House of Bernadotte
The House of Bernadotte, the current royal house of Sweden, has reigned since 1818. Between 1818 and 1905, it was the house of Norway. Its founder, Charles XIV John of Sweden, was adopted by Charles XIII of Sweden, following the conclusion of Finnish War in 1809, Sweden lost possession of Finland, which had constituted roughly the eastern half of the Swedish realm for centuries. Resentment towards King Gustav IV Adolf precipitated an abrupt coup détat, Gustav Adolf was deposed and his uncle Charles XIII was elected King in his place. However, Charles XIII was 61 years old and prematurely senile and he was childless, one child had been stillborn and another died after less than a week. It was apparent almost as soon as Charles XIII ascended the throne that the Swedish branch of the House of Holstein-Gottorp would die with him. In 1810 the Riksdag of the Estates, the Swedish parliament, elected a Danish prince, Prince Christian August of Augustenborg and he took the name Charles August, but died that same year.
At this time, Emperor Napoleon I of France controlled much of continental Europe, the Riksdag decided to choose a king of whom Napoleon would approve. On 21 August 1810, the Riksdag elected Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, a Marshal of France, the coat of arms of the House of Bernadotte dimidiates the coat of arms of the House of Vasa and the coat of arms of Bernadotte as the Prince of Pontecorvo. It is visible as an inescutcheon in the Greater Coat of Arms of the Realm, born in the town of Pau, in the province of Béarn, had risen to the rank of general during the French Revolution. In 1798, he married Désirée Clary, whose sister was married to Joseph, in 1804, Napoleon promoted Bernadotte to a Marshal of France. Napoleon granted him the title Prince of Pontecorvo, as the Crown Prince of Sweden, he assumed the name Charles John and acted as regent for the remainder of Charles XIIIs reign. In 1813, he broke with Napoleon and led Sweden into the anti-Napoleon alliance, when Norway was awarded to Sweden by the Treaty of Kiel, Norway resisted and declared independence, triggering a brief war between Sweden and Norway.
The war ended when Bernadotte persuaded Norway to enter into a union with Sweden. Instead of being merely a Swedish province, Norway remained an independent kingdom, though sharing a common monarch, Bernadotte reigned as Charles XIV John of Sweden and Charles III John of Norway from 5 February 1818 until his death on 8 March 1844. The House of Bernadotte reigned in both countries until the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905, Prince Carl of Denmark was elected as King Haakon VII of Norway. Carl was a grandson of King Charles XV of Sweden and a great-great-grandson of Charles XIV, King Charles Johns first known paternal ancestor was Joandou du Poey, who was a shepherd. He married Germaine de Bernadotte in 1615 in the southern French city of Pau, through her the couple owned a building there called de Bernadotte
Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway
Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway is the only son and younger child of King Harald V and heir apparent to the throne of Norway. In 2001, Haakon married Mette-Marit Høiby with whom he has two children and he has an older sister, Princess Märtha Louise. In accordance with Norways agnatic primogeniture succession, Haakon became crown prince when his father ascended the throne in 1991, the Skaugum Estate, situated in the area of Semsvannet, is the official residence of the Norwegian Crown Prince and the Crown Princess. He is a Young Global Leader, Haakon was born in 20 July 1973 at Rikshospitalet the Oslo University Hospital in Oslo, the only son and younger child of King Harald V and Queen Sonja. At birth he was named Haakon Magnus, and it was stressed in the announcement that he would go by the name Haakon, Haakon has one sibling, Princess Märtha Louise. This was not, done retroactively, meaning that Haakon continues to take precedence over his older sister, Haakon has served in the Royal Norwegian Navy, where he undertook his first-level officers education at the Norwegian Naval Academy.
This was followed with a year aboard missile torpedo boats and he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science from the University of California, Berkeley in 1999. Haakon attended lectures at the University of Oslo and took the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs civil servant introductory course in 2001. He completed his education in 2003 at the London School of Economics, as of 15 November 2013, in the Royal Norwegian Navy his officer rank is Admiral, and in the Norwegian Army and the Royal Norwegian Air Force his rank is General. Haakon married commoner and single mother Mette-Marit Tjessem Høiby on 25 August 2001, Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark was the best man. When the engagement between Crown Prince Haakon and Høiby was announced, many Norwegians felt that his choice of wife was inappropriate. This was primarily about her being a mother, but information concerning her involvement in the rave scene in Oslo. In addition, the father of her child was convicted of drug-related offenses, in a heartfelt press conference before the wedding the bride explained her past, saying among other things that her youthful rebelliousness might have been stronger than most young people.
The issue of Mette-Marits past has largely been laid to rest in Norwegian public discourse, the couple have two children together, Princess Ingrid Alexandra and Prince Sverre Magnus. Haakon is the stepfather to Mette-Marits son, Marius Borg Høiby, from 25 November 2003 to 12 April 2004, Haakon was the Regent of Norway during the Kings treatment for cancer and the subsequent convalescence period. Likewise, Haakon was Regent from 29 March 2005 until the King had fully recovered from the surgery he underwent on 1 April. This period ended on 7 June, in addition to his official duties, Haakon has a strong interest in cultural matters. In January 2006, Haakon revised his patronage list and he now has twelve patronage roles in his portfolio including the annual Bjørnson literary festival
Haakon VII of Norway
Haakon VII, known as Prince Carl of Denmark until 1905, was a Danish prince who became the first king of Norway after the 1905 dissolution of the union with Sweden. He reigned from November 1905 until his death in September 1957, as one of the few elected monarchs, Haakon quickly won the respect and affection of his people. He played a role in uniting the Norwegian nation in its resistance to the Nazi invasion. He became King of Norway before his father and older brother became kings of Denmark, during his reign, he saw his father, his brother and his nephew, Frederick IX, ascend the throne of Denmark, respectively in 1906,1912 and 1947. He died at the age of 85 on 21 September 1957 and he was succeeded by his only son, Olav V. Prince Carl of Denmark was the son of King Frederik VIII of Denmark. Furthermore, he was a brother of Christian X, a paternal grandson of King Christian IX of Denmark. Prince Carl was born at Charlottenlund Palace near Copenhagen and he belonged to the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg branch of the House of Oldenburg.
The House of Oldenburg had been the Danish royal family since 1448, the house was originally from northern Germany, where the Glucksburg branch held their small fief. The family had permanent links with Norway beginning from the late Middle Ages, several of his paternal ancestors had been kings of independent Norway. Christian Frederick, who was King of Norway briefly in 1814, Prince Carl was raised in the royal household in Copenhagen and educated at the Royal Danish Naval Academy. Their son, Prince Alexander, the future Crown Prince Olav, was born on 2 July 1903, Prince Carl became the leading candidate, largely because he was descended from independent Norwegian kings. The new royal family of Norway left Denmark on the Danish royal yacht Dannebrog, at Oscarsborg Fortress, they boarded the Norwegian naval ship Heimdal. After a three-day journey, they arrived in Kristiania early on the morning of 25 November 1905, two days later, Haakon took the oath as Norways first independent king in 518 years.
The coronation of Haakon and Maud took place in Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim on 22 June 1906, King Haakon gained much sympathy from the Norwegian people. Although the Constitution of Norway vests the King with considerable executive powers, Haakon confined himself to non-partisan roles without interfering in politics, a practice continued by his son and grandson. However, his long rule gave him moral authority as a symbol of the countrys unity. Haakon and Crown Prince Olav became interested in skiing and this sport is often viewed as typically Norwegian
Union between Sweden and Norway
The Norwegian government was presided over by viceroys, Swedes until 1829, Norwegians until 1856. That office was vacant and abolished in 1873. Foreign policy was conducted through the Swedish foreign ministry until the dissolution of the union in 1905, by the 1814 Treaty of Kiel, the King of Denmark-Norway was forced to cede Norway to the King of Sweden. But Norway refused to submit to the treaty provisions, declared independence, after the adoption of the new Constitution of Norway on 17 May 1814, Prince Christian Frederick was elected king. On 4 November the Storting elected Charles XIII as the King of Norway, Sweden accepted the unions dissolution on 26 October. After a plebiscite confirming the election of Danish Prince Carl as the new king of Norway, he accepted the Stortings offer of the throne on 18 November and took the regnal name of Haakon VII. After the establishment of absolutism in 1660, a centralised form of government was established. The united kingdoms are referred to as Denmark-Norway by historians, the ambitious wars waged by king Charles XII, led to the loss of that status after the Great Northern War, 1700–1721.
Sweden invaded Norway in 1567,1644,1658 and 1716, to wrest the country away from the union with Denmark, the repeated wars and invasions led to popular resentment against Sweden among Norwegians. During the 18th century, Norway enjoyed a period of great prosperity, the biggest growth industry was the export of planks, with Great Britain as the chief market. Some members of the aristocracy saw Sweden as a more natural partner. Around 1800, many prominent Norwegians secretly favoured a break with Denmark and their undeclared leader was Count Herman Wedel-Jarlsberg. The Swedish policy during the period was to cultivate contacts in Norway. King Gustav III actively approached circles in Norway that might favour a union with Sweden instead of Denmark, such endeavours on both sides of the border toward a rapprochement were far from realistic before the Napoleonic Wars created conditions that caused political upheavals in Scandinavia. Sweden and Denmark-Norway tried to remain neutral during the Napoleonic wars, both countries joined Russia and Prussia in a League of Armed Neutrality in 1800.
Denmark-Norway was forced to withdraw from the League after the British raid on the navy during the first Battle of Copenhagen in April 1801, the league collapsed after the assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia in 1801. Denmark-Norway was compelled into an alliance with France after the British preemptive second attack on the Danish navy, the defenceless capital had to surrender the navy after heavy bombardment, because the army was at the southern border to defend it against a possible French attack. As Sweden in the meantime had sided with the British, Denmark-Norway was forced by Napoleon to declare war on Sweden on 29 February 1808
House of Oldenburg
The House of Oldenburg is a European royal house of North German origin. It is one of Europes most influential royal houses with branches that rule or have ruled in Denmark, Greece, Russia, Schleswig and Oldenburg. It rose to prominence when Count Christian I of Oldenburg was elected King of Denmark in 1448, of Norway in 1450, the house has occupied the Danish throne ever since. Marriages of medieval counts of Oldenburg had paved the way for their heirs to become kings of various Scandinavian kingdoms, through marriage with a descendant of King Valdemar I of Sweden and of King Eric IV of Denmark, a claim to Sweden and Denmark was staked, since 1350. At that time, its competitors were the successors of Margaret I of Denmark. In the 15th century, the Oldenburg heir of that claim married Hedwig of Schauenburg, since descendants better situated in genealogical charts died out, their son Christian became the king of all three kingdoms of the whole Kalmar Union. The House of Mecklenburg was its chief competitor regarding the Northern thrones, different Oldenburgine branches have reigned in several countries.
EU, retrieved August 2012
Royal Palace, Oslo
The palace is the official residence of the present Norwegian monarch. The crown prince resides at Skaugum in Asker west of Oslo, during the last years of the union with Denmark it was used by the viceroys of Norway, and in 1814 by the first king of independent Norway, Christian Frederick. King Charles III John of the Bernadotte dynasty resided there as crown prince, the Parliament approved the stipulated cost of 150000 speciedaler to be financed by the sale of government bonds. Work on the site started in 1824, and on 1 October 1825 the king laid down the stone beneath the altar of the future royal chapel. Linstow originally planned a building of two storeys with projecting wings on both sides of the main façade. The costly foundation works caused the budget to be exceeded, in the meantime, the Storting refused additional grants as a demonstration against the kings unpopular efforts to establish a closer union between his two kingdoms. In 1833, Linstow produced a less costly project without the projecting wings, improved relations with the king made the Storting grant the necessary funds to complete the building.
The roof was laid in 1836, and the interiors were finished during the late 1840s, King Charles John never had the pleasure of residing in his palace before he died in 1844, and its first occupants were his son Oscar I and his queen Josephine. It was soon found that the family needed a more spacious residence. The next Bernadotte kings Charles IV and Oscar II continued to use the palace in Christiania. King Oscars wife, Sophia of Nassau, preferred to spend summers in Norway and he was the first monarch to use the palace as his permanent residence. During the reign and residence of King Olav V from 1957 to 1991, there was no money for renovation, after Norway became Scandinavias most wealthy member, the current monarch, King Harald V, started a comprehensive renovation project. He was criticized because of the amount of money needed to bring the Palace up to a state even if much of this went to rectify construction deficits from a century
Hereditary Kingdom of Norway
The Kingdom of Norway as a unified realm was initiated by King Harald I Fairhair in the 9th century. His efforts in unifying the petty kingdoms of Norway, resulted in the first known Norwegian central government, the country however fragmented soon, and was collected into one entity in the first half of the 11th century. Norway has been a monarchy since then, passing through several eras, thus was born the medieval kingdom of Norway, the realm of the Fairhair dynasty. According to the view, Norway was the hereditary kingdom of this dynasty. The throne was inherited by all of Haralds male descendants after year 872, in the 13th century, the kingdom was officially declared hereditary by law, contrary to the other Scandinavian monarchies which were elective kingdoms in the Middle Ages. Harald Fairhair was the first king of Norway, as opposed to in Norway, the boundaries of Fairhairs kingdom were not identical to those of present-day Norway and upon his death the kingship was shared among his sons.
Harald Fairhair unified Norway, at least the coastal areas north to Trøndelag, after his death, the fragmentation back into petty kingdoms happened almost instantly. However, most of them were now in the hands of Haralds putative sons, although there were districts in the hands of other dynasties, the concept of a central power on an hereditary basis had come into existence. It remains uncertain whether Norway can be defined as an hereditary kingdom even after the successions of Eric I of Norway and Haakon I of Norway, sons of Fairhair himself. Some historians put emphasis on the actual control over the country and assert that St. Olav. Olav is traditionally held to be the force behind Norways final conversion to Christianity. He was revered as Rex Perpetuum Norvegiæ. The Fairhair dynasty can, however, be seen as an artificial construct, adherents of this proposal consider Harald Hardråde to be the actual dynastic founder. This claim has won wide, but not universal, acceptance among historians and it is a disputed question whether Harald Hardråde himself actually claimed inheritance from Harald Fairhair, or whether this claim was constructed by his descendants.
From our sources, it seems reasonable to assume that Olav II and Harald Hardråde were half-brothers, with a common mother, descent from the same mother was not in Germanic understanding a proper dynastic tie, and Harald Hardrådes supporters did not base his rights and claims on that. Instead, Harald Hardrådes father was supposedly a descendent, in male line. The same has been claimed regarding Olav IIs line, to researchers, one or perhaps both of these somewhat obscure male-line descents may be legendary. Research has generally shown a tendency to create a prestigious past to the country
Princess Ingrid Alexandra of Norway
Princess Ingrid Alexandra of Norway is the elder child of Crown Prince Haakon and second in line to succeed her grandfather, King Harald V on the Norwegian throne. A member of the House of Glücksburg, she is expected to become Norways second female monarch and her mother, Crown Princess Mette-Marit, has a son named Marius Borg Høiby, born in 1997 from a previous relationship. Following Ingrid Alexandras birth, the already well-regarded royal family experienced an upsurge of popularity, Ingrid Alexandra was christened by Bishop Gunnar Stålsett in the chapel of the Royal Palace on 17 April 2004. The Crown Prince of Denmark and The Prince of Asturias were unable to attend the christening due to their respective weddings scheduled to occur within a month of the christening. Ingrid Alexandra started her first day of school on 19 August 2010 at Jansløkka elementary school and she is the first member of the Norwegian royal family to attend a local school. Other members of the family were sent to Oslo to attend schools there and her parents chose the school because they want her to have as ordinary a childhood as possible.
School officials hope to make the school a place where the princess can make friends and her younger brother Sverre Magnus, was to transfer to Oslos Montessori school. On 19 June 2010, Ingrid Alexandra served as a bridesmaid at the wedding of her godmother, in December 2012, the Princess attended an interview with her father by a Norwegian television programme in aid of Environmental Agents, the childrens environmental organization. Her mother was supposed to attend, but the Crown Prince attended instead as the Crown Princess was ill and she has taken part in traditional celebrations of the Constitution Day, as well as the traditional ski jumping tournament at Holmenkollen in Oslo. On 4 May 2015, Princess Ingrid Alexandra christened the Norwegian Rescue Company’s new lifeboat, on 12 February 2016, the Princess and her grandfather played roles during the opening ceremony in Lillehammer. While the King declared open the Games, the Princess lit the cauldron and her father the Crown Prince Haakon did the same thing 22 years ago, during the opening of the Olympics in Lillehammer in 1994.
Princess Ingrid Alexandra has thus been second in the line of succession since birth, because of the reform, her status was not affected by the subsequent birth of her brother, Prince Sverre Magnus, in 2005. The Princess is expected to become Norways first female monarch since Queen Margaret, along with her brother and grandparents – but unlike her half-brother Marius and other relatives – Princess Ingrid Alexandra is a member of the Norwegian Royal House. The family belongs to the House of Glücksburg, Princess Ingrid Alexandra was mentioned in a 2010 episode of The Simpsons, Once Upon a Time in Springfield
Erling Sven Lorentzen is a Norwegian shipowner and industrialist who has lived in Brazil for decades. He founded Aracruz Celulose in 1968 and he is the widower of Princess Ragnhild. He is a member of the Lorentzen family of shipping magnates and he was born in Oslo as the son of Øivind Lorentzen and Ragna Nilsen. He worked for the Norwegian Independent Company 1, a British military unit, Lorentzen formerly owned 28% of Aracruz Celulose, which he sold for approximately 1.7 billion USD in July 2008. Lorentzen married Princess Ragnhild, elder granddaughter of the then-reigning King Haakon VII, on 15 May 1953 in Asker and he is thus the brother-in-law of King Harald V, Queen Sonja and Princess Astrid. They have three children, Haakon Lorentzen born 23 August 1954, ingeborg Lorentzen born 27 February 1957. Ragnhild Lorentzen born 8 May 1968, Knight Commander of the Order of St. Olav Norway, Recipient of the St
Maud of Wales
Maud of Wales, GCVO, GCStJ, VA, CI was Queen of Norway as spouse of King Haakon VII. She was the youngest daughter of the British king Edward VII, Maud of Wales was the first queen of Norway since 1380 who was not queen of Denmark or Sweden. Maud was born on 26 November 1869 at Marlborough House and she was the third daughter and fifth child of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of Queen Victoria, and Princess Alexandra of Denmark. She was christened Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria at Marlborough House by John Jackson, Maud had a relatively happy childhood compared to her siblings, who found their upbringing oppressive and stifled. Her fathers favourite child, she was high-spirited and enjoyed riding, the tomboyish Maud was known as Harry to the royal family, after Edward VIIs friend Admiral Henry Keppel, whose conduct in the Crimean War was considered particularly courageous at the time. Maud took part in almost all the visits to the Princess of Waless family in Denmark and accompanied her mother and sisters on cruises to Norway.
She was a bridesmaid at the 1885 wedding of her paternal aunt Beatrice to Prince Henry of Battenberg, along with her sisters and Louise, received the Imperial Order of the Crown of India from Queen Victoria on 6 August 1887. Like her sisters, she held the Royal Order of Victoria. Maud married relatively late, waiting until her twenties to find a husband. She had initially wanted to marry Prince Francis of Teck, elder brother of her sister-in-law Mary, despite being relatively impoverished from mounting gambling debts and being in a position to possibly benefit from Mauds status, he ignored her advances. On 22 July 1896, Princess Maud married her first cousin, Prince Carl of Denmark, Prince Carl was the second son of Queen Alexandras elder brother, Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark, and Princess Louise of Sweden. The brides father gave her Appleton House on the Sandringham Estate as a residence for her frequent visits to England. It was there that the only child, Prince Alexander, was born on 2 July 1903.
Prince Carl was an officer in the Danish navy and he, in June 1905 the Norwegian parliament, the Storting, dissolved Norways 91-year-old union with Sweden and voted to offer the throne to Prince Carl. Mauds membership of the British royal house had some part in why Carl was chosen, following a plebiscite in November, Prince Carl accepted the Norwegian throne, taking the name of Haakon VII, while his young son took the name of Olav. King Haakon VII and Queen Maud were crowned at Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim on 22 June 1906, Queen Maud never lost her love of Britain, but she quickly adapted to her new country and duties as a queen consort. Maud played a strong and dominant role within the court and family and she disliked representation but performed her role as a queen with great care, and used clothes and jewelry to make a regal impression. She supported charitable causes, particularly associated with children and animals