchanger tubes, piping, pumps, in Europe, Switzerland pioneered the nickel billon coinage in 1850, with the addition of silver. In 1968, Switzerland adopted the far cheaper 75,25 copper to nickel ratio being used by the Belgians, the United States, and Germany. From 1947 to 2012, all “silver” coinage in the UK was made from cupronickel, prior to these dates, both denominations had been made only in silver in the United States. Cupronickel is the cladding on either side of United States half-dollars since 1971, some circulating coins, such as the United States Jefferson nickel, the Swiss franc, and the South Korean 500 and 100 won are made of solid cupronickel.
Single-core thermocouple cables use a single pair of thermocouple conductors such as iron-constantan. These have the element of constantan or nickel-chromium alloy within a sheath of copper. Cupronickel is used in cryogenic applications, beginning around the turn of the 20th century, bullet jackets were commonly made from this material. It was soon replaced with gilding metal to reduce fouling in the bore. Currently, cupronickel remains the basic material for silver-plated cutlery and it is commonly used for mechanical and electrical equipment, medical equipment, jewelry items, and as material for strings for string instruments. Fender Musical Instruments used CuNiFe magnets in their Wide Range Humbucker pickup for various Telecaster and Starcaster guitars during the 1970s, for high-quality cylinder locks and locking systems, cylinder cores are made from wear-resistant cupronickel
Jan Mayen is a Norwegian volcanic island situated in the North Arctic Ocean. It is 55 km long and 373 km2 in area, partly covered by glaciers and it has two parts, larger northeast Nord-Jan and smaller Sør-Jan, linked by a 2.5 km wide isthmus. It lies 600 km northeast of Iceland,500 km east of central Greenland and 1,000 km west of the North Cape, the island is mountainous, the highest summit being the Beerenberg volcano in the north. The isthmus is the location of the two largest lakes of the island, Sørlaguna, and Nordlaguna, a third lake is called Ullerenglaguna. Jan Mayen was formed by the Jan Mayen hotspot, although administered separately and Jan Mayen are collectively assigned the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code SJ. Jan Mayen Island has one exploitable natural resource, from the site at Trongskaret, other than this, economic activity is limited to providing services for employees of Norways radio communications and meteorological stations located on the island. Jan Mayen has one unpaved airstrip, Jan Mayensfield, which is about 1,585 m long, the 124.1 km coast has no ports or harbours, only offshore anchorages.
There are important fishing resources, and the existence of Jan Mayen establishes a large Exclusive Economic Zone around it, a dispute between Norway and Denmark regarding the fishing exclusion zone between Jan Mayen and Greenland was settled in 1988 granting Denmark the greater area of sovereignty. Significant deposits of petroleum and natural gas are suspected by geologists to lie below Jan Mayens surrounding seafloors, Jan Mayen Island is an integral part of the Kingdom of Norway. Since 1995, Jan Mayen has been administered by the County Governor of the northern Norwegian county of Nordland to which it is closest. However, some authority over Jan Mayen has been assigned to the commander of the Norwegian Defence Logistics Organisation. The only inhabitants on the island are personnel working for the Norwegian Armed Forces, eighteen people spend the winter on the island, but the population may double during the summer, when heavy maintenance is performed. Personnel serve either six months or one year, and are exchanged twice a year in April, the main purpose of the military personnel is to operate a Loran-C base.
The support crew, including mechanics, and a nurse, are among the military personnel, both the LORAN transmitter and the meteorological station are located a few kilometres away from the settlement Olonkinbyen, where all personnel live. Transport to the island is provided by C-130 Hercules military transport planes operated by the Royal Norwegian Air Force that land at Jan Mayensfields gravel runway, the planes fly in from Bodø Main Air Station eight times a year. Since the airport does not have any instrument landing capabilities, good visibility is required, for heavy goods, freight ships visit during the summer, but since there are no harbours, the ships must anchor. The island has no population, but is assigned the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code SJ. It uses the Internet country code top-level domain. no and data code JN, Jan Mayen has telephone and internet connection over satellite, using Norwegian telephone numbers
Dependencies of Norway
Norway has three dependent territories, all uninhabited and located in the Southern Hemisphere. Bouvetøya is a Subantarctic island in the South Atlantic Ocean, Queen Maud Land is a sector of Antarctica which spans between 20° west and 45° east. Peter I Island is an island located 450 kilometres off the coast of Ellsworth Land of continental Antarctica. Both Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land are south of 60°S and are part of the Antarctic Treaty System. While the treaty states that the claims are not affected by the treaty, the dependencies are administered by the Polar Affairs Department of the Ministry of Justice and Public Security in Oslo, Norways capital. Norwegian criminal law, private law and procedural law applies to the dependencies, Norway has two unincorporated areas which are part of Norway, not dependencies, Jan Mayen and Svalbard. The dependency status entails that the island is not part of the Kingdom of Norway, this implies that the island can be ceded without violating the first article of the Constitution of Norway.
Norwegian administration of the island is handled by the Polar Affairs Department of the Ministry of Justice, the annexation of the island is regulated by the Dependency Act of 24 March 1933. It establishes that Norwegian criminal law, private law and procedural law applies to the dependencies and it further establishes that all land belongs to the state, and prohibits the storage and detonation of nuclear products. Since 5 May 1995, Norwegian law has required all Norwegian activity in Antarctica, including Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land, all Norwegian citizens who plan activities must therefore report to the Norwegian Polar Institute, who may deny any non-conforming activity. All people visiting the area must follow laws regarding protection of nature, treatment of waste and insurance for search, bouvetøya has been designated with the ISO 3166-2 code BV and was subsequently awarded the country code top-level domain. bv on 21 August 1997. On 14 December 1911 five Norwegians, under the leadership of Roald Amundsen, were the first to reach the South Pole, bouvet Island was claimed in 1927.
Peter I Island was claimed in 1929, Queen Maud Land was formally claimed as a Norwegian possession on 14 January 1938. King Harald V became the first reigning monarch to visit Antarctica and he visited Queen Maud Land in 2015. Bouvetøya is an uninhabited Subantarctic volcanic island located in the end of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, either in the South Atlantic Ocean or the Southern Ocean. The island has an area of 49 square kilometres, of which 93 percent is covered by a glacier, the center of the island is an ice-filled crater of an inactive volcano. Some skerries and one island, Larsøya, lie along the coast. Nyrøysa, created by a slide in the late 1950s, is the only easy place to land and is the location of a weather station
Common names include Acanthus and Bears breeches. The generic name derives from the Greek term for the Acanthus mollis, ἄκανθος, the genus comprises herbaceous perennial plants, rarely subshrubs, with spiny leaves and flower spikes bearing white or purplish flowers. Size varies from 0.4 to 2 m in height, Acanthus balcanicus Heywood & I. Richardson Acanthus dioscoridis Willd. Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl, This species occurs in South Asia, including Brunei Darussalam, South Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Viet Nam and Indonesia. In Australasia it is found in northeast Australia, northwest Australia, Papua New Guinea, Acanthus eminens C. B. Clarke, native to tropical Africa Acanthus hirsutus Boiss. Acanthus ilicifolius L. native to India and Sri Lanka Acanthus mollis L. native to Mediterranean Europe Acanthus montanus T. Anders and Central African species, from Ghana in the west to Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Alternative name for A. polystachyus Acanthus polystachyus Delile, native to Burundi, Rwanda, DRC, Sudan, Kenya, Acanthus spinosus L.
Acanthus syriacus Boiss. Several species, especially A. balcanicus, A. spinosus, Acanthus leaves were the aesthetic basis for capitals in the Corinthian order of architecture, see acanthus. Flora Europaea, Acanthus Images of Acanthus Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Acanthus
Fowl are birds belonging to one of two biological orders, namely the gamefowl or landfowl and the waterfowl. Studies of anatomical and molecular similarities suggest these two groups are close relatives, they form the fowl clade which is scientifically known as Galloanserae. This clade is supported by morphological and DNA sequence data as well as retrotransposon presence/absence data. In colloquial speech, the term fowl is often used near-synonymously with poultry, the fact that the Galliformes and Anseriformes most likely form a monophyletic group makes a distinction between fowl and poultry warranted. The historic difference is due to the Germanic/Latin split word pairs characteristic of Middle English, while they are quite diverse ecologically and consequently, in an adaptation to their different lifestyles and ethologically, some features still unite water- and landfowl. Many of these, are plesiomorphic for Neornithes as a whole, Galloanserae are very prolific, they regularly produce clutches of more than five or even more than 10 eggs, which is a lot for such sizeable birds.
By comparison, birds of prey and pigeons rarely lay more than two eggs, while most living birds are monogamous, at least for a breeding season, many Galloanserae are notoriously polygynous or polygamous. To ornithologists, this is well known in dabbling ducks. The general public is probably most familiar with the habits of domestic chickens. Hybridization is extremely frequent in the Galloanserae, and genera, not usually known to produce hybrids in birds. Guineafowl have successfully produced hybrids with domestic fowl and Indian peafowl and this is an important factor complicating mtDNA sequence-based research on their relationships. The mallards of North America, for example, are mostly derived from some males which arrived from Siberia, settled down. Fossils such as Vegavis indicate that essentially modern waterfowl, albeit belonging to an extinct lineage, were contemporaries of the nonavian dinosaurs. As opposed to the fairly conservative Galliformes, the Anseriformes have adapted to filter-feeding and are characterized by a large number of autapomorphies related to this lifestyle.
However, as support for the Galloanserae has emerged in subsequent studies. Benson, D. Presbyornis isoni and other late Paleocene birds from North Dakota, smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 69, 253-266. New nuclear evidence for the oldest divergence among neognath birds, the utility of ZENK. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30, 140-151 Feduccia, A, the Origin and Evolution of Birds, Second Edition
Bouvet Island is an uninhabited subantarctic high island and dependency of Norway located in the South Atlantic Ocean at 54°25. 8′S 3°22. 8′E. The island has an area of 49 square kilometres, of which 93 percent is covered by a glacier, the centre of the island is an ice-filled crater of an inactive volcano. Some skerries and one island, Larsøya, lie along the coast. Nyrøysa, created by a slide in the late 1950s, is the only easy place to land and is the location of a weather station. The island was first spotted on 1 January 1739 by Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier, after whom it was named and he recorded inaccurate coordinates and the island was not sighted again until 1808, when the British whaler captain James Lindsay named it Lindsay Island. The first claim of landing, although disputed, was by Benjamin Morrell, in 1825, the island was claimed for the British Crown by George Norris, who named it Liverpool Island. He reported Thompson Island as nearby, although this was shown to be a phantom island.
The first Norvegia expedition landed on the island in 1927 and claimed it for Norway, at this time the island was named Bouvet Island, or Bouvetøya in Norwegian. After a dispute with the United Kingdom, it was declared a Norwegian dependency in 1930 and it became a nature reserve in 1971. The island was discovered on 1 January 1739 by Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier, commander of the French ships Aigle and this was the first time that land had been spotted south of the 50th parallel south. Bouvet, who was searching for a large southern continent, spotted the island through the fog. He was not able to land and did not circumnavigate his discovery and his plotting of its position was inaccurate, leading several expeditions to fail to find the island again. James Cooks second voyage set off from Cape Verde on 22 November 1772 to find Cape Circoncision, the next expedition to spot the island was in 1808 by James Lindsay, captain of the Samuel Enderby & Sons whaler Snow Swan. They reached the island and recorded its position, though they were unable to land, Lindsay could confirm that the cape was indeed an island.
The next expedition to arrive at the island was American Benjamin Morrell, Morrell, by his own account, found the island without difficulty before landing and hunting 196 seals. In his subsequent lengthy description, Morrell does not mention the islands most obvious physical feature and this has caused some commentators to doubt whether he actually visited the island. On 10 December 1825, SE&Ss George Norris, master of the Sprightly, landed on the island, named it Liverpool Island and claimed it for the British Crown and George IV on 16 December. The next expedition to spot the island was Joseph Fuller and his ship Francis Allyn in 1893, german Carl Chuns Valdivia expedition arrived at the island in 1898