Notre-Dame de Paris, referred to as Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the 4th arrondissement of Paris. The cathedral was consecrated to the Virgin Mary and considered to be one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture, its pioneering use of the rib vault and flying buttress, its enormous and colourful rose windows, as well as the naturalism and abundance of its sculptural decoration set it apart from the earlier Romanesque style. Major components that make Notre Dame stand out include one of the world's largest organs and its immense church bells; the cathedral's construction began in 1160 under Bishop Maurice de Sully and was complete by 1260, though it was modified in the following centuries. In the 1790s, Notre-Dame suffered desecration during the French Revolution. In the 19th century, the cathedral was the site of the coronation of Napoleon I and funerals of many Presidents of the Republic. Popular interest in the cathedral blossomed soon after the publication, in 1831, of Victor Hugo's novel Notre-Dame de Paris.
This led to a major restoration project between 1864, supervised by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. The liberation of Paris was celebrated within Notre-Dame in 1944 with the singing of the Magnificat. Beginning in 1963, the cathedral's façade was cleaned of centuries of grime. Another cleaning and restoration project was carried out between 1991 and 2000; the cathedral is one of the most recognized symbols of the city of Paris and the French nation. As the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Paris, Notre-Dame contains the cathedra of the Archbishop of Paris. In 1805, Notre-Dame was given the honorary status of a minor basilica. 12 million people visit Notre-Dame annually, making it the most visited monument in Paris. The cathedral was renowned for its Lent sermons, founded by the Dominican Jean-Baptiste Henri Lacordaire in the 1830s. In recent years, an increasing number have been given by leading public figures and state-employed academics; the cathedral has been progressively stripped of works of art. Several noteworthy examples of Gothic, 19th-century sculptures and a group of 17th- and early 18th-century altarpieces remain in the cathedral's collection.
Some of the most important relics in Christendom, including the Crown of Thorns, a sliver of the true cross and a nail from the true cross, are preserved at Notre-Dame. While undergoing renovation and restoration, the roof of Notre-Dame caught fire on the evening of 15 April 2019. Burning for around 15 hours, the cathedral sustained serious damage, including the destruction of the flèche and most of the lead-covered wooden roof above the stone vaulted ceiling. Contamination of the site and the nearby environment resulted. Following the April fire, many proposals were made for modernizing the cathedral's design. However, on 16 July 2019, the French Parliament passed a law requiring that it be rebuilt as it appeared before the fire. Stabilising the structure against possible collapse is expected to continue until the end of 2020, with reconstruction beginning in 2021; the government of France hopes the reconstruction can be completed by Spring 2024, in time for the opening of the 2024 Summer Olympics in Paris.
It is believed that before the arrival of Christianity in France, a Gallo-Roman temple dedicated to Jupiter stood on the site of Notre-Dame. Evidence for this is the Pillar of the Boatmen, discovered in 1710; this building was replaced with an Early Christian basilica. It is unknown whether this church, dedicated to Saint Stephen, was constructed in the late 4th century and remodeled or if it was built in the 7th century from an older church the cathedral of Childebert I; the basilica cathedral, of Saint-Étienne was situated about 40 meters west of Notre-Dame's location and was wider and lower and half its size. For its time, it was large—70 meters long—and separated into nave and four aisles by marble columns decorated with mosaics. Four churches succeeded the Roman temple before Notre-Dame; the first was the 4th century basilica of Saint-Étienne the Merovingian renovation of that church, in turn remodeled in 857 under the Carolingians into a cathedral. The last church before the cathedral of Notre-Dame was a Romanesque remodeling of the prior structures that, although enlarged and remodeled, was found to be unfit for the growing population of Paris.
A baptistery, the Church of John the Baptist, built before 452, was located on the north side of the church of Saint-Étienne until the work of Jacques-Germain Soufflot in the 18th century. In 1160, the Bishop of Paris, Maurice de Sully, decided to build a much larger church, he summarily chose to recycle its materials. Sully decided that the new church should be built in the Gothic style, inaugurated at the royal abbey of Saint Denis in the late 1130s; the chronicler Jean de Saint-Victor recorded in the Memorial Historiarum that the construction of Notre-Dame began between 24 March and 25 April 1163 with the laying of the cornerstone in the presence of King Louis VII and Pope Alexander III. Four phases of construction took place under bishops Maurice de Sully and Eudes de Sully, according to masters whose names have been lost; the first phase began with the construction of its two ambulatories. According to Robert of Torigni, the choir was completed in 1177 and the high altar consecrated on 19 May 1182 by Cardinal Henri
Edward Abraham "Bozo" Miller was an American restaurant owner, Gastronomical Champion of competitive eating, a Guinness World Record holder. The Guinness Book of World Records named Miller as the "world's greatest trencherman" before the eating records section of that publication was excised in 1990; the 1981 edition of Guinness claimed that Miller had been undefeated in eating contests since 1931, resulting in a fifty-year winning streak. Despite a diet consisting of up to 25,000 calories a day - reflected in his former 5' 7½", 280-300 pound physique - Miller lived to the age of 89. Miller had by retired from competitive eating and weighed less than he did during his heyday. Miller believed he received his nickname when his father, who travelled the country with Bozo's mother in a vaudeville show, was performing as a clown, he married a former Princess of the Pasadena Rose Bowl. She died on March 28, 2001 after many years of illness and invalidity stemming from a brain haemorrhage and through which Miller cared for her."Bozo" and wife Janice had three daughters together: Virginia "Cooky" Logan, Candice Blackman, Janice "Honey" Miller who died in a car crash in the 1970s.
The death of his daughter led to Miller's retirement from professional eating."Bozo" Miller worked as a restaurateur and as a liquor distributor. His drinking ability was as impressive as his gastronomic feats, he once drank a lion under the table. Miller was an avid horse racing fan and witnessed many of the major races of the racehorse Seabiscuit. Miller died on January 2008, having struggled with diabetes and heart disease in his final years. Early obituaries gave his age as 99 and his year of birth as 1908, but according to obituaries in the Wall Street Journal, the Washington Post, The Daily Telegraph, the Philadelphia Inquirer, Miller was born in 1918 and, according to the Wall Street Journal obituary, habitually exaggerated his age. 27 two-pound chickens — Trader Vic's, San Francisco, 1963 324 ravioli — Rendezvous Room, Oakland, 1963 63 Dutch apple pies in an hour, 1961 1000 packets of potato chips Stumes, Larry. "A Charmed Life at the Races / GGF fixture Miller has had quite a ride". San Francisco Chronicle.
Garchik, Leah. "Leah Garchik". San Francisco Chronicle. "Miller, Janice Grace". San Francisco Chronicle. March 31, 2001. Johnson, Chip. "Characters Abound at Opening Day / Golden Gate Fields vets impart trackside wisdom". San Francisco Chronicle. Newhouse, Dave. "Eddie'Bozo' Miller, Guinness record holder, dies at 99". East Bay Times. Carney, Mike. "Champion eater loses battle with diabetes, heart disease". USA Today. Archived from the original on February 2, 2008
"Sul tsin iare" is a song by Oto Nemsadze that represented Georgia at the Eurovision Song Contest 2019 in Tel Aviv. It didn't gain enough votes to progress to the final. In April 2019, the official music video of Sul tsin iare was released; the video, directed by Giorgi Ebralidze, was filmed at a number of locations in Georgia including Maltakva village, Enguri Bridge, Tbilisi, featured singers of the ensemble Shavnabada. The song was selected to represent Georgia in the Eurovision Song Contest 2019 after Oto Nemsadze won Georgian Idol, used as the Georgian national selection that chose Georgia's entry for the Eurovision Song Contest. On 28 January 2019, a special allocation draw was held which placed each country into one of the two semi-finals, as well as which half of the show they would perform in. Georgia was placed into the first semi-final, to be held on 14 May 2019, was scheduled to perform in the second half of the show. Once all the competing songs for the 2019 contest had been released, the running order for the semi-finals was decided by the shows' producers rather than through another draw, so that similar songs were not placed next to each other.
Georgia was set to perform in position 11. However, the song failed to qualify for the grand final