Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VI succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia, King of Hungary and Croatia and Archduke of Austria in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain following the death of his relative, Charles II, In 1708 He married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, by whom he had his two children: Maria Theresa, the last Habsburg sovereign, Maria Anna, Governess of the Austrian Netherlands. Four years before the birth of Maria Theresa, faced with his lack of male heirs, Charles provided for a male-line succession failure with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713; the Emperor favoured his own daughters over those of his elder brother and predecessor, Joseph I, in the succession, ignoring the decree he had signed during the reign of his father, Leopold I. Charles sought the other European powers' approval, they exacted harsh terms: Britain demanded that Austria abolish its overseas trading company. In total, Great Britain, Saxony-Poland, the Dutch Republic, Venice, States of the Church, Russia, Savoy-Sardinia and the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire recognised the sanction.
France, Saxony-Poland and Prussia reneged. Charles died in 1740, sparking the War of the Austrian Succession, which plagued his successor, Maria Theresa, for eight years. Archduke Charles, the second son of the Emperor Leopold I and of his third wife, Princess Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg, was born on 1 October 1685, his tutor was Anton Prince of Liechtenstein. Following the death of Charles II of Spain, in 1700, without any direct heir, Charles declared himself King of Spain—both were members of the House of Habsburg; the ensuing War of the Spanish Succession, which pitted France's candidate, Duke of Anjou, Louis XIV of France's grandson, against Austria's Charles, lasted for 14 years. The Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of England, Scotland and the majority of the Holy Roman Empire endorsed Charles's candidature. Charles III, as he was known, disembarked in his kingdom in 1705, stayed there for six years, only being able to exercise his rule in Catalonia, until the death of his brother, Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Not wanting to see Austria and Spain in personal union again, the new Kingdom of Great Britain withdrew its support from the Austrian coalition, the war culminated with the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt three years later. The former, ratified in 1713, recognised Philip as King of Spain. To prevent a union of Spain and France, Philip was forced to renounce his right to succeed his grandfather's throne. Charles was discontented at the loss of Spain, as a result, he mimicked the staid Spanish Habsburg court ceremonial, adopting the dress of a Spanish monarch, according to British historian Edward Crankshaw, consisted of "a black doublet and hose, black shoes and scarlet stockings". Charles's father and his advisors went about arranging a marriage for him, their eyes fell upon Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, the eldest child of Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. She was held to be strikingly beautiful by her contemporaries. On 1 August 1708, in Barcelona, Charles married her by proxy.
She gave him two daughters that survived to Maria Theresa and Maria Anna. When Charles succeeded his brother in 1711, he was the last male Habsburg heir in the direct line. Since Habsburg possessions were subject to Salic law, barring women from inheriting in their own right, his own lack of a male heir meant they would be divided on his death; the Pragmatic Sanction of 19 April 1713 abolished male-only succession in all Habsburg realms and declared their lands indivisible, although Hungary only approved it in 1723. Charles had Maria Theresa, Maria Anna and Maria Amalia but no surviving sons; when Maria Theresa was born, he disinherited his nieces and the daughters of his elder brother Joseph, Maria Josepha and Maria Amalia. It was this act that undermined the chances of a smooth succession and obliged Charles to spend the rest of his reign seeking to ensure enforcement of the Sanction from other European powers, they exacted harsh terms. However, by 1735 he had secured approvals from key states, most the Imperial Diet, which in theory bound all its members including Prussia and Bavaria.
Other signatories included Britain, the Dutch Republic, Russia and Savoy-Sardinia but subsequent events underlined Eugene of Savoy's comment that the best guarantee was a powerful army and full Treasury. His nieces were married to the rulers of Saxony and Bavaria, both of whom refused to be bound by the decision of the Imperial Diet and despite publicly agreeing to the Pragmatic Sanction in 1735, France signed a secret treaty with Bavaria in 1738 promising to back the'just claims' of Charles Albert of Bavaria. In the first part of his reign, Austrian continued to expand; this extended Austrian rule to the lower Danube. The War of the Quadruple Alliance followed, it too ended in an A
Turkish people or the Turks known as Anatolian Turks, are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most spoken Turkic language. They are the largest ethnic group in Turkey, as well as by far the largest ethnic group among the speakers of Turkic languages. Ethnic Turkish minorities exist in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire. In addition, a Turkish diaspora has been established with modern migration in Western Europe. Turks arrived from Central Asia and settled in the Anatolian basin in around the 11th century through the conquest of Seljuk Turks, mixing with the peoples of Anatolia; the region began to transform from a predominately Greek Christian one to a Turkish Muslim society. Thereafter, the Ottoman Empire came to rule much of the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East, North Africa over the course of several centuries, with an advanced army and navy; the Empire lasted until the end of the First World War, when it was defeated by the Allies and partitioned.
Following the successful Turkish War of Independence that ended with the Turkish national movement retaking most of the land lost to the Allies, the movement abolished the Ottoman sultanate on 1 November 1922 and proclaimed the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. Not all Ottomans were Muslims and not all Ottoman Muslims were Turks, but by 1923, the majority of people living within the borders of the new Turkish republic identified as Turks. Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone, bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship". However, the majority of the Turkish population are of Turkish ethnicity and are estimated at 70–75 percent; the ethnonym "Turk" may be first discerned in Herodotus' reference to Targitas, first king of the Scythians. Pomponius Mela refers to the "Turcae" in the forests north of the Sea of Azov, Pliny the Elder lists the "Tyrcae" among the people of the same area; the first definite references to the "Turks" come from Chinese sources in the sixth century.
In these sources, "Turk" appears as "Tujue". In the 19th century, the word Türk only referred to Anatolian villagers; the Ottoman ruling class identified themselves as Ottomans, not as Turks. In the late 19th century, as the Ottoman upper classes adopted European ideas of nationalism the term Türk took on a much more positive connotation. During Ottoman times, the millet system defined communities on a religious basis, a residue of this remains in that Turkish villagers consider as Turks only those who profess the Sunni faith. Turkish Jews, Christians, or Alevis may be considered non-Turks. On the other hand, Kurdish followers of the Sunni branch of Islam who live in eastern Anatolia were sometimes considered "Mountain Turks". Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as anyone, "bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship." It is believed by Robert Fisk. Anatolia was first inhabited by hunter-gatherers during the Paleolithic era, in antiquity was inhabited by various ancient Anatolian peoples.
After Alexander the Great's conquest in 334 BC, the area was Hellenized, by the first century BC it is thought that the native Anatolian languages, themselves earlier newcomers to the area, as a result of the Indo-European migrations, became extinct. In Central Asia, the earliest surviving Turkic-language texts, the eighth-century Orkhon inscriptions, were erected by the Göktürks in the sixth century CE, include words not common to Turkic but found in unrelated Inner Asian languages. Although the ancient Turks were nomadic, they traded wool, leather and horses for wood, silk and grain, as well as having large ironworking stations in the south of the Altai Mountains during the 600s CE. Most of the Turkic peoples were followers of Tengrism, sharing the cult of the sky god Tengri, although there were adherents of Manichaeism, Nestorian Christianity and Buddhism. However, during the Muslim conquests, the Turks entered the Muslim world proper as slaves, the booty of Arab raids and conquests; the Turks began converting to Islam after Muslim conquest of Transoxiana through the efforts of missionaries and merchants.
Although initiated by the Arabs, the conversion of the Turks to Islam was filtered through Persian and Central Asian culture. Under the Umayyads, most were domestic servants, whilst under the Abbasid Caliphate, increasing numbers were trained as soldiers. By the ninth century, Turkish commanders were leading the caliphs’ Turkish troops into battle; as the Abbasid Caliphate declined, Turkish officers assumed more military and political power taking over or establishing provincial dynasties with their own corps of Turkish troops. During the 11th century the Seljuk Turks who were admirers of the Persian civilization grew in number and were able to occupy the eastern province of the Abbasid Empire. By 1055, the Seljuk Empire captured Baghdad and began to make their first incursions into the edges of Anatolia; when the Seljuk Turks won the Battle of Manzikert against the Byzantine Empire in 1071, it opened the gates of Anatolia to them. Although ethnically Turkish, the Seljuk Turks appreciated and became the purveyors of the Persian culture rather than the Turkish culture.
Nonetheless, the Turkish language and Islam were introduced and spread over the region and the slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking Anatolia to a pr
A bastion fort or trace italienne, is a fortification in a style that evolved during the early modern period of gunpowder when the cannon came to dominate the battlefield. It was first seen in the mid-15th century in Italy; some types when combined with ravelins and other outworks, resembled the related star fort of the same era. The design of the fort is a pentagon or hexagon with bastions at the corners of the walls; these outcroppings eliminated protected blind spots, called "dead zones", allowed fire along the curtain from positions protected from direct fire. Many bastion forts feature cavaliers, which are raised secondary structures based inside the primary structure, their predecessors, medieval fortresses, were placed on high hills. From there, arrows were shot at the enemies, the higher the fortress was, the further the arrows flew; the enemies' hope was to either ram the gate or climb over the wall with ladders and overcome the defenders. For the invading force, these fortifications proved quite difficult to overcome, accordingly, fortresses occupied a key position in warfare.
Passive ring-shaped fortifications of the Medieval era proved vulnerable to damage or destruction by cannon fire, when it could be directed from outside against a perpendicular masonry wall. In addition, an attacking force that could get close to the wall was able to conduct undermining operations in relative safety, as the defenders could not shoot at them from nearby walls. In contrast, the bastion fortress was a flat structure composed of many triangular bastions designed to cover each other, a ditch. In order to counteract the cannonballs, defensive walls were made thicker. To counteract the fact that lower walls were easier to climb, the ditch was widened so that attacking infantry were still exposed to fire from a higher elevation, including enfilading fire from the bastions; the outer side of the ditch was provided with a glacis to deflect cannonballs aimed at the lower part of the main wall. Further structures, such as ravelins, hornworks or crownworks, detached forts could be added to create complex outer works to further protect the main wall from artillery, sometimes provide additional defensive positions.
They were built of many materials earth and brick, as brick does not shatter on impact from a cannonball as stone does. Bastion fortifications were further developed in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries in response to the French invasion of the Italian peninsula; the French army was equipped with new cannon and bombards that were able to destroy traditional fortifications built in the Middle Ages. Star forts were employed by Michelangelo in the defensive earthworks of Florence, refined in the sixteenth century by Baldassare Peruzzi and Vincenzo Scamozzi; the design spread out of Italy in the 1540s. It was employed throughout Europe for the following three centuries. Italian engineers were in demand throughout Europe to help build the new fortifications; the late-seventeenth-century architects Menno van Coehoorn and Vauban, Louis XIV's military engineer, are considered to have taken the form to its logical extreme. "Fortresses... acquired ravelins and redoubts and lunettes, tenailles and tenaillons and crownworks and hornworks and curvettes and fausse brayes and scarps and cordons and banquettes and counterscarps..."The star-shaped fortification had a formative influence on the patterning of the Renaissance ideal city: "The Renaissance was hypnotized by one city type which for a century and a half—from Filarete to Scamozzi—was impressed upon all utopian schemes: this is the star-shaped city."
In the 19th century, the development of the explosive shell changed the nature of defensive fortifications. Elvas, in Portugal is considered by some to be the best surviving example of the Dutch school of fortifications; when the newly-effective maneuverable siege cannon came into military strategy in the fifteenth century, the response from military engineers was to arrange for the walls to be embedded into ditches fronted by earthen slopes so that they could not be attacked by destructive direct fire and to have the walls topped by earthen banks that absorbed and dissipated the energy of plunging fire. Where conditions allowed, as in Fort Manoel in Malta, the ditches were cut into the native rock, the wall at the inside of the ditch was unquarried native rock; as the walls became lower, they became more vulnerable to assault. The rounded shape, dominant for the design of turrets created "dead space", or "dead" zones, which were sheltered from defending fire, because direct fire from other parts of the walls could not be directed around the curved wall.
To prevent this, what had been round or square turrets were extended into diamond-shaped points to give storming infantry no shelter. The ditches and walls channeled attacking troops into constructed killing grounds where defensive cannon could wreak havoc on troops attempting to storm the walls, with emplacements set so that the attacking troops had no place to shelter from the defensive fire. A further and more subtle change was to move from a passive model of defence to an active one; the lower walls were more vulnerable to being stormed, the protection that the earthen banking provided against direct fire failed if the attackers could occupy the slope on the outside of the ditch and mount an attacking cannon there. Therefore, the shape was designed to make maximum use of enfilade fire against any attackers who should reach t
Kingdom of Hungary
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century. The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation of the first king Stephen I at Esztergom around the year 1000. By the 12th century, the kingdom became a European middle power within the Western world. Due to the Ottoman occupation of the central and southern territories of Hungary in the 16th century, the country was partitioned into three parts: the Habsburg Royal Hungary, Ottoman Hungary, the semi-independent Principality of Transylvania; the House of Habsburg held the Hungarian throne after the Battle of Mohács until 1918 and played a key role in the liberation wars against the Ottoman Empire. From 1867, territories connected to the Hungarian crown were incorporated into Austria-Hungary under the name of Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen; the monarchy ended with the deposition of the last king Charles IV in 1918, after which Hungary became a republic.
The kingdom was nominally restored during the "Regency" of 1920–46, ending under the Soviet occupation in 1946. The Kingdom of Hungary was a multiethnic state from its inception until the Treaty of Trianon and it covered what is today Hungary, Slovakia and other parts of what is now Romania, Carpathian Ruthenia, Vojvodina and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders. From 1102 it included Croatia, being in personal union with it, united under the King of Hungary. Today, the feast day of the first king Stephen I is a national holiday in Hungary, commemorating the foundation of the state; the Latin forms Ungarie. The German name Königreich Ungarn was used from 1784 to 1790 and again between 1849 and the 1860s; the Hungarian name was used in the 1840s, again from the 1860s to 1946. The unofficial Hungarian name of the kingdom was Magyarország, still the colloquial, the official name of Hungary; the names in the other native languages of the kingdom were: Polish: Królestwo Węgier, Romanian: Regatul Ungariei, Serbian: Kraljevina Ugarska, Croatian: Kraljevina Ugarska, Slovene: Kraljevina Ogrska, Slovak: Uhorské kráľovstvo, Italian, Regno d'Ungheria.
In Austria-Hungary, the unofficial name Transleithania was sometimes used to denote the regions of the Kingdom of Hungary. The term Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen was included for the Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary, although this term was in use prior to that time; the Hungarians led by Árpád settled the Carpathian Basin in 895, established Principality of Hungary. The Hungarians led several successful incursions to Western Europe, until they were stopped by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor in Battle of Lechfeld; the principality was succeeded by the Christian Kingdom of Hungary with the coronation of St Stephen I at Esztergom on Christmas Day 1000. The first kings of the kingdom were from the Árpád dynasty, he fought with Bavarian help, defeated him near Veszprém. The Catholic Church received powerful support from Stephen I, who with Christian Hungarians and German knights wanted a Christian kingdom established in Central Europe. Stephen I of Hungary was canonized as a Catholic saint in 1083 and an Orthodox saint in 2000.
After his death, a period of revolts and conflict for supremacy ensued between the royalty and the nobles. In 1051 armies of the Holy Roman Empire tried to conquer Hungary, but they were defeated at Vértes Mountain; the armies of the Holy Roman Empire continued to suffer defeats. Before 1052 Peter Orseolo, a supporter of the Holy Roman Empire, was overthrown by king Samuel Aba of Hungary; this period of revolts ended during the reign of Béla I. Hungarian chroniclers praised Béla I for introducing new currency, such as the silver denarius, for his benevolence to the former followers of his nephew, Solomon; the second greatest Hungarian king from the Árpád dynasty, was Ladislaus I of Hungary, who stabilized and strengthened the kingdom. He was canonized as a saint. Under his rule Hungarians fought against the Cumans and acquired parts of Croatia in 1091. Due to a dynastic crisis in Croatia, with the help of the local nobility who supported his claim, he managed to swiftly seize power in northern parts of the Croatian kingdom, as he was a claimant to the throne due to the fact that his sister was married to the late Croatian king Zvonimir who died childless.
However, kingship over all of Croatia would not be achieved until the reign of his successor Coloman. With the coronation of King Coloman as "King of Croatia and Dalmatia" in Biograd in 1102, the two kingdoms of Croatia and Hungary were united under one crown. Although the precise terms of this relationship became a matter of dispute in the 19th century, it is believed that Coloman created a kind of personal union between the two kingdoms; the nature of the relationship varied through time, Croatia retained a large degree of internal autonomy overall, while the real power rested in the hands of the local nobility. Modern Croatian and Hungarian historiographies view the relations between Kingdom of Croatia and Kingdom of Hungary from 1102 as a form of a personal union, i.e. that
Levice is a town in western Slovakia. The town lies on the left bank of the lower Hron river; the Old Slavic name of the town was Leva, which means "the Left One". The town is located in the north-eastern corner of the Danubian Lowland, 110 kilometres east of Bratislava, 40 kilometres south-east of Nitra, 32 kilometres south-west of Banská Štiavnica, 55 kilometres south-west of Zvolen and 25 kilometres from the border with Hungary, it is the capital of the Levice District, the largest district in Slovakia at 1,551 square kilometres. The town's heraldic animal is lion, the town's colours are green and yellow. Levice is first mentioned as Leua, one of the villages belonging to the parish of St. Martin's Church in Bratka in 1165, it was part of the comitatus Tekov. First attacked by the Turks in 1544, the town was set on fire. Between 1581 and 1589, the settlement was the seat of the Captaincy of Lower Hungary; the town was held by the Turks for two decades from 1663 to 1685. Under the Ottoman administration Leva was the center of a sandjak, part of the Uyvar eyalet.
Ottoman rule came to an end in the summer of 1685, when the Austrian Imperial Army led by General de Souches claimed an important victory at the Battle of Levice, which took place beneath the town's castle. During the anti-Habsburg revolution of 1709, the fort was blown up by kuruces. After the break-up of Austria-Hungary, the town became a part of Czechoslovakia; as part of the breakup of Czechoslovakia under the Munich Agreement in World War II, the town again belonged to Hungary from 1938 to 1945. At the end of the Second World War it was returned to the restored Czechoslovakia, 75% of the town's Hungarian population was deported and replaced by Slovaks, thus the ratio of Hungarians fell from 89% to 12%. In 1993 it became part of present-day Slovakia, it was the hometown of the founder of Fodor's travel book company. Census 2011: 34.844 inhabitants Slovak 25.549 Hungarian 2.927 others 6.368 Roman Catholic, Reformed Protestant, Moravian Brethren, Baptist, Old Catholic Church, Adventist of the 7th Day, Modrý kríž, several Charismatic and Pentecostal communities, Jehovah's Witnesses, Muslim community, Jewish community, atheists Textiles, furniture, products from locally obtained Golden Onyx and construction components, meat, dairy products, soft drinks, wine.
One of Slovakia's two nuclear power plants is in 12 kilometres north-west of Levice. There are 8 elementary schools, Gymnazium Andreja Vrabla, a general High School, a Hungarian Calvinist High School, a Business Academy, a Pedagogical and Social Academy, a Secondary Technical School, a Secondary Agricultural School and various apprentice schools; the Castle, built in a Gothic style as a trade-route guarding fort at the end of 13th century. Dobo Château, built by István Dobó, a hero of the siege of Eger, in the 1560s. St Joseph's Church, Roman Catholic, accompanied by a baroque Franciscan convent, it is found close to the entrance to the château, dates from the turn of the 18th century. St Michael's Church – Roman Catholic, found in St Michael's street, it is from the 2nd half of the 18th century Church of the Holy Spirit – Roman Catholic, in the Rybniky quarter. It is from the start of the 21st century Chapel of St Urban – Roman Catholic, F. Hecku street, 1770s Evanjelický a. v. kostol – Lutheran, Cs. armady street, 1840s to 1930s Zborový dom – Lutheran, next to the latter Kostol Reformovanej cirkvi – Calvinist, Sv.
Michala street, end of 18th century Zborový dom – Brethren Church, S. Chalupku street, 1983–85 Synagogue – Jewish, K. Kittenberger street, half of 19th century Schoeller's Mill – built at the end of the 19th century, production was cancelled in 1998, rebuilt into a complex of luxury shops, offices and entertainment facilities. Main square – a good collection of Art-Nouveau and eclectic buildings. Town hall – erected in 1902, second floor built-up while lifting the roof by a screw mechanism in 1927. Teachers Academy – secondary school, E point of the Kalvaria hill, N of the main square, built in 1911 as a mix of the late Art-Nouveau and Italian trecento-influenced historism. District Court Building – corner of Mlynska and Zahradna streets, projected by Milan Michal Harminc Fried's House – corner of L. Stura and Sv. Michala streets Strasser's House – Sturova street, next to the Fried's House Fertsek Brothers House – corner of Soltesova square and Ceskoslovenskej armady street Munk's House – corner of Mlynska and Zahradna streets Reitmann's House – Mlynska street, a passage to I.
Krasku street Eisler's House – corner of Mlynska and L. Stura streets Police District Headquarters Building – former Seat of District Authority, crossing of Kalvinske square and Sv. Michala street Health Insurance Company Building – M. R. Stefanik street Infant Hospital Horšianska Dolina – nature preserve with unique plant and animal endemics, folk architecture in Horša Kalinčiakovo – this village has a tiny but well preserved Romanesque church dating from the 12th century and the sw
Slovakia the Slovak Republic, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the west, the Czech Republic to the northwest. Slovakia's territory spans about 49,000 square kilometres and is mountainous; the population is over 5.4 million and consists of Slovaks. The capital and largest city is Bratislava, the second largest city is Košice; the official language is Slovak. The Slavs arrived in the territory of present-day Slovakia in the 6th centuries. In the 7th century, they played a significant role in the creation of Samo's Empire and in the 9th century established the Principality of Nitra, conquered by the Principality of Moravia to establish Great Moravia. In the 10th century, after the dissolution of Great Moravia, the territory was integrated into the Principality of Hungary, which would become the Kingdom of Hungary in 1000. In 1241 and 1242, much of the territory was destroyed by the Mongols during their invasion of Central and Eastern Europe.
The area was recovered thanks to Béla IV of Hungary who settled Germans which became an important ethnic group in the area in what are today parts of central and eastern Slovakia. After World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Czechoslovak National Council established Czechoslovakia. A separate Slovak Republic existed during World War II as a totalitarian, clero-fascist one-party client state of Nazi Germany. At the end of World War II, Czechoslovakia was re-established as an independent country. A coup in 1948 ushered in a totalitarian one-party state under the Communist regime during whose rule the country existed as a satellite of the Soviet Union. Attempts for liberalization of communism in Czechoslovakia culminated in the Prague Spring, crushed by the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968. In 1989, the Velvet Revolution ended the Communist rule in Czechoslovakia peacefully. Slovakia became an independent state on 1 January 1993 after the peaceful dissolution of Czechoslovakia, sometimes known as the Velvet Divorce.
Slovakia is a developed country, with a high-income advanced economy and a high Human Development Index, a high standard of living and performs favourably in measurements of civil liberties, press freedom, internet freedom, democratic governance and peacefulness. The country maintains a combination of market economy with a comprehensive social security system. Citizens of Slovakia are provided with universal health care, free education and one of the longest paid parental leave in the OECD; the country joined the European Union on 1 May 2004 and joined the Eurozone on 1 January 2009. Slovakia is a member of the Schengen Area, NATO, the United Nations, the OECD, the WTO, CERN, the OSCE, the Council of Europe and the Visegrád Group. Although regional income inequality is high, 90% of citizens own their homes. In 2018, Slovak citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 179 countries and territories, ranking the Slovak passport 10th in the world; as part of Eurozone, Slovak legal tender is the world's 2nd-most-traded currency.
Slovakia is the world's largest per-capita car producer with a total of 1,040,000 cars manufactured in the country in 2016 alone and the 7th largest car producer in the European Union. The car industry represents 43% of Slovakia's industrial output, a quarter of its exports; the first written mention of name Slovakia is in 1586. It derives from the Czech word Slováky; the native name Slovensko derives from an older name of Slovaks Sloven what may indicate its origin before the 15th century. The original meaning was geographic, since Slovakia was a part of the multiethnic Kingdom of Hungary and did not form a separate administrative unit in this period. Radiocarbon dating puts the oldest surviving archaeological artefacts from Slovakia – found near Nové Mesto nad Váhom – at 270,000 BCE, in the Early Paleolithic era; these ancient tools, made by the Clactonian technique, bear witness to the ancient habitation of Slovakia. Other stone tools from the Middle Paleolithic era come from the Prévôt cave in Bojnice and from other nearby sites.
The most important discovery from that era is a Neanderthal cranium, discovered near Gánovce, a village in northern Slovakia. Archaeologists have found prehistoric human skeletons in the region, as well as numerous objects and vestiges of the Gravettian culture, principally in the river valleys of Nitra, Ipeľ, Váh and as far as the city of Žilina, near the foot of the Vihorlat and Tribeč mountains, as well as in the Myjava Mountains; the most well-known finds include the oldest female statue made of mammoth-bone, the famous Venus of Moravany. The statue was found in the 1940s in Moravany nad Váhom near Piešťany. Numerous necklaces made of shells from Cypraca thermophile gastropods of the Tertiary period have come from the sites of Zákovská, Podkovice and Radošina; these findings provide the most ancient evidence of commercial exchanges carried out between the Mediterranean and central Europe. The Bronze Age in the geographical territory of modern-day Slovakia went through three stages of development, stretching from 2000 to 800 BCE.
Major cultural and political development can be attributed to the significant growth in production of copper in central Slovakia and northwe
Kingdom of Hungary (1526–1867)
The Kingdom of Hungary between 1526 and 1867, while outside the Holy Roman Empirenote 1, was part of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy that became the Empire of Austria in 1804. After the Battle of Mohács of 1526, the country was ruled by two crowned kings; the exact territory under Habsburg rule was disputed because both rulers claimed the whole kingdom. This unsettled period lasted until 1570 when John Sigismund Zápolya abdicated as King of Hungary in Emperor Maximilian II's favor. In the early stages, the lands that were ruled by the Habsburg Hungarian kings were regarded both as "the Kingdom of Hungary" and "Royal Hungary". Royal Hungary was the symbol of the continuity of formal law after the Ottoman occupation, because it could preserve its legal traditions; however in general it was de facto a Habsburg province. The Hungarian nobility forced Vienna to admit that Hungary was a special unit of the Habsburg lands and had to be ruled in conformity with her own special laws. Although, Hungarian historiography positioned Transylvania in a direct continuity with Medieval Kingdom of Hungary in pursuance of the advancement of Hungarian interests.
Under the terms of the Treaty of Karlowitz, which ended the Great Turkish War in 1699, the Ottomans ceded nearly all of Ottoman Hungary. The new territories were united with the territory of Kingdom of Hungary, although its powers were formal, a Diet seated in Pressburg ruled these lands. Two major Hungarian rebellions as the Rákóczi's War of Independence in the beginning of the 18th century and the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 marked important shifts in the evolution of the polity; the kingdom became a dual monarchy in 1867 known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Royal Hungary, was the name of the portion of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary where the Habsburgs were recognized as Kings of Hungary in the wake of the Ottoman victory at the Battle of Mohács and subsequent partition of the country. Temporary territorial division between the rival rules occurred only in 1538 at Treaty of Nagyvárad, when the Habsburgs got the north and west parts of the country, with the new capital Pressburg. John I secured the eastern part of the kingdom.
Habsburg monarchs needed the economic power of Hungary for the Ottoman wars. During the Ottoman wars the territory of former Kingdom of Hungary was reduced by around 70%. Territory of present-day Slovakia and northwestern Transdanubia were constant parts of this polity while the control was switched at region of northeastern Hungary between Royal Hungary and Principality of Transylvania; the central territories of the medieval Hungarian kingdom were annexed by the Ottoman Empire for 150 years. In 1570, John Sigismund Zápolya, the rival Hungarian king, abdicated as King of Hungary in Emperor Maximilian II's favor, expressed in the Treaty of Speyer; the term "Royal Hungary" fell into disuse after 1699, the Habsburg Kings referred to the newly enlarged country by the more formal term "Kingdom of Hungary". The Habsburgs, an influential dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, were elected Kings of Hungary. Royal Hungary enjoyed little influence in Vienna; the Habsburg King directly controlled Royal Hungary's financial and foreign affairs, imperial troops guarded its borders.
The Habsburgs avoided filling the office of palatine to prevent the holder's amassing too much power. In addition, the so-called Turkish question divided the Habsburgs and the Hungarians: Vienna wanted to maintain peace with the Ottomans; as the Hungarians recognized the weakness of their position, many became anti-Habsburg. They complained about foreign rule, the behaviour of foreign garrisons, the Habsburgs' recognition of Turkish sovereignty in Transylvania. Protestants, who were persecuted in Royal Hungary, considered the Counter-Reformation a greater menace than the Turks, however; the Reformation spread and by the early 17th century hardly any noble families remained Catholic. In Royal Hungary, the majority of the population became Lutheran by the end of the 16th century. Archbishop Péter Pázmány reorganized Royal Hungary's Roman Catholic Church and led a Counter-Reformation that reversed the Protestants' gains in Royal Hungary, using persuasion rather than intimidation; the Reformation caused rifts between Catholics, who sided with the Habsburgs, Protestants, who developed a strong national identity and became rebels in Austrian eyes.
Chasms developed between the Catholic magnates and the Protestant lesser nobles. As the Habsburgs' control of the Turkish possessions started to increase, the ministers of Leopold I argued that he should rule Hungary as conquered territory. At the Diet of "Royal Hungary" in Pressburg, in 1687, the Emperor promised to observe all laws and privileges. Nonetheless, hereditary succession of the Habsburgs was recognized, the nobles' right of resistance was abrogated. In 1690 Leopold began redistributing lands freed from the Turks. Protestant nobles and all other Hungarians thought disloyal by the Habsburgs lost their estates, which were given to foreigners. Vienna controlled the foreign af