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A nostril is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening. In birds and mammals, they contain branched bones or cartilages called turbinates, whose function is to warm air on inhalation and remove moisture on exhalation. Fish do not breathe through their noses, but they do have two small holes used for smelling, which may, indeed, be called nostrils. In humans, the nasal cycle is the normal ultradian cycle of each nostril's blood vessels becoming engorged in swelling shrinking; the nostrils are separated by the septum. The septum can sometimes be deviated. With extreme damage to the septum and columella, the two nostrils are no longer separated and form a single larger external opening. Like other tetrapods, humans have two external nostrils and two additional nostrils at the back of the nasal cavity, inside the head; each choana contains 1000 strands of nasal hair. They connect the nose to the throat, aiding in respiration. Though all four nostrils were on the outside the head of our fish ancestors, the nostrils for outgoing water migrated to the inside of the mouth, as evidenced by the discovery of Kenichthys campbelli, a 395-million-year-old fossilized fish which shows this migration in progress.

It has two nostrils between its front teeth, similar to human embryos at an early stage. If these fail to join up, the result is a cleft palate, it is possible for humans to smell different olfactory inputs in the two nostrils and experience a perceptual rivalry akin to that of binocular rivalry when there are two different inputs to the two eyes. The Procellariiformes are distinguished from other birds by having tubular extensions of their nostrils. Dilator naris muscle Variant singular form nare Nasal cycle "nares" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary


Havøya is an island in Måsøy Municipality in Troms og Finnmark county, Norway. The island lies just off the coast of the Porsanger Peninsula with the island of Hjelmsøya to the north, Måsøya to the east, Rolvsøya to the west; the only village on the island is Havøysund on the southern part of the island. Havøysund is the administrative centre of Måsøy Municipality, it is the main population centre of the municipality; the island is connected to the mainland by the Havøysund Bridge along Norwegian County Road 889. Norsk Hydro has built a windmill park on the northwestern part of the island, which has become a landmark for people at sea; the 15 windmills take 30 minutes by foot to reach from the town and are located on Havøygavlen, the highest point on the island. The Arctic view cafe and viewing area is located on the northwestern end of the island, near the windmill park, it provides an undisturbed view towards the Barents Sea and to the surrounding arctic archipelago of Måsøya, Hjelmsøya, Ingøya, Rolvsøya.

List of islands of Norway

General C. C. Andrews State Forest

The General C. C. Andrew State Forest is a state forest located in Pine County, Minnesota; the forest is named in honor of major general Christopher Columbus Andrews, a Civil War veteran, an early Minnesota state Forestry Commissioner and proponent for scientific forestry and forest management. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources manages the majority of the forest. At the turn of the twentieth century the land where the forest is now located, along with the majority of Minnesota, was logged and opened to homesteading, however the sandy soil make the area unsuitable for agriculture. Many homesteads were abandoned and returned to the county up until the end of the Great Depression, when in 1939 the state purchased land for the General Andrews State Forest Nursery, a tree nursery. Four years the land the nursery and the surrounding land were incorporated as a state forest. Jack Pine and Red Pine dominate the rolling terrain and sandy soils of the forest, which are a result of the glacial outwash that occurred at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation.

Acres of Paper Birch and Red Oak are present. There is boating a pier on the Willow River, which runs through the forest. Other outdoor recreational activities include mountain biking, cross-country skiing, horseback riding, as well as camping on a site adjacent to the Willow River. Trails include 40 miles for hiking, 37 miles available for Class I and II all-terrain vehicle use as well as dirt biking. List of Minnesota state forests Banning State Park General C. C. Andrews State Forest - Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Willow River Campground

LGBT writers in the Dutch-language area

LGBT writers in the Dutch-language area are writers from de Lage Landen, Flanders and the Netherlands, who were homosexual wrote for a homosexual audience wrote about homosexualityAccording to Gerrit Komrij qualifying for at least two of the above makes someone a gay author. The first of these authors owed much to the late 19th century decadent literature, with names like Georges Eekhoud in Belgium and Jacob Israël de Haan in the Netherlands. After the second world war Gerard Reve, Gerrit Komrij and Tom Lanoye became the leading names. Most of these LGBT writers are Dutch-language writers contributing to Dutch-language literature, some of them acquiring a place in the Canon of Dutch Literature. Before the last decades of the 19th century words like uranism, sapphism and transvestite didn't exist. Being called a true Sappho of Lesbos was a high compliment for female poets, without sexual connotations. Words like sodomy and hermaphrodite existed and had their Dutch-language counterpart, but only partially covered what would become LGBT in a more modern understanding.

The older terms, most of all sodomy, had a negative connotation. Writing about these topics was either pornographic or in terms of condemnable sin. From the 19th century these subjects were more treated in medical science, which led to the more modern terminology. Authors writing in a positive manner about bonds between people of the same sex spoke about friendship; such friendships could be qualified as romantic friendships. Whether there was a component of sexuality was unclear and if so, not outspoken. Friendship was not always a euphemism for something more, nor for Platonic love. A friendship was recorded between the writers Betje Wolff and Aagje Deken: they wrote about the topic of true friendship. Johannes Kneppelhout, choosing Klikspaan as pen name for some of his writings, was a 19th-century example of writing about friendship in this sense, for example in his 1875 Een beroemde knaap. Guido Gezelle does not qualify as a LGBT writer in Komrij's definition: as a Catholic priest he did not write explicitly for a gay audience, nor was any of his writing speaking about homosexuality.

Nonetheless Dien avond en die rooze is understood to have been a love-poem for Eugène van Oye, one of his students he had befriended. Late-19th-century Dutch writers who tried to get LGBT literature across the border of pornography include Louis Couperus. Georges Eekhoud published Escal-Vigor in 1899. In the early 20th century Jacob Israël de Haan started publishing his LGBT-themed works. For Couperus' generation of Dutch-language authors, known as the Tachtigers, writing about homosexuals in novels was impossible, while writing about antiquity left more leeway. In 1891 Couperus published his novel Noodlot with an'effeminate' protagonist, while his more explicit novel De berg van licht employed the technique of placing the action in ancient Rome, it was known that Couperus was homosexual. Arnold Aletrino was a LGBT Tachtiger writing both non-fiction. Other Tachtigers with same-sex tendencies, like Willem Kloos, writing passionate poems about men, Lodewijk van Deyssel, describing a special friendship with one of his fellow students in his 1889 De kleine republiek, repressed their feelings.

Albert Verwey's cycle of 44 sonnets, Van de liefde die vriendschap heet, written in response to Kloos' passion for him, was perceived as coded homoeroticism, although about spiritual love in intent. Georges Eekhoud was a Flemish author writing in French. In 1899 his LGBT themed novel Escal-Vigor was published, it led to a trial in 1900. After marriage Hélène van Zuylen, by birth a French Rothschild, came to live in a castle near Utrecht. Together with her English lover Renée Vivien she published poems and novels in French, among others in 1904 L'Être double, a novel on Androgyny. Jacob Israël de Haan describes living in the Netherlands as a nightmare that continues after waking up, looked for Eekhoud as an ally to escape from this narrowminded society when dedicating his "rape of Jesus" short story to him; the two authors kept in contact by letter. For his style, De Haan was indebted to Couperus. De Haan's style oscillates between the l'art pour l'art style of the Tachtigers and a more engaged, less embellished style.

His Tachtigers friends had given him however little support when getting in trouble after the publication of his first explicit gay novel Pijpelijntjes in 1904. In the first edition of the book de Haan's friend Arnold Aletrino had been portrayed too recognisable. Under a cloak of moralizing against fornication some authors went in great detail describing libidinous topics. For homosexuality this genre was practiced, for instance Feenstra Kuiper's 1905 illustrated pornographic novel Jeugdige zondaars te Constantinopel, reading as a gay tour guide to the city. Easy-reading novels with a melodramitic plot, were provided by M. J. J. Exler, Marie Metz-Koning, Maurits Wagenvoort. A play about Oscar Wilde was written by Adolphe Engers in 1917. In 1883 N. B. Donkersloot, editor of a medical journal, was the first to publish a testimony written in Dutch of a man preferring same-sex. Around this time most Dutch-language medical literature on the subject was however borrowed from foreign examples from Germany and France.

From 1897 to 1908 Arnold Aletrino published his non-fiction works about uranism, in which he described cha

Battle of Pęcice

The Battle of Pęcice took place on 2 August 1944 between military units of Armia Krajowa, belonging to the 4th Ochota Sub-district, the German military during the Warsaw Uprising in Poland during World War II. After heavy fighting on the first day of the Warsaw Uprising, during the evening of 1–2 August 1944, the majority of military units of the 4th Ochota Sub-district, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Mieczysław Sokołowski began to withdraw from Ochota in the direction of Sękocin and Chojnowo forests. At 5 a.m on 2 August, the concentrated units set off from the region of Reguły village via Pęcice in the direction of the forests. German military units were stationed in the manor-house of Pęcice; the distance from Reguły to Pęcice amounted to about 2 km. The terrain was unfavourable from an operational point of view for the insurgents, as the march required them to advance along 1 km of road up a slope to Pęcice, followed by a 1 km section of the way leading on a dike along a broad wet meadow.

The German defenders possessed good observation and fields of fire which gave them an advantage over the approaching Polish units. As the Polish units advanced along the dike, cars appeared with German troops. A fight ensued, the sounds of; the well-placed and well-ranged German units struck the column of insurgent units with well-aimed machine-gun fire. The column of insurgent units divided itself in two parts: the advance party including three scout platoons attacking along the road and engaging the main German force, the main element of the insurgent force, under cover of that attack, by-passed Pęcice from the right side and reached the Sękociny forests and the Chojnowo forests; the units attacking Pęcice directly suffered heavy losses with many prisoners. On 2 August, the Germans executed sixty of the insurgents, captured in the brick-yard in Pęcice. Borodziej, Włodzimierz. Harshav, Barbara; the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin. ISBN 0-299-20730-7. Wroniszewski, Józef K..

Ochota: 1939–1945. Warsaw, Poland: Wydaw. Min. Obrony Narodowej. Celebrations of the 69th anniversary of the battle at Pecice

Dave Howie

David Dickie Howie was a rugby union player, who represented Scotland and Kirkcaldy RFC. He enlisted as a trooper in the local yeomanry in September 1914, at the start of the First World War. After undergoing training in England, he was commissioned second lieutenant in the Royal Field Artillery in April 1915 and despatched to Gallipoli in August. During the evacuation of Anzac Bay, he contracted pneumonia, died in Cairo, after shooting himself with a revolver while in a state of delirium, he is buried at the Cairo War Memorial Cemetery. Howie, who played as a forward, was capped seven times for Scotland between 1912 and 1913. David Dickie Howie was born in Midlothian, to Archibald and Jessie Howie, he attended Kirkcaldy High School. While there, he played as a forward in the school rugby XV for three years, he was the winner in 1903 of the Nairn Cup, awarded to the school's champion athlete. Howie, like his father, was a farmer, he married Marie Winifred Gibson, with whom he had a daughter, Eleanor Margot Linton Dickie, born 4 May 1915 in Skegness.

Dave Howie was the brother of Bob Howie, who played for Kirkcaldy and gained seven national caps, in the 1920s, as well as representing Great Britain in four games on the 1924 tour to South Africa. Although he and his brother gained fourteen caps between them, their father, a grim farmer, never watched them once, saying: "Rugby an' fermin' will no agree, an' A ken which'll pit mair money in yer pooch." Howie began playing for Kirkcaldy RFC in 1908. He was considered a "useful forward", in 1912 became the first Kirkcaldy RFC player to earn selection for Scotland, his debut came in Scotland's first international match of 1912, with a convincing win against France. He went on to play in each of the subsequent Home Nations Championship games that year, as well as participating in the game against the South African tourists in November, he was again selected in 1913 for the games against France. On 8 September 1914, Howie enlisted as a trooper in the Forfar Yeomanry, he remained in training in England until April 1915, when he was commissioned into the 1st Highland Brigade, Royal Field Artillery, sailed for Gallipoli in August 1915.

During the evacuation of Anzac, he contracted pneumonia and died in Cairo on 19 January 1916. His death was from'self-inflicted revolver wounds, whilst temporarily of unsound mind, due to the delirium of pneumonia'. According to Sister Laycock, tending to him, he was "quiet and drowsy" during most of the day, shot himself a few minutes after she had last seen him alive sleeping: she heard the shot on entering the room again, he is buried at the Cairo War Memorial Cemetery, Grave No. 267 D and is commemorated on the Kinghorn War Memorial. List of international rugby union players killed in action during the First World War Bath, Richard The Scotland Rugby Miscellany Massie, Allan A Portrait of Scottish Rugby McCrery, Nigel. Into Touch: Rugby Internationals Killed in the Great War. Pen and Sword. ISBN 1473833213. Sewell, Edward Humphrey Dalrymple; the Rugby Football Internationals Roll of Honour. London, Edinburgh: T. C. & E. C. Jack