Ava Alice Muriel Astor
Ava Alice Muriel Astor was an American heiress and member of the Astor family. She was the daughter of John Jacob Astor IV and Ava Lowle Willing, sister of Vincent Astor and half-sister of John Jacob Astor VI. Ava was born on July 1902, in Manhattan, New York, she was the only daughter of Ava Lowle Willing. Her paternal grandparents were real estate businessman and race horse breeder/owner William Backhouse Astor, Jr. and socialite Caroline Webster "Lina" Schermerhorn, while her maternal grandparents were businessman Edward Shippen Willing and socialite Alice Bell Barton. In September 1911, Ava and her mother moved to England, they lived in her townhouse on Grosvenor Square in Mayfair and her country estate, Sutton Place in Guildford and she was educated at Notting Hill High School. On July 24, 1924, Ava Astor married Prince Sergei Platonovich "Serge" Obolensky, son of General Platon Sergeyevich Obolensky and Maria Konstantinovna Naryshkina, at Savoy Chapel in London; the marriage was considered the event of the season in England that year.
Her brother Vincent gave her a Palladian Revival stone residence on his estate near Rhinebeck, New York. The house was north of his own "Ferncliff Casino" and overlooked the Hudson River. Ava retained it through her life. Before divorcing Serge in 1932, they had two children: Prince Ivan Sergeyevich Obolensky Princess Sylvia Sergeyevna Obolensky, who first married Jean-Louis Ganshof van der Meersch in 1950. After their divorce in 1957 without issue, she in 1957 she married Prince Azamat Kadir Guirey, with whom she had children before divorcing in 1963. On January 21, 1933, she married Raimund von Hofmannsthal, son of Gertrud Schlesinger and Hugo von Hofmannsthal, an Austrian novelist and dramatist; the couple was married in the city court of New Jersey. Together, the couple had a daughter: Romana von Hofmannsthal, who married Roderick McEwen, son of Sir John McEwen, 1st Baronet. From 1936–1937, she had an affair with English choreographer Sir Frederick Ashton, despite the fact that he was gay.
After the affair ended, her love for him continued, though she had two subsequent marriages, both to gay Englishmen. Ava and Raimund divorced in 1939, Raimund married Lady Elizabeth Paget. On March 27, 1940, she married a journalist, in Faversham, England. At the time of their wedding, Harding, a cousin of Maxwell Eley, was serving with an anti-aircraft battery in the British Army. Before their divorce in 1945, they had one daughter: Emily Edwina Harding On May 12, 1946, she had her fourth and final marriage to David Pleydell-Bouverie, the grandson of William Pleydell-Bouverie, 5th Earl of Radnor, in Reading, Vermont. Pleydell-Bouverie was an architect; the couple resided in New York City and Glen Ellen, before divorcing in 1952. Astor died of a stroke in her East Sixty-First Street apartment, New York City, on July 19, 1956 at age 54, she predeceased her mother by two years. She was a patron of the arts, including the ballet companies of New York City, her will was admitted to probate on November 1956, in Manhattan Surrogate Court.
Her assets, totaling $5,305,000, were divided among her four children. At her mother's death in 1958, her children received an additional $2,500,000 Miss Ava Alice Muriel Astor Princess Sergei Platonovich Obolensky Princess Alice Obolensky Mrs. Raimund von Hofmannsthal Mrs. Alice Astor von Hofmannsthal Mrs. Philip John Ryves Harding Mrs. Alice Astor Harding Mrs. David Pleydell-Bouverie Mrs. Alice Astor Pleydell-Bouverie
Abigail Helen Fry is an English violist. She plays with various acts including British Sea Power, Bat for Lashes, The Flowers of Hell, Sad Season and Euchrid Eucrow. Fry resides in the Scottish Highlands and Brighton. In 2007 Fry toured extensively with Bat for Lashes including the United States. On 4 September 2007 she played with the band at the Mercury Prize finals in London. Bat for Lashes was pipped at the post by Klaxons. Fry's last concert with Bat for Lashes was on 29 October 2007 at Koko in London - since she has become a permanent member of British Sea Power. From February to May 2008, while touring with British Sea Power in North America, she joined sometime opening act Jeffrey Lewis on stage - adding viola arrangements to his acoustic guitar-based performances. In 2011 Fry performed live with Pulp at a festival in Poland, as a temporary replacement for Russell Senior, absent due to his fear of flying. Fry plays violin on the album Awoken Broken by Primal Rock Rebellion. Bat For Lashes Official site British Sea Power Official site
Dame Harriette Chick, was a British microbiologist, protein scientist and nutritionist. She is best remembered for demonstrating the roles of sunlight and cod liver oil in preventing rickets, she was born into a Methodist family, the sixth child of twelve and one of seven daughters who survived beyond infancy. Her father, Samuel Chick, sold lace; the Chick children were brought up with no frivolities and regular attendance at family prayers. All seven girls attended Notting Hill High School, a girls' school thought to be outstanding for its teaching in the sciences. Subsequently, six of the sisters including Harriette continued to study for university degrees. Another of them, became a notable statistician. While studying at University College London, Chick won awards for botany- the advanced-class prize in 1894–1895 and the senior-class Gold Medal in 1896. During the years 1898–1901 an award from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 enabled her to undertake research with Prof Max von Gruber in the Institute for Hygiene in Vienna and with Prof Rubert Boyce in University College, Liverpool.
In 1902 she was appointed as assistant to Dr AC Houston, Chief Bacteriologist to the Royal Commission on Sewage Disposal. In 1903 she returned to work with Gruber after his move to Munich in 1902. In 1904 she was awarded a DSc from London University for her work on green algae in polluted waters. In 1905 at the suggestion of Charles Scott Sherrington she applied for the Jenner Memorial Research Studentship at the Lister Institute, her application raised a number of objections as no woman had been bestowed the fellowship previously. Her relationship with the Lister was long. Employed until 1945 with the institute, she was an honorary staff member thereafter for 25 years. Chick and Lister Institute director Charles James Martin discovered that the process of protein denaturation was distinct from protein coagulation, beginning the modern understanding of protein folding, she is known for having formulated Chick's Law in 1908, giving the relationship between the kill efficiency of organisms and contact time with a disinfectant.
Chick's Law was modified by Dr. H. E. Watson in 1908 to include the coefficient of specific lethality; the Chick-Watson Equation is still used. A new and, at the time, more realistic test for the effectiveness of disinfectants, the Chick-Martin test, was devised and named for the two collaborators. In 1909 Chick was a cosignatory to a letter to The Times newspaper from a group of women graduates of the University of London calling for them to be allowed to vote for the Member of Parliament returned by their university. In 1913 she was one of the first three women to be admitted to the Biochemical Society following its renaming and change of policy on the admission of women. In 1915, she went to the Lister Institute in Elstree to test and bottle tetanus antitoxin for the army, she returned to the Chelsea building, however, to prepare agglutinating sera for diagnosis of typhoid and related diseases in troops. Subsequently, she commenced studies on rectifying nutritional deficiencies in the wartime diets of both the native population and overseas forces.
This involved surveys of the ability of various foodstuffs to counter scurvy and beriberi. In 1919, together with Dr. Elsie Dalyell, she led a team, including Margaret Hume and Hannah Henderson Smith, from the Lister Institute and the Medical Research Council to study the relation of nutrition to childhood bone disease in post-war Vienna, they discovered the nutritional factor causing rickets, proved that fat-soluble vitamins present in cod liver oil, or exposure to ultra violet light, could cure and prevent rickets in children. Chick was appointed Head of a new nutrition section at the Lister Institute and continued with her research on rickets and, pellagra; the department was relocated to the Cambridge house of the Lister director CJ Martin during the Second World War. She served as secretary of the League of Nations health section committee on the physiological bases of nutrition from 1934 to 1937. In 1941 she was a founding member of the Nutrition Society, of which she served as president from 1956 to 1959.
She was appointed CBE in 1932 and subsequently DBE in 1949. In 1960 she received an honorary fellowship of the Royal Society of Medicine. In 1918 she was elected to the Physiological Society, she served as Secretary of the Accessory Food Factors Committee of the Medical Research Council from 1918–1945. She acted as Secretary of the League of Nations Health Section Committee on the Physiological Bases of Nutrition from 1934–1937. Dr. Chick was a founding member of the Nutrition Society in 1941, she was president of the Nutrition Society from 1956–1959. In 1949 she became Dame of the British Empire. <http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/diglib/sc_diglib/archColl/14.htmlf> She never married and died in 1977, aged 102
The viola is a string instrument, bowed or played with varying techniques. It is larger than a violin and has a lower and deeper sound. Since the 18th century, it has been the middle or alto voice of the violin family, between the violin and the cello; the strings from low to high are tuned to C3, G3, D4, A4. In the past, the viola varied in style, as did its names; the word viola originates from Italian. The Italians used the term: "viola da braccio" meaning literally:'of the arm'. "Brazzo" was another Italian word for the viola. The French had their own names: cinquiesme was a small viola, haute contre was a large viola, taile was a tenor. Today, the French use the term alto, a reference to its range; the viola was popular in the heyday of five-part harmony, up until the eighteenth century, taking three lines of the harmony and playing the melody line. Music for the viola differs from most other instruments in that it uses the alto clef; when viola music has substantial sections in a higher register, it switches to the treble clef to make it easier to read.
The viola plays the "inner voices" in string quartets and symphonic writing, it is more than the first violin to play accompaniment parts. The viola plays a major, soloistic role in orchestral music. Examples include the symphonic poem Don Quixote by Richard Strauss and the symphony Harold en Italie by Hector Berlioz. In the earlier part of the 20th century, more composers began to write for the viola, encouraged by the emergence of specialized soloists such as Lionel Tertis and William Primrose. English composers Arthur Bliss, York Bowen, Benjamin Dale, Frank Bridge, Benjamin Britten and Ralph Vaughan Williams all wrote substantial chamber and concert works. Many of these pieces were written for Lionel Tertis. William Walton, Bohuslav Martinů, Toru Takemitsu, Tibor Serly, Alfred Schnittke, Béla Bartók have written well-known viola concertos. Paul Hindemith, a violist, wrote a substantial amount of music for viola, including the concerto Der Schwanendreher; the concerti by Paul Hindemith, Béla Bartók, William Walton are considered the "big three" of viola repertoire.
The viola is similar in construction to the violin. A full-size viola's body is between 25 mm and 100 mm longer than the body of a full-size violin, with an average length of 41 cm. Small violas made for children start at 30 cm, equivalent to a half-size violin. For a child who needs a smaller size, a fractional-sized violin is strung with the strings of a viola. Unlike the violin, the viola does not have a standard full size; the body of a viola would need to measure about 51 cm long to match the acoustics of a violin, making it impractical to play in the same manner as the violin. For centuries, viola makers have experimented with the size and shape of the viola adjusting proportions or shape to make a lighter instrument with shorter string lengths, but with a large enough sound box to retain the viola sound. Prior to the eighteenth century, violas had no uniform size. Large violas were designed to play the lower register viola lines or second viola in five part harmony depending on instrumentation.
A smaller viola, nearer the size of the violin, was called an alto viola. It was more suited to higher register writing, as in the viola 1 parts, as their sound was richer in the upper register, its size was not as conducive to a full tone in the lower register. Several experiments have intended to increase the size of the viola to improve its sound. Hermann Ritter's viola alta, which measured about 48 cm, was intended for use in Wagner's operas; the Tertis model viola, which has wider bouts and deeper ribs to promote a better tone, is another "nonstandard" shape that allows the player to use a larger instrument. Many experiments with the acoustics of a viola increasing the size of the body, have resulted in a much deeper tone, making it resemble the tone of a cello. Since many composers wrote for a traditional-sized viola in orchestral music, changes in the tone of a viola can have unintended consequences upon the balance in ensembles. One of the most notable makers of violas of the twentieth century was Englishman A. E. Smith, whose violas are sought after and valued.
Many of his violas remain in Australia, his country of residence, where during some decades the violists of the Sydney Symphony Orchestra had a dozen of them in their section. More recent innovations have addressed the ergonomic problems associated with playing the viola by making it shorter and lighter, while finding ways to keep the traditional sound; these include the Otto Erdesz "cutaway" viola, which has one shoulder cut out to make shifting easier. Other experiments that deal with the "ergonomics vs. sound" problem have appeared. The American composer Harry Partch fitted a viola with a cello neck to allow the use of his 43-tone scale. Luthiers have created five-stringed violas, which allow a greater playing range. A person who plays the viola is called a violist or a viola
Frances Hermia Durham
Frances Hermia Durham was a noted British civil servant, the first woman to reach the rank of assistant secretary, responsible for organisation of women's services in the army and agriculture during World War I, for which she was awarded a CBE. Hermia Durham was born in Pagham, Sussex in 1873, the youngest of nine children of the noted surgeon Arthur Edward Durham, she was educated at Notting Hill High School and Girton College, where she studied history from 1892-1896. She worked as a historical researcher from 1897-1900. In 1899 she was awarded the Alexander medal by the Royal Historical Society for her essay entitled'The Relations of the Crown to Trade under James I.' In 1902 she wrote Volume 3 of the series'English History Illustrated from Original Sources' covering the period from 1399-1485. From 1900 to 1907 she was co-founder of and served as honorary secretary of the Registry and Apprenticeship Committee of the Women's University Settlement in Southwark. From 1907 to 1915 she worked as an organizer and inspector for technical classes for women and trade schools under the London County Council Education Committee, was on the Board of Education consultative committee from 1908-1913.
There she was described as a woman of enthusiasm and organising ability, she developed the trade schools for girls to a high technical standard and took a major role in the successful reconstruction of evening institutes. In view of her expertise in job placement and technical training she was approached by the Board of Trade in 1915 to lead its wartime programme for substituting women's for men's labour. In 1916 she was appointed as chief woman inspector of the Labour Exchanges and Unemployment Insurance Department of the Board of Trade, transferred in 1917 to the Ministry of Labour, she was concerned with the recruitment of women for a wide range of activities, including the women's branches of the armed services, munitions work, agricultural labour and clerical work in government departments; the Times accredited her as being, during the war,‘largely responsible for directing women's services in the Army, on munitions, on the land.' For this work for the war effort she was awarded the CBE by George V in 1918.
She was a strong believer in women's abilities and spent much energy and time attempting to secure a larger place for women in the work force in general and the Civil Service in particular. At the end of World War I she was put in charge of the Women's Training Department of the Ministry of Labour. In 1923 she was promoted to the post of assistant secretary, the first woman in the Civil Service to rise so high, she was put in charge of the Juvenile Employment Section. In this role she established close contacts with industry and business and so could promote practical schemes for fostering the employment of young people, she retired from the Civil Service in 1933 and devoted her time to gardening and needlework as well as sitting as a co-opted member of the Education Committee of the Devon County Council until 1939. She died in 1948
Astra Desmond CBE was a British contralto of the early and middle twentieth century. Astra Desmond was born Gwendoline Mary Thompson, in Torquay, the daughter of George Thomson, a Melbourne-born Australian dentist, Viva Louisa, a London-born British schoolteacher and suffragist. Prior to Desmond's birth the family had lived in Australia, her two older siblings Mabel and Claude being born in Melbourne. During Desmond's childhood the family moved first to Upper Norwood and to West Kensington, both in what is now the Greater London Area, she was educated at Notting Hill High School and Westfield College, where she was a classical scholar and received a BA. She studied singing with Blanche Marchesi and Louise Trenton, in Berlin with Ernst Grezebach and Coenraad V. Bos. Desmond's career was in concert and recital, but she made some operatic appearances. A 1916 review of the Carl Rosa Opera Company described her as a new singer of great promise. At Sadler's Wells she sang Delilah and Carmen and at Covent Garden and Fricka.
In recital, Desmond was noted for her performances of songs by Edvard Grieg about which she wrote a 25-page article in Music and Letters in 1941, reprinted in Grieg. A Symposium, ed. Gerald Abraham, she made a number of singing translations of Grieg's songs, published by Augener. For her work in this field she was awarded the Order of St. Olav by the Norwegian government, her interpretation of Jean Sibelius's songs was admired. On 5 October 1938 Desmond was one of the original 16 singers in Ralph Vaughan Williams's Serenade to Music, the recording of which, made at EMI's Abbey Road studio shortly thereafter, has been transferred to compact disc by several companies. Earlier, in 1932, Vaughan Williams had dedicated to her his Magnificat (for contralto solo, women's choir, solo flute and orchestra; as well as the regular standard concert works including Sir Elgar's The Dream of Gerontius and Handel's Messiah, Desmond sang a wide repertoire, taking part in the first broadcast performance of Stravinsky's Oedipus rex in 1928 and a rare performance of Mahler's Das Lied von der Erde, with Peter Pears, the London Philharmonic Orchestra and Sir Adrian Boult in 1942, she was the first to introduce the songs of Yrjö Kilpinen to British audiences.
Desmond made few commercial recordings: they include the first recording of Serenade to Music, under the baton of Henry Wood, a series of recordings for Decca of songs by Purcell and Grieg. There exist several'off-air' recordings of Desmond; these include substantial excerpts of her "calm and serene" interpretation of the Angel in The Dream of Gerontius, a performance of Serenade to Music in the Royal Festival Hall, 1951, under the composer. Like many singers Desmond took up teaching in her career from 1947 to 1963, but wrote educational books on music, including one for the BBC Music Guides on Schumann's Lieder, still in print. Desmond succeeded Liza Lehmann, Cécile Chaminade, Fanny Davies, Rosa Newmarch and Myra Hess as president of the Society of Women Musicians in the UK, president of the Incorporated Society of Musicians. In 1920, Desmond married son of Frederick and Kathleen Neame of Faversham, Kent, they had three sons – Basil and Christopher. She was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1949.
Desmond died 16 August 1973 at the age of eighty in Kent. Her widower died less than two weeks on 28 August 1973. Brook, D: Singers of Today, 64–69. Desmond, Astra: Schumann Songs, BBC Music Guide, ISBN 0-563-20556-3
Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'. Fellowship of the Society, the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence, is a significant honour, awarded to many eminent scientists from history including Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday, Ernest Rutherford, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Dorothy Hodgkin, Alan Turing and Francis Crick. More fellowship has been awarded to Stephen Hawking, Tim Hunt, Elizabeth Blackburn, Tim Berners-Lee, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Atta-ur Rahman, Andre Geim, James Dyson, Ajay Kumar Sood, Subhash Khot, Elon Musk and around 8,000 others in total, including over 280 Nobel Laureates since 1900; as of October 2018, there are 1689 living Fellows and Honorary Members, of which over 60 are Nobel Laureates.
Fellowship of the Royal Society has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar” with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year. Up to 60 new Fellows and foreign members are elected annually in late April or early May, from a pool of around 700 proposed candidates each year. New Fellows can only be nominated by existing Fellows for one of the fellowships described below: Every year, up to 52 new Fellows are elected from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations which make up around 90% of the society; each candidate is considered on their merits and can be proposed from any sector of the scientific community. Fellows are elected for life on the basis of excellence in science and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS. See Category:Fellows of the Royal Society and Category:Female Fellows of the Royal Society; every year, Fellows elect up to ten new Foreign Members. Like Fellows, Foreign Members are elected for life through peer review on the basis of excellence in science.
As of 2016 there are around 165 Foreign Members, who are entitled to use the post-nominal ForMemRS. See Category:Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Honorary Fellowship is an honorary academic title awarded to candidates who have given distinguished service to the cause of science, but do not have the kind of scientific achievements required of Fellows or Foreign Members. Honorary Fellows include Bill Bryson, Melvyn Bragg, Robin Saxby, David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville and Onora O'Neill. Honorary Fellows are entitled to use the post nominal letters FRS. Others including John Maddox, Patrick Moore and Lisa Jardine were elected as honorary fellows, see Category:Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society. Statute 12 is a legacy mechanism for electing members before official honorary membership existed in 1997. Fellows elected under statute 12 include 4th Earl of Selborne. Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom such as Margaret Thatcher, Neville Chamberlain,Ramsay Macdonald and H. H. Asquith were elected under statute 12, see Category:Fellows of the Royal Society.
The Council of the Royal Society can recommend members of the British Royal Family for election as Royal Fellows of the Royal Society. As of 2016 there are five royal fellows: Charles, Prince of Wales elected 1978 Anne, Princess Royal elected 1987 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent elected 1990 Prince William, Duke of Cambridge elected 2009 Prince Andrew, Duke of York elected 2013Her Majesty the Queen, Elizabeth II is not a Royal Fellow, but provides her patronage to the Society as all reigning British monarchs have done since Charles II of England. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was elected under statute 12, not as a Royal Fellow; the election of new fellows is announced annually in May, after their nomination and a period of peer-reviewed selection. Each candidate for Fellowship or Foreign Membership is nominated by two Fellows of the Royal Society, who sign a certificate of proposal. Nominations required at least five fellows to support each nomination by the proposer, criticised for establishing an old-boy network and elitist gentlemen's club.
The certificate of election includes a statement of the principal grounds on which the proposal is being made. There is no limit on the number of nominations made each year. In 2015, there were 654 candidates for election as Fellows and 106 candidates for Foreign Membership; the Council of the Royal Society oversees the selection process and appoints 10 subject area committees, known as Sectional Committees, to recommend the strongest candidates for election to Fellowship. The final list of up to 52 Fellowship candidates and up to 10 Foreign Membership candidates is confirmed by the Council in April and a secret ballot of Fellows is held at a meeting in May. A candidate is elected if she secures two-thirds of votes of those Fellows present and voting. A maximum of 18 Fellowships can be allocated to candidates from Physical Sciences and Biological Sciences. A further maximum of 6 can be ‘Honorary’, ‘General’ or ‘Royal’ Fellows. Nominations for Fellowship are peer reviewed by sectional committees, each with 15 members and a chair.
Members of the 10 sectional committees change every 3 years to mitigate in-group bias, each group covers different