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Norwegian resistance movement

The Norwegian resistance to the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany began after Operation Weserübung in 1940 and ended in 1945. It took several forms: Asserting the legitimacy of the exiled government, by implication the lack of legitimacy of Vidkun Quisling's pro-Nazi regime and Josef Terboven's military administration The initial defense in Southern Norway, disorganized, but succeeded in allowing the government to escape capture The more organized military defense and counter-attacks in parts of Western and Northern Norway, aimed at securing strategic positions and the evacuation of the government Armed resistance, in the form of sabotage, commando raids and other special operations during the occupation Civil disobedience and unarmed resistance The Norwegian government of Prime Minister Johan Nygaardsvold, with the exception of foreign minister Halvdan Koht and minister of defense Birger Ljungberg, was caught by surprise when it became apparent in the early hours of 9 April 1940 that Nazi Germany had launched an invasion of Norway.

Although some of the country's gold reserve had been removed from Oslo, there were few contingency plans for such an invasion. The Norwegian government was unprepared and unwilling to capitulate to the ultimatum timed to coincide with the arrival of German troops and delivered by Curt Bräuer, the German representative in Oslo; the German demand that Norway accept the "protection of the Reich" was rebuffed by Koht and the Norwegian government before dawn had broken on the morning of invasion. "Vi gir oss kampen er allerede i gang", replied Koht. "We will not submit voluntarily. In large part because of the presence of mind of the parliament's president C. J. Hambro, the Storting managed to pass an emergency measure that gave full authority to the king and his cabinet until the Storting could convene again; this gave King Haakon VII and the cabinet constitutional authority to reject the German emissary's ultimatum to accept the German invasion. Although there were several German attempts to capture or kill the King and the Norwegian government, they managed to evade these attempts and traveled through Norway's remote interior until leaving the country for London on the British heavy cruiser HMS Devonshire on 7 June.

Reserving the constitutional legitimacy of the Norwegian government undermined Vidkun Quisling's attempts at claiming the Norwegian government for himself. After Quisling had proclaimed his assumption of the government, several individuals on the Supreme Court took the initiative to establish an Administrative Council in an effort to stop him; this became a controversial initiative, in that the legitimate Norwegian government refused to give the council any legal backing, the German authorities ended up disbanding it. Although some politicians across the political spectrum had advocated strengthening the country's defense capabilities, a longstanding policy of disarmament following World War I had left the Norwegian military underfunded and undertrained by the late 1930s; as a result, forces in Southern Norway were unprepared for the German invasion, the invading German army met little initial resistance. There was spirited defense at other locations, including Midtskogen and Narvik but these were the result of improvised missions by isolated military units and irregular volunteers.

The battles slowed down the German advance by several days, allowing the Norwegian government to evade capture and conduct critical constitutional business. The British and French began landing on Norwegian soil within a week of the German invasion. Several Norwegian military units that had mobilized as a precautionary measure in Northern Norway during the Winter War, in cooperation with Polish and British forces, launched several counterattacks with moderate success. Allied forces had several successes in Northern Norway, but were redirected for the futile defense of France. While Northern Norway fell, efforts there allowed the Norwegian government, including the Norwegian royal family, to escape and maintain the legitimate government in exile, as part of the Allies. While stationed in London, the government contributed Norwegian forces to the Allied effort and ordered the Norwegian Merchant Fleet to assist in transportation. To facilitate this the ships were operated under the Nortraship organization, at that time the world's largest shipping company.

It created apprehension in the Nazi leadership that Allied forces might try to recapture Norway to deny German naval units access to the North Atlantic, tying up several hundred thousand troops that otherwise would have been deployed to other fronts. Although Norway did not have any major battles beyond those of the Norwegian Campaign, a number of military operations served to subvert the Nazi authorities and contribute to the larger war effort. Milorg started out as a small sabotage unit and ended up building a full military force in time for the liberation. Company Linge was a special operations unit. There were repeated raids in Lofoten, Måløy, other coastal areas. Norwegian spotters aided in the destruction of numerous German warships, such as the battleships Bismarck and Tirpitz; the Norwegian resistance smuggled people in and out of Norway during the war, through Sweden or by fishing boats to Shetland, nicknamed the "Shetland bus". A number of saboteurs, most notably Max Ma

Luis Garavito

Luis Alfredo Garavito Cubillos known as La Bestia or Tribilín is a Colombian rapist and serial killer. In 1999, he admitted to the rape and murder of 138 children and teenagers, his victims, based on the locations of skeletons listed on maps that Garavito drew in prison, could exceed 300. He has been described by local media as "the world's worst serial killer." The Guinness Book of World Records lists another Colombian, Pedro Alonso López, known here as"the Monster of the Andes," as the largest-scale serial killer of modern times. The judicial body ruled that all Garavito's sentences total nine days in jail. Though Garavito's mother is unknown, it had been speculated from the community of Génova that Garavito's mother had been a long-time prostitute. During the time of working as a prostitute, Garavito's mother had been brutally abused by Garavito's father, a heavy alcoholic and would abuse Garavito's siblings. Around this time, Garavito's father would force Garavito to watch his mother conduct in sexual intercourse with her clients, letting his mother's clients sexually abuse and molest Garavito.

Under the influence of drugs, Garavito's mother could not do anything due to the abuse and torture of Garavito's alcoholic father. Garavito ran away from home and survived on the Colombian streets. At the age of eight, Garavito was found by a pedophile; the man promised Garavito a place to rest. A few days after, Garavito joined a rebellious gang for protection; the gang robbed the Colombian civilians for food and cars, which they exchanged for money at local chop shops. Garavito started working as soon as he "earned" enough money to survive on the streets,traveling a substantial amount to keep up with the job demands in Colombia. Although he moved, Garavito had a girlfriend named Teresa, his girlfriend had a small child which she recalls him getting along with well. Garavito was known by his friends to be kind, yet angered. Garavito's victims were identified by their age and social status. Garavito targeted boys between the ages of 6 to 16 who were either peasants, or orphaned, he would approach the young boys, either on the crowded streets or alone in the countryside, lure them away by bribing them with small gifts such as money, candy or odd jobs.

He offered easy work for money and disguised himself as different characters who could be seen as legitimately offering work to the boy, such as a priest, a farmer, a homeless man, a street vendor, a drug dealer, an elderly man, a gambler. To prevent suspicions about his activities from developing, Garavito would change his disguise often. Once he had the trust of a child, Garavito would walk with the boy until they were tired and vulnerable, which made them easy to handle. First, their hands were bound. Garavito would remove all their clothes, proceed to torture and sometimes decapitate them; the boy would endure prolonged rape and torture by having his buttocks stabbed and sharpened objects inserted into his anus. The bodies of the children were all found naked, all bore bite marks and signs of anal penetration. Most corpses showed signs of prolonged torture. Beginning in 1992, boys between the ages of 6 through 16 began disappearing from the streets of Colombia. Due to the decades-long civil war, many children in Colombia were homeless, or orphaned.

For years, these murders had gone unnoticed because many of the victims had no police report filed on their disappearance. Clusters of bodies had begun popping up all over Colombia, yet authorities did not take much notice until 1997, when mass graves were uncovered; this large number of missing children called for a widespread investigation, as these killings were not confined to a specific area. In February 1998, outside the town of Génova, the bodies of two naked children were found lying next to each other on a hill; the next day, only meters away, another child's naked body was found. All three bodies bore signs of sexual abuse; the victims' necks were cut, bruises were on their backs, genitals and buttocks. The murder weapon was found in the same area as the bodies. A note, found at the crime scene had an address written on it, she told police that she had not seen Garavito in months. She did, give to the police a bag that he had left in her possession, which contained a number of Garavito's belongings.

These items included pictures of young boys, detailed journals of his murders, tally marks of his victims, bills. This new information led them to Garavito's residence. Detectives believed that Garavito was either traveling for work or away attempting to find his next victim, he was picked up by the local police just a few days on an unrelated charge of attempted rape against an adolescent boy. A homeless man had been close enough to observe the struggle between Garavito and the child and felt it necessary to rescue the adolescent. Garavito was arrested and, unbeknownst to them, the police had in their custody the man, the most wanted killer in Colombia. Garavito was


Acharya Guptinandi Ji is a Digambara monk initiated by Acharya Kunthusagar. Acharya Guptinandi was born in the city of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh on 1 August 1972, he did his B. Com as a Sravaka and was initiated as a Digambara monk on 22 July 1991 by Acharya Kunthusagar. In December 2014, he went to Jaipur, where he gave the title of Yuva Munishi to Muni Suyashgupt and Jin Dharma Prabhavak to Muni Chandragupta, he got the Acharya Pad on 27 May 2001 in Madhya Pradesh. He is the founder of Shri Dharm Tirth, he supervised the Panchkalyanak at Manasinganahalli, held in 2013. 2014 - Bholanath Nagar, Delhi 2011 - Badout, Uttar Pradesh 2009 - Sonagiri, Madhya Pradesh Flügel, Peter, ed. Studies in Jaina History and Culture: Disputes and Dialogues, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-36099-9

Su Cruickshank

Susan Cruickshank known as Su Cruickshank, was an Australian jazz singer and writer. She was regarded as one of the finest female jazz singers in Australian history. Cruickshank was born in the eldest of four children, she grew up in the suburb of Adamstown in a musical family. Her father played her paternal grandmother had been a singer. "In the 1970s Cruickshank worked as a singer in a variety of low-end jazz clubs. She returned to Australia in 1979 and began to rise to public prominence, notably through hosting a string of Sydney's annual Jazz in the Domain summer outdoor concerts, she subsequently appeared in many Australian film and television roles and was well known for her role in the 1988 surprise hit film Young Einstein and, from 1992, for her regular appearances on Bert Newton's top-rating nationally-broadcast morning entertainment show Good Morning Australia. In 1993-4 she hosted her own talk show on ABC TV called In Company with Su Cruickshank and she continued to make frequent guest appearances in a wide variety of Australian drama and light entertainment programs for the rest of the decade, as well as appearing in a number of TV commercials.

She maintained a long-running fortnightly radio spot on the nationally broadcast ABC Local Radio Overnights program and is remembered for her appearances on the nationally televised World Series Debates that were a gala event of the Melbourne International Comedy Festival in the early 1990s. A large woman, Cruickshank made use of her size in her on-stage and on-screen personas and it became a signature part of her public image. Cruickshank suffered from a long-term illness in her last years and she died on 8 December 2009. A memorial concert was held to celebrate her life in her home town of Newcastle a week after her death. Cruickshank married and divorced in the 1970s and never remarried, she had Effie and Saabeah Theos, to her Ghanaian partner of eight years. Somewhere in the Darkness Your Move: An Emergency Life Saving Adventure Young Einstein Those Dear Departed Playing Beatie Bow Undercover Fatty Finn E Street A Country Practice The Young Doctors as Bathsheba Smith Stock Squad Cruickshank, Su, Bring A Plate to The Mortdale Scout Hall – The Autobiography of a Fat Tart Complete with Recipes, Sun Books, 1992, ISBN 0-7251-0677-8 Su Cruickshank on IMDb

Rory Hayes

Rory Hayes was an American underground cartoonist in the late 1960s and early 1970s. His comics were drawn in an expressionistic, primitivist style and dealt with grim subject matter such as paranoia, violent crime, drug abuse. In addition to his own titles and Cunt Comics, he was published in many of the most prominent comics in the underground scene, including Bijou Funnies and Arcade. Hayes was born with esotropia in his left eye. Growing up in San Francisco, Hayes moved homes with his family. At around ten years old, Hayes began exhibiting strange behavior related to an undiagnosed personality disorder. Hayes and his older brother Geoffrey were into pop culture and comic books, including Little Lulu, Uncle Scrooge and Spike, Dick Tracy, EC Comics. Together, they published homemade comics. All through their teens the boys continued to make comics, home-made movies, fanzines, including Rory's titles Monsters and Ghouls and The Dolls Weekly, he favored drawing animals over people in his work. Hayes dropped out of high school after his sophomore year, shortly thereafter moving to New York City with Geoffrey, pursuing a career as an illustrator and cartoonist..

Moving back to San Francisco at about eighteen years old, Hayes worked as an employee at Gary Arlington's San Francisco Comic Book Company, which soon released his first published comic, Bogeyman. Bogeyman gained Hayes some notoriety in San Francisco during this era, he began getting illustrations gigs and other opportunities to do comics. In 1969 Hayes produced his most notorious creation, Cunt Comics, a 24-page explosion of violent, misogynist drawings. From 1969–1976, Hayes was a regular contributor to underground anthologies such as Bijou Funnies, Snatch Comics, Insect Fear, Arcade, he began using recreational drugs, including amphetamines and LSD. Hayes is listed as the associate editor of one of San Francisco Comic Book Company's last published projects, 1976's Buck Boy, he was a landscape painter from 1976 until his death from a drug overdose in 1983. Bogeyman #1–3 — issue #1 by Hayes. Gaggg" Arcade #4 — "Freak Circus" Arcade #5 — "Terror from the Grave" Arcade #6 — p. 34 "AGE of REASON" & p. 48 "A FEAR of Froaks" Arcade #7 — "Dark Night" Weirdo #12 — 9-page story, "Popoff Hayes the Drug Fiend" Hayes bio at Lambiek's Comiclopedia, including some examples of his work Hayes profile at ComixJoint


Orai is a city in Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the administrative headquarters of Jalaun District. All administrative offices of Jalaun District, including the District Collectorate, police and various other government organizations are located in this city. Orai received the award of'Fastest Mover' Small City among India under Swachh Survekshan 2019, an annual cleanliness survey carried by Quality Council of India. Orai was named after Saint Uddalak because he worshipped there and has historical value because of its location, between Jhansi and Kalpi. Aalah of the Banaphar Rajput clan was the famous general of the great Chandel king Parmal, who fought Prithviraj Chauhan in 1182 CE. Alha is one of the heroes of the Alha-Khand poem, popularly recited in the Bundelkhand region of India, a work, known as Parmal Raso; the town of Kalpi on the Yamuna was conquered by the armies of Muhammad of Ghor in 1196. Early in the 14th century the Bundelas occupied the greater part of Jalaun, succeeded in holding the fortified post of Kalpi.

During 1553-56, the Hindu Prime Minister and Chief of Army of Suri empire, who became Emperor of north India at Delhi with coronation on 7th Oc.1556 won this area. He established Hindu Raj in acquired title of Vikramaditya. After Hem Chandra Vikramaditya's death at 22nd battle of Panipat, this important possession was soon recovered by Akbar's army, passed under the way of the Mughal Empire. Akbar's governors at Kalpi maintained a nominal authority over the surrounding district, the Bundela chiefs were in a state of chronic revolt, which culminated in the war of independence under Maharaja Chhatrasal. On the outbreak of his rebellion in 1671 he occupied a large province to the south of the Yamuna. Setting out from this base, assisted by the Marathas, he conquered the whole of Bundelkhand. On his death in 1732 he bequeathed one-third of his dominions to his Maratha allies, who before long succeeded in annexing the whole of Bundelkhand. Under Maratha rulethe country was a prey to constant strife.

In 1806 Kalpi was made over to the British, in 1840, on the death of Nana Gobind Ras, his possessions lapsed to them also. Various interchanges of territory took place, in 1856 the boundaries of the British district were settled, with an area of 1477 square miles. Orai, Jalaun was the scene of much violence during the Revolt of 1857; when the news of the rising at Kanpur reached Kalpi, the men of the 53rd Native Infantry deserted their officers, in June the Jhansi rebels reached the district, began their murder of Europeans. It was not until September 1858 that the rebels were defeated. In the 19th century, the district suffered much from the invasive kans grass, owing to the spread of which many villages were abandoned and their land thrown out of cultivation; the population of the district was 399,726 in 1901, the two largest towns are Konch and Kalpi. The district was traversed by the line of the Indian Midland railway from Jhansi to Kanpur. A small part of it is watered by the Bethwa Canal.

Grain, oil-seeds and ghee were exported. Orai is basicially changed after 1990. Major changes are due to HUL, Sun India Pharmacy and many others. Schools, Colleges and many more are made after 1990. Orai has a composite climate, with temperatures low in winter. Relative humidity remains about 40-50%; the climate of Orai district is characterized by a hot summer and general dryness, except for rainfall during the southwest monsoon season. The year has four seasons; the cold season lasts from December to February. The hot season is from March until the first week of June. May is the hottest month of the year with an average temperature of 42.1 C. The southwest monsoon runs from the middle of June until the end of September. October and middle of November constitute retreating monsoon season; the normal annual rainfall of Orai is 793.8 mm. About 90.4% of annual rainfall is received during monsoon season. The humidity varies between 26 % and 83 % throughout the year; the literacy rate was 82.35 percent as per Orai City Census 2011 data Orai City Overview Orai city is governed by Municipal Corporation which comes under Orai Metropolitan Region.

The Orai city is located in Uttar Pradesh state of India. The Total Area Of Orai Is 20.86 km2. Orai Population 2016 The population of Orai in 2016 is 217,389. Orai Sex Ratio 2011. Child sex ratio of girls is 845 per 1000 boys. Orai Child Population 2016 Total children in Orai city is 31,011 on 2016. There were 13,152 girls. Children form 7.01% of the total population of Orai City. It is a recreational place with a paved walkway around a small water pond. Locals visit the park for their morning walk, it is located near Budwa Mangal Mandir and every year on "Budhwa Mangal", a large crowd from surrounding villages gathers for festivals of prayer for Lord Hanumana. "Shri Radha Krishna Mandir" is a temple located in Galla Mandi. This Galla Mandi is big Galla Mandi in this District- Jalaun. There is around big buyer's shops for buying farmer's grains. Orai railway station is the main railway station, sitting between Kanpur-Jhansi section and well connected with east, west & southern part of India via rail.

The existing railway line from Jhansi to Kanpur has been electrified and Doubling of track is in progress. Orai railway station comes u