Catholic League (French)
The Catholic League of France, sometimes referred to by contemporary Catholics as the Holy League, was a major participant in the French Wars of Religion. Formed by Henry I, Duke of Guise, in 1576, the League intended the eradication of Protestants—mainly Calvinists or Huguenots—out of Catholic France during the Protestant Reformation, as well as the replacement of King Henry III. Pope Sixtus V, Philip II of Spain, the Jesuits were all supporters of this Catholic party. Confraternities and leagues were established by French Catholics to counter the growing power of the Lutherans and members of the Reformed Church of France; the Protestant Calvinists at that time dominated much of the French nobility, leading to active persecution of Catholics in some regions. Under the leadership of Henry I, Duke of Guise, the Catholic confraternities and leagues were united as the Catholic League. Guise used the League not only to defend the Catholic cause but as a political tool in an attempt to usurp the French throne.
The Catholic League aimed to preempt any seizure of power by the Huguenots and to protect French Catholics' right to worship. The Catholic League's cause was fueled by the doctrine Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus. Catholic Leaguers saw their fight against Calvinism as a Crusade against heresy; the League's pamphleteers blamed any natural disaster that occurred in France at the time as God's way of punishing France for tolerating the existence of the Calvinist heresy. After a series of bloody clashes, the French Wars of Religion, between Catholics and Protestants, the Catholic League formed in an attempt to break the power of the Calvinist gentry once and for all; the Catholic League saw the French throne under Henry III as too conciliatory towards the Huguenots. The League, similar to hardline Calvinists, disapproved of Henry III's attempts to mediate any coexistence between the Huguenots and Catholics; the Catholic League saw moderate French Catholics, known as Politiques, as a serious threat. The Politiques were tired of the many tit for tat killings and were willing to negotiate peaceful coexistence rather than escalating the war.
The League began to exert pressure on Henry III of France. Faced with this mounting opposition he canceled the Peace of La Rochelle, re-criminalizing Protestantism and beginning a new chapter in the French Wars of Religion. However, Henry saw the danger posed by the Duke of Guise, gaining more and more power. In the Day of the Barricades, King Henry III was forced to flee Paris, which resulted in Henry, Duke of Guise becoming the de facto ruler of France. Afraid of being deposed and assassinated, the King decided to strike first. On December 23, 1588, Henry III's guardsmen assassinated the Duke and his brother, Louis II and the Duke's son was imprisoned in the Bastille. However, this move did little to consolidate the King's power and enraged both the surviving Guises and their followers; as a result, the King fled Paris and joined forces with Henry of Navarre, the throne's Calvinist heir presumptive. Both the King and Henry of Navarre began building. On August 1, 1589, as the two Henrys besieged the city and prepared for their final assault, Jacques Clément, a Dominican lay brother with ties to the League infiltrated the King's entourage, dressed as a priest, assassinated him.
This was retaliation for the killing of the Duke of his brother. As he lay dying, the King begged Henry of Navarre to convert to Catholicism, calling it the only way to prevent further bloodshed. However, the King's death threw the army into disarray and Henry of Navarre was forced to lift the siege. Although Henry of Navarre was now the legitimate King of France, the League's armies were so strong that he was unable to capture Paris and was forced to retreat south. Using arms and military advisors provided by Elizabeth I of England, he achieved several military victories. However, he was unable to overcome the superior forces of the League, which commanded the loyalty of most Frenchmen and had the support of Philip II of Spain; the League attempted to declare the Cardinal of Bourbon, Henry's uncle, as king Charles X of France on November 21, 1589, but his status as a prisoner of Henry of Navarre and his death in May 1590 removed all legitimacy from this gesture. Furthermore, the Cardinal refused to usurp the throne and supported his nephew, although to little avail.
Unable to provide a viable candidate for the French throne, the League's position weakened, but remained strong enough to keep Henry from besieging Paris. In a bid to peacefully end the war, Henry of Navarre was received into the Church on July 25, 1593 and was recognized as King Henry IV on February 27, 1594, he is purported to have said "Paris is well worth a Mass," though some scholars question the veracity of this quotation. Under the rule of King Henry IV, the Edict of Nantes was passed, granting religious toleration and limited autonomy to the Huguenots and ensuring a lasting peace for France. Moreover, the Catholic League now lacked the threat of a Calvinist king and disintegrated. Historian Mack Holt argues that historians have sometimes over-emphasised the political role of the League at the expense of its religious and devotional character: What is the final judgement on the Catholic League? It would be a mistake to treat it, as so many historians have, as nothing more than a body motivated purely by p
A rite is an established, ceremonial religious, act. Rites in this sense fall into three major categories: rites of passage changing an individual's social status, such as marriage, baptism, coming of age, graduation, or inauguration. Within the Catholic Church, "rite" refers to what is called a sacrament and respective liturgies based on liturgical languages and traditional local customs as well as the ceremonies associated with the sacraments. In Christian Catholicism, for example, the sacrament of Anointing of the Sick/Last Rites is one of the sacramental rites because they are administered to someone, or was dying; the other are Eucharist. Since the Second Vatican Council, anointing of the sick is administered to those who are ill but not in immediate danger of death. Another example is the Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults; the term "rite" became used after the Second Vatican Council. While "rite" is associated when receiving a "sacrament," it is technically incorrect to say that one received a "rite" because the sacrament is what is received while a rite is performed.
The ritual consists of the prayers and actions that the minister of the sacrament performs when administering a sacrament. Therefore, it is incorrect to say that one has received "the last rites" as that person has received "the last sacraments" by a minister following a ritual that has performed the "sacramental rite." Within both Catholicism and Orthodoxy, the term "rite" refers to a body of liturgical tradition emanating from a specific center. Examples include the Roman Rite, the Byzantine Rite, the Sarum Rite; such rites may include various sub-rites. For example, the Byzantine Rite has Greek and other ethnically-based variants. In addition, the same term is applied to an autonomous particular Church within the Catholic Church associated with a particular liturgical tradition. Of these, the largest is the Latin Western Church. There are several Eastern Catholic Churches which are the same catholic Church with distinct rites. Within many Protestant Christian denominations, the word rite is used for important ceremonies that are not considered sacraments or ordinances.
The 39 Articles of the Anglican Communion and the Articles of Religion of the Methodist Church state "there are two Sacraments ordained of Christ our Lord in the Gospel, to say and the Supper of the Lord". As such, in the Anglican and Methodist traditions, the following are considered rites: "confirmation, matrimony, holy orders and anointing of the sick"; the "rites of the Moravian Church are Confirmation and Ordination". In the Lutheran tradition, Holy Baptism, Holy Eucharist, Confession & Absolution are considered Lutheran sacraments, while Confirmation, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Matrimony, Holy Orders are rites. In North America, Freemasons have the option of joining the Scottish Rite or the York Rite, two appendant bodies that offer additional degrees to those who have taken the basic three. Ambrosian Rite Ceremony Confucian rites East Syriac Rite Primitive Scottish Rite Process art Ritual The Rite of Spring Water rite
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Paris
The Catholic Archdiocese of Paris is one of twenty-three archdioceses of the Catholic Church in France. The original diocese is traditionally thought to have been created in the 3rd century by St. Denis and corresponded with the Civitas Parisiorum, its suffragan dioceses, created in 1966 and encompassing the Île-de-France region, are in Créteil, Évry-Corbeil-Essonnes, Nanterre, Saint-Denis, Versailles. Its liturgical centre is at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris; the archbishop resides on rue Barbet de Jouy in the 6th arrondissement, but there are diocesan offices in rue de la Ville-Eveque, rue St. Bernard and in other areas of the city; the archbishop is ordinary for Eastern Catholics in France. The title of Duc de Saint-Cloud was created in 1674 for the archbishops. Prior to 1790 the diocese was divided into three archdeaconries: France, Brie; until the creation of new dioceses in 1966 there were two archdeaconries: St. Séverin; the churches of the current diocese can be divided into several categories: i) Latin Church parishes.
These are grouped into deaneries and subject to vicars-general who coincide with auxiliary bishops. Ii) Churches belonging to religious communities. Iii) Chapels for various foreign communities using various languages. Iv) Eastern-Church parishes and communities throughout France dependent on the Archbishop as Ordinary of the Ordinariate of France, Faithful of Eastern Rites.?–c. 250: Denis, believed to be the first bishop of Paris Prudentius 360–436: Marcellus/Marcellinus 9th Bishop of Paris c. 550: Eusebius 555–576: Germanus 606–621: Ceraunus/Ceran 650–661: Landry 666–680: Agilbert 722–730: Hugues/Hugh of Champagne 775–795: Eschenradus Eucade Hilduin 858–870: Aeneas 884–886: Goslin c.890: Anscharic?–941: Walter c. 954?: Constantius 950–977: Albert of Flanders 991–1017: Renaud of Vendôme 1061–1095: Godfrey 1095?–1101: Guilliaume de Montfort 1104–1116: Galo/Walo 1116–1123: Guibert c.1123–1141: Stephen of Senlis c.1143–1159: Theobald 1159–1160: Peter Lombard 1160–1196: Maurice de Sully 1196–1208: Odo de Sully 1208–1219: Pierre de La Chapelle 1220–1223: William of Seignelay, Guillaume de Seignelay 1224–1227: Barthélmy 1228–1249: William of Auvergne 1249–1249: Walter de Château-Thierry 1250–1268: Renaud Mignon de Corbeil 1268–1279: Étienne Tempier 1280–1280: Jean de Allodio 1280–1288: Renaud de Hombliéres c.1289: Adenolfus de Anagnia 1290–1304: Simon Matifort 1304–1319: Guillaume de Baufet 1319–1325: Etienne de Bouret 1325–1332: Hugues Michel 1332–1342: Guillaume de Chanac 1342–1349: Foulques de Chanac 1349–1350: Audoin-Aubert 1350–1352: Pierre de Lafôret 1353–1363: Jean de Meulent 1362–1373: Etienne de Poissy 1373–1384: Aimery de Magnac 1384–1409: Pierre d'Orgemont, translated from bishop of Thérouanne 1409–1420: Gérard de Montaigu, translated from Poitiers 1420–1421: Jean Courtecuisse 1421–1422: Jean de La Rochetaillée, translated to Rouen 1423–1426: Jean IV de Nant, translated from Vienne 1427–1438: Jacques du Chastelier 1439–1447: Denis du Moulin 1447–1472: Guillaume Chartier 1473–1492: Louis de Beaumont de la Forêt 1492?–1492/1493?: Gérard Gobaille 1492–1502: Jean-Simon de Champigny 1503–1519: Étienne de Poncher 1519–1532: François Poncher 1532–1541: Jean du Bellay 1551–1563: Eustache du Bellay 1564–1568: Guillaume Viole 1573–1598: Pierre de Gondi 1598–1622: Henri de Gondi The Diocese of Paris was elevated to the rank of archdiocese on October 20, 1622.
1622–1654: Jean-François de Gondi 1654–1662: Jean François Paul de Gondi, cardinal de Retz 1662–1664: Pierre de Marca 1664–1671: Hardouin de Péréfixe de Beaumont 1671–1695: François de Harlay de Champvallon 1695–1729: Louis-Antoine de Noailles 1729–1746: Charles-Gaspard-Guillaume de Vintimille du Luc 1746: Jacques Bonne-Gigault de Bellefonds 1746–1781: Christophe de Beaumont 1781–1802: Antoine-Eléonore-Léon Le Clerc de Juigné 1791–1794: Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel temporarily abolished during the French Revolution 1802–1808: Jean Baptiste de Belloy-Morangle 1810–1817: Jean-Sifrein Maury 1817–1821: Alexandre-Angélique Talleyrand de Périgord 1821–1839: Hyacinthe-Louis De Quelen 1840–1848: Denis Auguste Affre 1848–1857: Marie Dominique Auguste Sibour 1857–1862: François-Nicholas-Madeleine Morlot 1863–1871: Georges Darboy 1871–1886: Joseph Hippolyte Guibert 1886–1908: François-Marie-Benjamin Richard 1908–1920: Léon-Adolphe Amette 1920–1929: Louis-Ernest Dubois 1929–1940: Jean Verdier 1940–1949: Emmanuel Célestin Suhard 1949–1966: Maurice Feltin 1966–1968: Pierre Veuillot 1968–1981: François Marty 1981–2005: Jean-Marie Lustiger 2005–2017: André Vingt-Trois 2017–current: Michel Aupetit 1986–1997: Claude Frikart Catholic Church in France List of Catholic dioceses in France List of religious buildings in Paris List of Roman Catholic archdioceses Gams, Pius Bonifatius.
Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae: quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. Ratisbon: Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Eubel, Conradus.
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history; the causes of the French Revolution are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution, the French government was in debt, it attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were regressive.
Leading up to the Revolution, years of bad harvests worsened by deregulation of the grain industry and environmental problems inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy of the established church. Some historians hold something similar to what Thomas Jefferson proclaimed: that France had "been awakened by our Revolution." Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789. During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime; the next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution; the Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins; the dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
They suspended elections, repudiated debts, persecuted the Catholic clergy, made significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars; the modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. All future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor, its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day; the Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudal system, emancipation of the individual, a greater division of landed property, abolition of the privileges of noble birth, nominal establishment of equality among men.
The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not only national, for it intended to benefit all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of democracies, it became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards the objective of military conquest; some of its central documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, continued to inspire movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century. Historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Rising social and economic inequality, new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment, economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt, political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the "public sphere" in France and elsewhere
Anne of Austria
Anne of Austria, a Spanish princess of the House of Habsburg, was queen of France as the wife of Louis XIII, regent of France during the minority of her son, Louis XIV, from 1643 to 1651. During her regency, Cardinal Mazarin served as France's chief minister. Accounts of French court life of her era emphasize her difficult marital relations with her husband, her closeness to her son Louis XIV, her disapproval of her son's marital infidelity to her niece and daughter-in-law Maria Theresa. Born at the Palace of the Counts of Benavente in Valladolid and baptised Ana María Mauricia, she was the eldest daughter of King Philip III of Spain and his wife Margaret of Austria, she held the titles of of Portugal and Archduchess of Austria. Despite her Spanish birth, she was referred to as Anne of Austria because the rulers of Spain belonged to the senior branch of the House of Austria, known as the House of Habsburg; this designation was uncommon before the 19th century. Anne was raised at the Royal Alcazar of Madrid.
Unusual for a royal princess, Anne grew up close to her parents, who were religious. She was raised to be religious too, was taken to visit monasteries during her childhood. In 1611, she lost her mother. Despite her grief, Anne did her best to take care of her younger siblings, who referred to her with affection as their mother. At age eleven, Anne was betrothed to King Louis XIII of France, her father gave her a dowry of many beautiful jewels. For fear that Louis XIII would die early, the Spanish court stipulated that she would return to Spain with her dowry and wardrobe if he did die. Prior to the marriage, Anne renounced all succession rights she had for herself and her descendants by Louis, with a provision that she would resume her rights should she be left a childless widow. On 24 November 1615, Louis and Anne were married by proxy in Burgos while Louis's sister, Elisabeth of France, Anne's brother, Philip IV of Spain, were married by proxy in Bordeaux; these marriages followed the tradition of cementing military and political alliances between France and Spain that began with the marriage of Philip II of Spain to Elisabeth of Valois in 1559 as part of the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis.
Anne and Elisabeth were exchanged on the Isle of Pheasants between Fuenterrabía. She was beautiful during her youth, she was a noted equestrian, a taste her son, would inherit. At the time, Anne had many admirers, including the handsome Duke of Buckingham, although her intimates believed their flirtations remained chaste. Anne and Louis, both fourteen years old, were pressured to consummate their marriage in order to forestall any possibility of future annulment, but Louis ignored his bride. Louis's mother, Marie de' Medici, continued to conduct herself as queen of France, without showing any deference to her daughter-in-law. Anne, surrounded by her entourage of high-born Spanish ladies-in-waiting headed by Inés de la Torre, continued to live according to Spanish etiquette and failed to improve her French. In 1617, Louis conspired with Charles d'Albert, Duke of Luynes, to dispense with the influence of his mother in a palace coup d'état and had her favorite Concino Concini assassinated on 26 April of that year.
During the years he was in the ascendancy, the Duke of Luynes attempted to remedy the formal distance between Louis and his queen. He sent away Inés de la Torre and the other Spanish ladies and replaced them with French ones, notably the Princesse of Conti and his wife Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, with whom he organized court events that would bring the couple together under amiable circumstances. Anne began to dress in the French manner, in 1619 Luynes pressed the king to bed his queen; some affection developed, to the point where it was noted that Louis was distracted during a serious illness of the queen. A series of stillbirths served to chill their relations. On 14 March 1622, while playing with her ladies, Anne fell on a staircase and suffered her second stillbirth. Louis blamed her for the incident and was angry with the Duchess of Luynes for having encouraged the queen in what was seen as negligence. Henceforth, the king had less tolerance for the influence that the duchess had over Anne, the situation deteriorated after the death of her husband Luynes in December 1621.
The king's attention was monopolized by his war against the Protestants, while the queen defended the remarriage of her inseparable companion Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, center of all court intrigue, to her lover Claude, Duke of Chevreuse, in 1622. Louis turned now to Cardinal Richelieu as his advisor, who served as his first minister from 1624 until his death in 1642. Richelieu's foreign policy of struggle against the Habsburgs, who surrounded France on two fronts created tension between Louis and Anne, who remained childless for another sixteen years. Under the influence of Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, the queen let herself be drawn into political opposition to Richelieu and became embroiled in several intrigues against his policies. Vague rumors of betrayal circulated in the court, notably her supposed involvement, with the conspiracies of the Count of Chalais that Marie organized in 1626, those of the king's treacherous favorite, Cinq-Mars, introduced to him by Richelieu. In 1626, the Cardinal placed Madeleine du Fargis as Dame d'atour in the household of the queen to act as a spy, but she was instead to become a trusted confidant and favorite of the queen.
In December 1630, Louis XIII reduced Anne's court and purged a great amount of
The Annunciation referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox celebration of the announcement by the Archangel Gabriel to the Blessed Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking His Incarnation. Gabriel told Mary to name her son Yeshua, meaning "YHWH is salvation". According to Luke 1:26, the Annunciation occurred "in the sixth month" of Elizabeth's pregnancy with John the Baptist. Many Christians observe this event with the Feast of the Annunciation on 25 March, an approximation of the northern vernal equinox nine full months before Christmas, the ceremonial birthday of Jesus; the Annunciation is a key topic in Christian art in general, as well as in Marian art in the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. A work of art depicting the Annunciation is sometimes itself called an Annunciation. In the Bible, the Annunciation is narrated in Luke 1:26–38: 26 In the sixth month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy, God sent the angel Gabriel to Nazareth, a town in Galilee, 27 to a virgin pledged to be married to a man named Joseph, a descendant of David.
The virgin’s name was Mary. 28 The angel went to her and said, “Greetings, you who are favored! The Lord is with you.” 29 Mary was troubled at his words and wondered what kind of greeting this might be. 30 But the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary. 31 You will conceive and give birth to a son, you are to call him Jesus. 32 He will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father David, 33 and he will reign over Jacob’s descendants forever. 34 “How will this be,” Mary asked the angel, “since I am a virgin?” 35 The angel answered, “The Holy Spirit will come on you, the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God. 36 Even Elizabeth your relative is going to have a child in her old age, she, said to be unable to conceive is in her sixth month. 37 For no word from God will fail.” 38 “I am the Lord’s servant,” Mary answered. “May your word to me be fulfilled.” The angel left her. A separate, briefer annunciation is given to Joseph in Matthew 1:18–22: 18 This is how the birth of Jesus the Messiah came about: His mother Mary was pledged to be married to Joseph, but before they came together, she was found to be pregnant through the Holy Spirit.
19 Because Joseph her husband was faithful to the law, yet did not want to expose her to public disgrace, he had in mind to divorce her quietly. 20 But after he had considered this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, “Joseph son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary home as your wife, because what is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. 21 She will give birth to a son, you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins.” 22 All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: 23 “The virgin will conceive and give birth to a son, they will call him Immanuel”. Manuscript 4Q246 of the Dead Sea Scrolls reads: shall be great upon the earth. O king, all people shall make peace, all shall serve him, he shall be called the son of the Great God, by his name shall he be hailed as the Son of God, they shall call him Son of the Most High. It has been suggested that the similarity in content is such that Luke's version may in some way be dependent on the Qumran text.
The Annunciation is described in the Quran, in Sura 003:045 verses 45–51: 45 Behold! the angels said: "O Mary! Allah giveth thee glad tidings of a Word from Him: his name will be Christ Jesus, the son of Mary, held in honour in this world and the Hereafter and of those nearest to Allah. In the Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Catholic, Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Feast of the Annunciation is one of the twelve "Great Feasts" of the liturgical year, is among the eight of them that are counted as "feasts of the Lord". Throughout the Orthodox Church, the feast is celebrated on March 25. In the churches that use the new style Calendar, this date coincides with March 25 on the civil calendar, while in those churches using the old style Julian calendar, March 25 is reckoned to fall on April 7 on the civil calendar, will fall on April 8 starting in the year 2100; the traditional hymn for the feast of the Annunciation goes back to St Athanasius. It runs: As the action initiating the Incarnation of Christ, Annunciation has such an important place in Orthodox Christian theology that the festal Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom is always celebrated on the feast if it falls on Great and Holy Friday, the day when the crucifixion of Jesus is remembered.
Indeed, the Divine Liturgy is celebrated on Great and Holy Friday only when the latter coincides with the feast of the Annunciation. If the Annunciation falls on Pascha itself, a coincidence, called Kyriopascha it is celebrated jointly with the Resurrection, the focus of Easter. Due to these and similar rules, the rubrics surrounding the celebration of the feast are the most complex of all in Orthodox Christian liturgics. St Ephraim taught that the date of the conception of Jesus Christ fell on 10 Nisan on the Hebrew calendar, the day in which the passover lamb was selected according to Exodus 12; some years 10 Nisan falls on March 25, the traditional date for the Feast of the Annunciation and is an offi
Boulevards of Paris
Boulevards of Paris are boulevards which form an important part of the urban landscape of Paris. The boulevards were constructed in several phases by central government initiative as infrastructure improvements, but are much associated with strolling and leisurely enjoyment in the minds of Parisians. Parisian boulevards and avenues are tree-lined on one or both sides, the case for smaller roads; the Grands Boulevards are essentially'the best' of the Parisian boulevards. They correspond to the Nouveau Cours built between 1668 and 1705 in place of the dismantled Louis XIII wall; the boulevards of Louis XIV were conceived by Pierre Bullet to link the Porte Saint-Antoine to the Porte Saint-Honoré. Which are classed amongst the Grands Boulevards is somewhat unclear. Many Parisians would automatically include Boulevard Haussmann amongst them, as the large department stores draw promenaders in the "boulevardier spirit"; however speaking, "les Grands Boulevards" would only include the Boulevard Beaumarchais, Filles-du-Calvaire, Saint-Martin, Saint-Denis, Bonne-Nouvelle, Poissonnière, Italiens and the Madeleine boulevards.
Parisians made the boulevards into promenades which have remained popular through the ages and changes in the city. They were the setting for Maupassant's Bel Ami; the opening of other trunk roads, namely Boulevard Richard-Lenoir, Boulevard Haussmann, Avenue de la République, has somewhat reduced the visibility of the Grand Boulevards and the Louis XIII wall in the Paris topography. The idea of the boulevard as a centre for leisure asserted itself during the 18th century, when numerous théâtres de la foire set up near the Porte Saint-Martin; the boulevard du Temple became affectionately known as "boulevard du Crime" during Bourbon Restoration, an allusion to the criminal acts portrayed there by stage actors. According to the Almanach des Spectacles, "Tautin was stabbed 16,302 times, Marti poisoned 11,000 times, Fresnoy set on fire 27,000 times in countless ways... Mademoiselle Adèle Dupuis was seduced, kidnapped or drowned 75,000 times". Although the "boulevard du Crime" fell victim to Haussmann's transformation, the boulevardier spirit lives on in « théâtre de boulevard ».
From 1784 to 1791, Ledoux built the Wall of the Farmers-General, with boulevards running along its exterior. This wall built to collect the octroi, a tax on goods entering the city, hated by Parisians, it was demolished between 1789 and 1860. Although it was completely razed by Haussman in 1860 as part of his transformation of Paris, some parts remain; the surviving boulevards were subject to urban planners' failed attempts in the 1950s to transform them into urban freeways. Haussmann's renovation of Paris brought the boulevard to the heart of Paris, whereas they had hitherto been limited to uninhabited or sparsely inhabited zones. Le boulevard, whose initial function was to go around the capital, became structural urban thoroughfares; the boulevards from Haussmann and before now define Paris, with uniform façades and overhanging balconies stretching along them. These are recognisable, are under the strict control of Paris' urban planners; the demolition of the Thiers wall during the 1920s allowed for the creation of a third ring of boulevards surrounding the city.
These boulevards were named after the Marshals of the Empire, and, in consequence, they are called the Boulevards des Maréchaux. They run just inside the city limits. In addition, the Boulevard périphérique, the beltway surrounding Paris, was built on the site of the ruins of the Thiers wall, a short distance'outboard' from the boulevards of the marshals. However, it is more like a motorway than a boulevard. Paris Tramway Line 3 has been running along the Boulevards des Maréchaux since December 2006. Notes Further readingChadych, Danielle. Atlas de Paris. Parigramme. ISBN 2-84096-249-7. Media related to Boulevards in Paris at Wikimedia Commons