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Norwich Cathedral

Norwich Cathedral is an English cathedral located in Norwich, dedicated to the Holy and Undivided Trinity. It is the cathedral church for the Church of England Diocese of Norwich and is one of the Norwich 12 heritage sites; the cathedral was begun in 1096 and constructed out of flint and mortar and faced with a cream-coloured Caen limestone. An Anglo-Saxon settlement and two churches were demolished to make room for the buildings; the cathedral was completed in 1145 with the Norman tower still seen today topped with a wooden spire covered with lead. Several episodes of damage necessitated rebuilding of the east end and spire but since the final erection of the stone spire in 1480 there have been few fundamental alterations to the fabric; the large cloister has over 1,000 bosses including several hundred carved and ornately painted ones. Norwich Cathedral has the second largest cloisters in England, only exceeded by those at Salisbury Cathedral; the cathedral close is one of the largest in England and one of the largest in Europe and has more people living within it than any other close.

The cathedral spire, measuring at 315 ft, is the second-tallest in England despite being rebuilt after being struck by lightning in 1169, just 23 months after its completion, which led to the building being set on fire. Measuring 461 ft long and, with the transepts, 177 ft wide at completion, Norwich Cathedral was the largest building in East Anglia. There is no entry charge to visit the cathedral. In 672 the Archbishop of Canterbury, Theodore of Tarsus, divided the Kingdom of East Anglia into two dioceses: one covering Norfolk with its see at Elmham. During much of the 9th century, because of the Danish incursions, there was no bishop at Elmham. Following the Norman Conquest many sees were moved to more secure urban centres, that of Elmham being transferred to Thetford in 1072, to Norwich in 1094; the new cathedral incorporated a monastery of Benedictine monks. The structure of the cathedral is in the Norman style, having been constructed at the behest of Herbert de Losinga who had bought the bishopric for £1,900 before its transfer from Thetford.

Building started in 1096 and the cathedral was completed between 1121 and 1145. It was faced with cream-coloured Caen limestone, it still retains the greater part of its original stone structure. An Anglo-Saxon settlement and two churches were demolished to make room for the buildings and a canal cut to allow access for the boats bringing the stone and building materials which were taken up the River Wensum and unloaded at Pulls Ferry; the ground plan remains entirely as it was in Norman times, except for that of the easternmost chapel. The cathedral has an unusually long nave of fourteen bays; the transepts are without the east end terminates in an apse with an ambulatory. From the ambulatory there is access to two chapels of unusual shape, the plan of each being based on two intersecting circles; this allows more correct orientation of the altars than in the more normal kind of radial chapel. The crossing tower was the last piece of the Norman cathedral to be completed, in around 1140, it is boldly decorated with circles and interlaced arcading.

The present spire was added in the late 15th century. The cathedral was damaged after riots in 1272, which resulted in the city paying heavy fines levied by Henry III, Rebuilding was completed in 1278 and the cathedral was reconsecrated in the presence of Edward I on Advent Sunday of that year. A large two-storey cloister, the only such in England, with over 1,000 ceiling bosses was begun in 1297 and finished in 1430 after the Black Death had plagued the city; the Norman spire was blown down in 1362. Its fall caused considerable damage to the east end, as a result of which the clerestory of the choir was rebuilt in the Perpendicular style. In the 15th and early 16th centuries, the cathedral's flat timber ceilings were replaced with stone vaults: the nave was vaulted under Walter Hart, the choir under James Goldwell and the transepts after 1520; the vaulting was carried out in a spectacular manner with hundreds of ornately carved and gilded bosses. The bosses of the vault number over 1,000; each boss is decorated with a theological image, as a group they have been justly described as without parallel in the Christian world.

The nave vault shows the history of the world from the creation. In 1463 the spire was struck by lightning, causing a fire to rage through the nave, so intense it turned some of the cream-coloured Caen limestone a pink colour. In 1480 the bishop, James Goldwell, ordered the building of a new spire, still in place today, it is of brick faced with stone, supported on brick squinches built into the Norman tower. At 315 feet high, the spire is the second tallest in England; the total length of the building is 461 feet. Along with Salisbury and Ely Cathedrals, Norwich lacks a ring of bells, which makes them the only three English cathedrals without them. One of the best views of the cathedral spire is from St James's Hill on Mousehold Heath; the cathedral was in ruins when John Cosin was at Norwich School in the early 17th century and the former bishop was an

1999 USL A-League

The 1999 USL A-League was an American Division II league run by the United Soccer League during the summer of 1999. The Hershey Wildcats advanced to the Eastern Conference finals; the Rochester Rhinos advanced to the Eastern Conference finals. The Minnesota Thunder advanced to the Western Conference final; the San Diego Flash advanced to the Western Conference final. The Rochester Rhinos advanced to the final; the Minnesota Thunder advanced to the final. MVP: Amos Magee, Minnesota Thunder MVP: John Swallen Leading goal scorer: Niall Thompson Leading goalkeeper: John Swallen Defender of the Year: Scott Schweitzer Rookie of the Year: Greg Simmonds Coach of the Year: Paul Riley Referee of the Year: Glenn Prechac First Team All League Goalkeeper: John Swallen Defenders: Craig Demmin, Scott Schweitzer, Tenywa Bonseu, Kalin Bankov Midfielders: Carlos Farias, Mauro Biello, Mac Cozier Forwards: Mark Baena, Ernest Inneh, Niall Thompson Second Team All LeagueGoalkeeper: Pat Onstad Defenders: Jose Vasquez, John Coughlin, Gilbert Jean-Baptiste Midfielders: Ian Russell, John Sulentic, Marvin Oliver Forwards: Jamel Mitchell, Paul Conway, Darko Kolic, Onandi Lowe The Year in American Soccer - 1999 United Soccer Leagues

A Man on the Beach

A Man on the Beach is a British fiction featurette. It was produced by Anthony Hinds for Hammer Films. Based on a story by Victor Canning adapted by Jimmy Sangster, his first script, the film stars Donald Wolfit, Michael Medwin and Michael Ripper. An old lady is driven to a Mediterranean casino by a chauffeur in a Rolls Royce. After playing at the tables without success, the lady visits the manager. While toasting her with champagne, the manager is attacked by the old lady and his takings are stolen. In reality, the old lady is career criminal Max and the chauffeur is his accomplice on his first job. Journeying into the countryside they stop for Max to change into male clothing; the chauffeur is alarmed. Max is accidentally injured when it goes off while they fight. With the unconscious chauffeur slumped over the wheel, Max pushes the car off a cliff killing the other man. Looking for assistance, Max stumbles across the empty house occupied by the reclusive Carter, a former doctor and alcoholic. Returning shortly afterwards he discovers his unwanted guest, the two men talk and drink, though Carter does not reveal his loss of sight, or Max realise this.

He thinks Carter is unwilling to look at his bleeding arm, uses whiskey as disinfectant on his wound. He passes out; when he comes around the following morning, he finds Carter absent and that his bag has been examined. He assumes, his host, on returning, asks him to leave. The bullet is no longer in his wound. Threatening Carter with being shot, Max fills in most of the remaining details of his crime because he assumes Carter is able to identify him, they struggle and Max is disarmed. As Carter is unable to find the gun, Max realises the other man is blind as Carter's policeman friend arrives to take him fishing. A "modest featurette which scarcely justifies its credits" according to Halliwell's Film and Video Guide which gives the film no stars. David Caute in his study of Losey is dismissive. Viewing the film "is a misfortune - its twenty nine minutes weigh like sixty" whose "dialogue and action are amateurish, awful. Everything is spelled out several times." Wheeler Winston Dixon is more positive: "Immaculately photographed by Wilkie Cooper, this peculiar and atmospheric caper film... offers an interesting hint as to Losey's future direction in British cinema."

Hammer filmography A Man on the Beach on IMDb