One Day International
A One Day International is a form of limited overs cricket, played between two teams with international status, in which each team faces a fixed number of overs 50. The Cricket World Cup is played in this format, held every four years. One Day International matches are called Limited Overs Internationals, although this generic term may refer to Twenty20 International matches, they are major considered the highest standard of List A, limited overs competition. The international one-day game is a late-twentieth-century development; the first ODI was played on 5 January 1971 between Australia and England at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. When the first three days of the third Test were washed out officials decided to abandon the match and, play a one-off one-day game consisting of 40 eight-ball overs per side. Australia won the game by 5 wickets. ODIs were played in white kits with a red ball. In the late 1970s, Kerry Packer established the rival World Series Cricket competition, it introduced many of the features of One Day International cricket that are now commonplace, including coloured uniforms, matches played at night under floodlights with a white ball and dark sight screens, for television broadcasts, multiple camera angles, effects microphones to capture sounds from the players on the pitch, on-screen graphics.
The first of the matches with coloured uniforms was the WSC Australians in wattle gold versus WSC West Indians in coral pink, played at VFL Park in Melbourne on 17 January 1979. This led not only to Packer's Channel 9 getting the TV rights to cricket in Australia but led to players worldwide being paid to play, becoming international professionals, no longer needing jobs outside cricket. Matches played with coloured kits and a white ball became more commonplace over time, the use of white flannels and a red ball in ODIs ended in 2001. In the main the Laws of cricket apply. However, in ODIs, each team bats for a fixed number of overs. In the early days of ODI cricket, the number of overs was 60 overs per side, matches were played with 40, 45 or 55 overs per side, but now it has been uniformly fixed at 50 overs. Stated, the game works as follows: An ODI is contested by two teams of 11 players each; the Captain of the side winning the toss bowl first. The team batting first sets the target score in a single innings.
The innings lasts until the batting side is "all out" or all of the first side's allotted overs are completed. Each bowler is restricted to bowling a maximum of 10 overs. Therefore, each team must comprise at least five competent bowlers; the team batting second tries to score more. The side bowling second tries to bowl out the second team or make them exhaust their overs before they reach the target score in order to win. If the number of runs scored by both teams is equal when the second team loses all its wickets or exhausts all its overs the game is declared a tie. Where a number of overs are lost, for example, due to inclement weather conditions the total number of overs may be reduced. In the early days of ODI cricket, the team with the better run rate won, but this favoured the second team. For the 1992 World Cup, an alternative method was used of omitting the first team's worst overs, but that favoured the first team. Since the late 1990s, the target or result is determined by the Duckworth-Lewis method, a method with statistical approach.
It takes into consideration the fact that the wickets in hand plays a crucial role in pacing the run-rate. In other words, a team with more wickets in hand can play way more aggressively than the team with fewer wickets in hand; when insufficient overs are played to apply the Duckworth-Lewis method, a match is declared no result. Important one-day matches in the latter stages of major tournaments, may have two days set aside, such that a result can be achieved on the "reserve day" if the first day is washed out—either by playing a new game, or by resuming the match, rain-interrupted; the original DL-method however had a few inherent flaws. For example, Tony Lewis, one of the formulators of this method recognized after the match between India and Kenya during the 1999 World Cup held in Bristol, that the original method gave an unfair advantage to the team chasing scores above 350 runs in a 50 overs match. Hence, the method was revised and a new version was released in 2004. There was one more such change made, first implemented on 2009.
Off late, the Duckworth-Lewis-Stern method is used, a modification of the DL-Method suggested by Prof. Steven Stern, it was first implemented during the 2015 World Cup. One of the major changes made to DLS from DL method was based on a historic analysis by Prof. Stern that a team with higher run rate in their initial stages has a greater chance to get to a high score than a team with slow initial run rate, but more wickets in hand; because the game uses a white ball instead of the red one used in first-class cricket, the ball can become discoloured and hard to see as the innings progresses, so the ICC has used various rules to help keep the ball playable. Most ICC has made the use of two new balls, the same strategy, used in the 1992 and 1996 World Cu
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
An asterisk. It is so called. Computer scientists and mathematicians vocalize it as star. In English, an asterisk is five-pointed in sans-serif typefaces, six-pointed in serif typefaces, six- or eight-pointed when handwritten, it is used to censor offensive words, on the Internet, to indicate a correction to a previous message. In computer science, the asterisk is used as a wildcard character, or to denote pointers, repetition, or multiplication; the asterisk derives from the two thousand year old character used by Aristarchus of Samothrace called the asteriskos, ※, which he used when proofreading Homeric poetry to mark lines that were duplicated. Origen is known to have used the asteriskos to mark missing Hebrew lines from his Hexapla; the asterisk evolved in shape over time, but its meaning as a symbol used to correct defects remained. In the Middle Ages, the asterisk was used to emphasize a particular part of text linking those parts of the text to a marginal comment. However, an asterisk was not always used.
One hypothesis to the origin of the asterisk is that it stems from the five thousand year old Sumerian character dingir, though this hypothesis seems to only be based on visual appearance. When toning down expletives, asterisks are used to replace letters. For example, the word'fuck' might become'f**k','f*ck' or even'****'. Vowels tend to be censored with an asterisk more than consonants, but the intelligibility of censored profanities with multiple syllables such as b*ll*cks or uncommon ones is higher if put in context with surrounding text. In colloquial usage, an asterisk is used to indicate that a record is somehow tainted by circumstances, which are putatively explained in a footnote referenced by the asterisk; the usage of the term in sports arose after the 1961 baseball season in which Roger Maris of the New York Yankees broke Babe Ruth's 34-year-old single-season home run record. Because Ruth had amassed 60 home runs in a season with only 154 games, compared to Maris's 61 over 162 games, baseball commissioner Ford Frick announced that Maris's accomplishment would be recorded in the record books with an explanation.
In fact, Major League Baseball had no official record book at the time, but the stigma remained with Maris for many years, the concept of a real or figurative asterisk denoting less-than-official records has become used in sports and other competitive endeavors. A 2001 TV movie about Maris's record-breaking season was called 61* in reference to the controversy; the controversy over season length in relation to home run records had somewhat subsided by the time Hank Aaron broke Ruth's career home run record in 1974. Maris's single season mark was broken in 1998 by Mark McGwire and Sammy Sosa, who both broke it in under 154 games. McGwire's record of 70 home runs was eclipsed by Barry Bonds, who set the current mark of 73 home runs in the 2001 season. However, these players' accomplishments were soon questioned after evidence surfaced suggesting all three might have been taking advantage of MLB's then-lax policies related to the use of performance-enhancing drugs. Fans were critical of Bonds and invoked the asterisk notion during the 2007 season, as he approached and broke Hank Aaron's career home run record.
Opposing fans would hold up signs bearing asterisks whenever Bonds came up to bat. After Bonds hit his record-breaking 756th home run on August 7, 2007, fashion designer and entrepreneur Marc Ecko purchased the home run ball from the fan who caught it, ran a poll on his website to determine its fate. On September 26, Ecko revealed on NBC's Today show that the ball will be branded with an asterisk and donated to the Baseball Hall of Fame; the ball, marked with a die-cut asterisk, was delivered to the hall on July 2, 2008 after Marc Ecko unconditionally donated the artifact rather than loaning it to the hall as intended. In recent years, the asterisk has come into use on baseball scorecards to denote a "great defensive play." By the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the association of baseball and its records with doping had become so notorious that the term "asterisk" had become associated with doping in sport. In February 2011 the United States Olympic Committee and the Ad Council launched an anti-steroid campaign called "Play Asterisk Free" aimed at teens.
The campaign, whose logo uses a heavy asterisk, first launched in 2008 under the name Don't Be An Asterisk. In cricket, it signifies a total number of runs scored by a batsman without losing his wicket. Where only the scores of the two batsmen that are in are being shown, an asterisk following a batsman's score indicates that he is due to face the next ball to be delivered; when written before a player's name on a scorecard, it indicates the captain of the team. It is used on television when giving a career statistic during a match. For example, 47 * in a number of matches column means. In computer science, the asterisk is used in regular expressions to denote zero or more repetitions of a pattern. In the Unified Modeling Language, the asterisk is used to denote zero to many classes. In some command line interfaces, such as the Unix shell and Microso
Bill Johnston (cricketer)
William Arras Johnston was an Australian cricketer who played in forty Test matches from 1947 to 1955. A left arm pace bowler, as well as a left arm orthodox spinner, Johnston was best known as a spearhead of Don Bradman's undefeated 1948 touring team, well known as "The Invincibles". Johnston headed the wicket-taking lists in both Test and first-class matches on the tour, was the last Australian to take over 100 wickets on a tour of England. In recognition of his performances, he was named by Wisden as one of its Cricketers of the Year in 1949; the publication stated that "no Australian made a greater personal contribution to the playing success of the 1948 side". Regarded by Bradman as Australia's greatest-ever left-arm bowler, Johnston was noted for his endurance in bowling pace with the new ball and spin when the ball had worn, he became the fastest bowler to reach 100 Test wickets in 1951–52, at the time averaging less than nineteen with the ball. By the end of the season, he contributed 111 wickets.
Australia lost only two of these Tests. In 1953, a knee injury forced him to remodel his bowling action, he became less effective before retiring after aggravating the injury in 1955. In retirement, he worked in sales and marketing, ran his own businesses, he had two sons. Johnston died at the age of 85 on 25 May 2007. Johnston took up cricket from an early age, playing with his elder brother Allan throughout the year on a backyard pitch on the family's dairy farm, owned by his father. Beeac's local team, which competed in the Colac District Association had difficulty in assembling a full side; as a result, Johnston made his debut aged only twelve alongside his brother after an invitation from his schoolteacher. On debut, when a draw became a foregone conclusion, Johnston was allowed to bowl the final over, taking a wicket maiden; the following season, the brothers led Beeac's attack, continuing to do so after moving to Colac High School, where Bill became captain of the cricket and football teams and a prefect.
Johnston left school at sixteen, working in Colac, before following Allan to Melbourne in 1939. He joined Richmond Cricket Club in the Third XI and took 6/16. After five games he was promoted to the Second XI, made his first grade debut in the last game of the 1939–40 season; the following season, when nineteen, he was selected for Victoria's Sheffield Shield match against Queensland, but the Pearl Harbor attacks forced the cancellation of competitive cricket and the match did not go ahead. Johnston joined the Royal Australian Air Force along with his brother, serving for four years as a radar technician in northern Australia, it was at training camp. Johnston was not posted overseas, unlike his brother. Prior to the Second World War, Johnston was a slow-medium and left-arm orthodox spin bowler, but during a practice session, he bowled a quicker ball to Jack Ryder a former Australian captain and Test batsman, now a Victorian and national selector; this prompted Ryder to wage a personal campaign to induce Johnston to become a pace bowler.
At the same time, Richmond captain Jack Ledward wanted him to bowl spin. Upon the resumption of first-class cricket in 1945–46, Johnston made his first-class debut against Queensland and was entrusted with the responsibility of opening the attack, his maiden wicket was that of leading Test batsman Bill Brown. Johnston took a total of 1/84 in a ten-wicket win, he felt that the fast bowling was only for short periods with the new ball, that he would be allowed to revert to spin bowling as the ball became older. He played a total of seven matches for the season and took 12 wickets at 35.08, with his best performance being 4/43 against arch-rivals New South Wales. As a result, he missed the national selection for the tour to New Zealand; as opportunities for slow bowling became infrequent, he contemplated retirement. Although he dismissed Cyril Washbrook in the first over of Victoria's match against Wally Hammond's touring England team of 1946–47, he was skeptical about his pace bowling. After that match he did not take a wicket for the next two months.
It took further encouragement from Australian captain Don Bradman after he played against Bradman's South Australians. Bradman told Johnston that the selectors thought of his potential as a medium-fast bowler to reinforce the short bursts of pace spearheads Ray Lindwall and Keith Miller and that pace bowlers were in short supply, whereas spinners were plentiful. In the same season, Colin McCool, Ian Johnson, Bruce Dooland and George Tribe had all played in Tests as specialist spinners. Johnston ended the season with only 12 wickets at 33.16 from six matches. Johnston practised his pace bowling with new vigour, at the start of the 1947–48 season, the fruits of his labour provided immediate dividends. In the opening match of the season, he delivered an opening burst of 3/0 for Victoria against the touring Indian team, removing Vinoo Mankad, Khandu Rangnekar and leading batsman Vijay Hazare, all for ducks, he took three more wickets in the second innings, to end with a match total of 6/96, including Hazare for the second time.
Johnston was called into an Australian XI that played the Indians before the Tests, in what was a dress rehearsal. Although the hosts lost, Johnston took 6/141. In the last outing before the Tests, Johnston took 3/40 and 5/37 to set up a nine-wicket win over New South Wales, including the wickets of Test openers Sid Barnes and Arthur Morris with the new ball at the start of the match, he was rewarded with selection for four of the five Tests against India, making his debut on a sti
Caught is a method of dismissing a batsman in the sport of cricket. Being caught out is the most common method of dismissal at higher levels of competition; this method of dismissal is covered by Law 33 of the Laws of cricket which reads:The striker is out Caught if a ball delivered by the bowler, not being a No ball, touches his/her bat without having been in contact with any fielder, is subsequently held by a fielder as a fair catch... before it touches the ground. Note that if a batsman could be given out caught or by any other method except bowled,'caught' takes precedence; this means that the batsman cannot be out caught if: The ball is called a no-ball or dead ball. The batsman does not hit the ball with the gloved hand holding the bat; the ball, having been hit, makes contact with the field. The ball does not remain under the control of the fielder; the ball is lands beyond or on the boundary. A fielder taking the catch makes contact with the boundary rope or the area outside the boundary, with any part of his body, when touching the ball.
If a batsman is out caught, any runs scored off. If the catch is taken by the wicket-keeper informally it is known as a "caught behind". A catch by the bowler is known as a "caught and bowled"; this has nothing to do with the dismissal bowled but is rather a shorthand for saying the catcher and bowler are the same player. If the catch taken is pronounced or obvious, the players need not appeal to the umpire. However, in the event that the ball brushes the edge of the bat, or the catch is taken close to the ground, or the ball appears to have bounced off the batsman's foot, or the ball appearing to come off the bat close to the pitch surface, or if the batsman is reluctant to accept that he has been dismissed, the fielding team has to appeal to the umpire for this decision. In international competition, if neither field umpire can decide if a catch has been made or not, they may refer to the third umpire for a review; the third umpire may be used if the Umpire Decision Review System is available and a team wishes to dispute a call concerning a possible catch.
If a batsman is caught, the bowler is credited with the batsman's wicket and the catching fielder is credited for the dismissal, there is no catch assists for a saving boundaries before catch, or deflecting the ball to a different fielder in the slips cordon. If the two batsmen cross each other, in attempting to take a run, before the catch was taken, the non-striking batsman at the time remains at the opposite end of the pitch as the new incoming batsman comes to the crease at his former end; this means, unless it is now a new over, he is now on strike and the incoming batsman is not. Before 2000, the Laws of Cricket defined a catch as being completed when the player had "complete control over the further disposal of the ball". In the strictest sense, this meant that the player did not finish catching the ball until he threw it away, though the player doesn't have to throw the ball to anyone in particular in so doing. For this reason today many cricketers celebrate a catch by lobbing the ball into the air.
In a Super Sixes match in the 1999 Cricket World Cup, South African Herschelle Gibbs caught Australian captain Steve Waugh but Waugh was given not out when Gibbs was ruled to not have control of the ball when attempting to throw the ball in celebration. Waugh went on to score a match-winning 120 not out to qualify his team for the semi-finals.
James Anderson (cricketer)
James Michael'Jimmy' Anderson, is an English international cricketer who plays for Lancashire and England. Regarded as one of the greatest fast bowlers of all time, Anderson is the all-time leading wicket-taker among fast bowlers and holds the record of most wickets for England in both Test and One-Day International cricket, he is the only English bowler, the 6th overall, to pass 500 Test wickets. Anderson plays first-class cricket for Lancashire and since arriving on the international scene in 2002/03 has represented England in over 140 Test matches and nearly 200 One Day Internationals, he is England's all-time highest international wicket-taker. He and Joe Root posted the highest 10th-wicket Test batting partnership in the 1st Test of India's 2014 tour of England. A right-arm pace bowler, Anderson made his international debut at the age of just 20, on England's 2002/03 tour of Australia; when he played his first ODI he had only played five List A matches. Anderson went on to feature in the 2003 ICC World Cup and made his Test match debut against Zimbabwe at Lord's the next summer.
In 2003 he experienced a dip in form and confidence against South Africa. After this he was in and out of the team and experienced numerous injuries, including a stress fracture of the back which kept him out of action for most of the 2006 season, he is now the opening bowler in England's Test team. He was a regular strike bowler in England's one-day team, but has not played in that format since the 2015 World Cup, he is the first English bowler to reach 400 and 500 wickets in Test matches, on 11 September 2018 he became 4th highest Test wicket-taker of all time. He reached this position when he took his 564th Test wicket, passing Glenn McGrath as the leading wicket-taker among fast bowlers; as of January 2019 he is ranked No.2 in the ICC Test Bowling Rankings, having reached the top position at various times between 2016 and 2018. On 25 July 2016, during the second Test of that year's England-Pakistan series at Old Trafford, he became the first fast bowler to take 50 wickets against all other 7 major Test playing nations, India, New Zealand, South Africa, Sri Lanka and West Indies.
On 3 August 2017 Lancashire announced the Old Trafford Pavilion End would be renamed the James Anderson End. James Anderson was a pupil at St Theodore's RC High School, Burnley, he played cricket at Burnley Cricket Club from a young age. His childhood dream was to be a cricketer, at the age of 17, after a growth spurt, Anderson was one of the fastest bowlers in the Lancashire League, he stated that "I've always bowled seam, but when I was about 17 I don't know what it was but I just started bowling fast all of a sudden". Just months after his debut he had become one of the biggest stars in English cricket. Continuous alteration of hair styles, attractive looks, up-to-the-minute outfits earned him comparisons with some of the most recognisable sports personalities around, including David Beckham. In 2006, at Holy Angels' RC Church, Hale, he married Daniella Lloyd, a model he met in 2004 while on England duty in London. On 8 January 2009, Daniella Anderson gave birth to Lola Rose; the couple's second daughter, Ruby Luxe, was born on 9 December 2010.
Anderson has ventured into fashion design since 2012, designing for Elvis Jesus with proceeds of the sale going to his sponsored charity, Nordoff-Robbins. In April 2014, he launched his first collection with Chess London, he has stated that he would like to be "the first cricketer to become a designer". He launched his own menswear brand in late October 2014, has been working in conjunction with British watchmaker Harold Pinchbeck to release a watch in 2015. Anderson became the first cricketer to model naked for Attitude, "Britain's biggest-selling gay magazine", in September 2010, he stated "if there are any gay cricketers they should feel confident enough to come out because I don't think there is any homophobia in cricket."Alongside former cricketer Graeme Swann and BBC Radio 1 radio presenter Greg James, Anderson hosts a cricket-themed radio show on BBC Radio 5 Live, "Not Just Cricket". The radio show was nominated for Best Sports Programme at the 2013 Radio Academy Awards. On 15 November 2017, Anderson along with Felix White and Greg James, began hosting a cricketing podcast'Tailenders'.
This was a weekly podcast covering the 2017–18 Ashes series, since 23 May 2018 it was renewed to continue on a weekly basis. Features include'General Cricketing Sadness','Machin's Quiz' and'Black Wednesday/Xmas Show/App Launch'. Anderson made his first-class debut for Lancashire in 2002, he was awarded the NBC Denis Compton Award for Lancashire's most promising young County player in the 2002 season. In 2003, Anderson became the youngest player to take a hat-trick for Lancashire, just a week before his Test match debut against Zimbabwe. In a match against Worcestershire in May 2004, Anderson recorded his maiden first-class ten-wicket haul.2005 was Anderson's first full season for Lancashire. He was propelled into the England side soon after his Lancashire debut and had returned to rediscover his form after winter tours with England where he had spent the majority of his time on the sidelines, when given a chance for England he bowled poorly due to a lack of match practice, he finished the season with 60 first-class wickets at an average of 30.21 and 27 one day wickets at an average of 22.00.
In the sport of cricket, a century is a score of 100 or more runs in a single innings by a batsman. The term is included in "century partnership" which occurs when two batsmen add 100 runs to the team total when they are batting together. A century is regarded as a landmark score for batsmen and a player's number of centuries is recorded in his career statistics. Scoring a century is loosely equivalent in merit to a bowler taking five wickets in an innings, is referred to as a ton or hundred. Scores of more than 200 runs are still statistically counted as a century, although these scores are referred as double and quadruple centuries, so on. Accordingly, reaching 50 runs in an innings is known as a half-century. Chris Gayle holds the record of fastest hundred in the history of cricket when he smashed 100 in just 30 balls and scored 175* runs off 66 balls overall in 20 overs in IPL against Pune Warriors India in 2013. Centuries were uncommon until the late 19th century because of the difficulties in batting on pitches that had only rudimentary preparation and were exposed to the elements.
There is doubt about the earliest known century, but the most definite claim belongs to John Minshull who scored 107 for the Duke of Dorset's XI v Wrotham at Sevenoaks Vine on 31 August 1769. This was a minor match; the first definite century in a top-class match was scored by John Small when he made 136 for Hampshire v Surrey at Broadhalfpenny Down in July 1775. The earliest known century partnership was recorded in 1767 between two Hambledon batsmen who added 192 for the first wicket against Caterham, it is believed they were Edward "Curry" Aburrow. When Hambledon played Kent at Broadhalfpenny in August 1768, the Reading Mercury reported: "what is remarkable, one Mr Small, of Petersfield, fetched above seven score notches off his own bat", it is not known if Small did this in one innings or if it was his match total. Hambledon batsmen Tom Sueter and George Leer are the first two players known to have shared a century partnership when they made 128 for the first wicket against Surrey at Broadhalfpenny Down in September 1769.
W. G. Grace was the first batsman to score 100 career centuries in first-class cricket, reaching the milestone in 1895, his career total of 124 centuries was subsequently passed by Jack Hobbs, whose total of 199 first-class centuries is the current record. The first century in Test cricket was scored by Charles Bannerman who scored 165 in the first Test between Australia and England; the first century partnership in Test cricket was between W. G. Grace and A. P. Lucas, batting for England, in the first innings of the only Test match between England and Australia on the Australians 1880 tour of England, played at the Kennington Oval; the current holder of the record for most centuries in Test cricket is Sachin Tendulkar of India, who has scored 51 centuries. The first One Day International century was scored by Denis Amiss who amassed 103 runs against Australia at Old Trafford in 1972.. Sachin Tendulkar holds the record for most ODI centuries, having scored 49 ODI Centuries; the first Twenty20 International century was scored by Chris Gayle who amassed 117 runs against South Africa at Johannesburg in the first match of ICC World Twenty20 tournament in 2007.
Rohit Sharma holds the record for most T20I centuries, having scored 4 T20I Centuries. The fastest recorded century in Test cricket terms of balls faced is held by Brendon McCullum who scored 100 runs from 54 balls against Australia at Christchurch, New Zealand in 2016, beating the previous record of 56 held jointly by Viv Richards and Misbah-ul-Haq; the record for the fastest recorded century in terms of balls faced in first-class cricket is held by David Hookes who scored 102 runs from 34 balls for South Australia vs Victoria in a Sheffield Shield match in 1982. Chris Gayle holds the record for the fastest century in Twenty20, during an Indian Premier League in April 2013, reaching the milestone off only 30 balls. In One day International cricket the fastest century is held by South African batsman AB De Villiers. De Villiers' century came up in just 31 balls against the West Indies in the 2nd ODI at Johannesburg on 18 January 2015. De Villiers' hundred included 10 sixes. Corey Anderson is second with 36 balls century against West Indies in Queenstown on 1 January 2014 and Shahid Afridi is third with 37 balls century against Sri Lanka in Nairobi on 4 October 1996.
2 back to back One Day international centuries were scored for the West Indies in the Caribbean in 2 home series against Bangladesh and England When Guyana's Shimron Hetmyer scored 125 off 93 balls against Bangladesh in the 2nd one day international of the 3-match one day international series which Bangladesh won 2-1 and 104 not out off 83 balls against England in the 2nd one day international of the 5- match one day international series which ended in A 2-2 draw David Miller of South Africa hit the fastest century in Twenty20 international cricket against Bangladesh on 29 October 2017. Miller brought up his century in just 35 balls. Rohit Sharma of India equalled the record of the fastest century in T20 international cricket against Sri Lanka on 22 December 2017. Rohit Sharma got his century in 35 balls equalling the record. List of cricketers by number of international centuries scored Nervous nineties