Marche, or the Marches, is one of the twenty regions of Italy. The name of the region derives from the plural name of marca referring to the medieval March of Ancona and nearby marches of Camerino and Fermo. Marche is well known for its shoemaking tradition, with the finest and most luxurious Italian footwear being manufactured in this region; the region is located in the Central area of the country, bordered by Emilia-Romagna and the republic of San Marino to the north, Tuscany to the west, Umbria to the southwest and Lazio to the south and the Adriatic Sea to the east. Except for river valleys and the very narrow coastal strip, the land is hilly. A railway from Bologna to Brindisi, built in the 19th century, runs along the coast of the entire territory. Inland, the mountainous nature of the region today, allows little travel north and south, except by twisting roads over the passes; the Umbrian enclave of Monte Ruperto is surrounded by the Province of Pesaro and Urbino, which constitutes the northern part of the region.
Urbino, one of the major cities of the region, was the birthplace of Raphael, as well as a major center of Renaissance history. Marche extends over an area of 9,694 square kilometres of the central Adriatic slope between Emilia-Romagna to the north and Umbria to the west, Lazio and Abruzzo to the south, the entire eastern boundary being formed by the Adriatic. Most of the region is mountainous or hilly, the main features being the Apennine chain along the internal boundary and an extensive system of hills descending towards the Adriatic. With the sole exception of Monte Vettore, 2,476 metres high, the mountains do not exceed 2,400 metres; the hilly area covers two-thirds of the region and is interrupted by wide gullies with numerous – albeit short – rivers and by alluvial plains perpendicular to the principal chain. The parallel mountain chains contain deep river gorges, the best known being those of the Furlo, the Rossa and the Frasassi; the coastal area is 173 kilometres long and is flat and straight except for the hilly area between Gabicce and Pesaro in the north, the eastern slopes of Monte Conero near Ancona.
Climate is temperate. Inland, in the mountainous areas, is more continental with cold and snowy winters. Precipitation varies from 1000–1500 mm. per year inland and 600–800 mm. per year on the Adriatic coast. Marche was known in ancient times as the Picenum territory; the Picens or Picentes were the Italic tribe. Many artefacts from their time are exhibited in National Archaeological Museum of the Marche Region in Ancona. In the fourth century BC, the northern area was occupied by a tribe of Gauls; the Battle of Sentinum was fought in Marche in 295 BC. Ascoli was a seat of Italic resistance during the Social War. Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was invaded by the Goths. After the Gothic War, it was part of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna. After the fall of the Exarchate, it was in the possession of the Lombards, but was conquered by Charlemagne in the late eighth century. In the ninth to eleventh centuries, the marches of Camerino and Ancona were created, hence the modern name.
Marche was nominally part of the Papal States, but most of the territory was under local lords, while the major cities ruled themselves as free communes. In the twelfth century, the commune of Ancona resisted both the imperial authority of Frederick Barbarossa and the Republic of Venice, was a maritime republic on its own. An attempt to restore Papal suzerainty by Gil de Albornoz in the fourteenth century was short-lived. During the Renaissance, the region was fought over by rival aristocratic families, such as the Malatesta of Rimini, Pesaro and the house of Montefeltro of Urbino; the last independent entity, the Duchy of Urbino, was dissolved in 1631, from on, Marche was part of the Papal States except during the Napoleonic period. This saw the short lived Republic of Ancona, in 1797–98. After Napoleon's defeat, Marche returned to Papal rule until 4 November 1860, when it was annexed to the unified Kingdom of Italy by a plebiscite. After the referendum of 2006, 7 municipalities of Montefeltro were detached from the Province of Pesaro and Urbino to join the Province of Rimini on 15 August 2009.
The municipalities are Casteldelci, Novafeltria, San Leo, Sant'Agata Feltria and Talamello. Towns in Marche were devastated by the 2016 Central Italy earthquake which occurred on 24 August 2016. Prior to the 1980s, Marche was considered a rather poor region, although economically stable in some sectors, thanks to its agricultural output and to the contribution of traditional crafts. Today the contribution of agriculture to the economy of the region is less significant and the gross value generated by this sector remains above the national average. Marche has never suffered from the extremes of fragmented land ownership or'latifondo'. Diffused in the past, the sharecropping never produced an extreme land fragmentation; the main products are cereals, animal products and grapes. Truffle hunting is popular.
The Marecchia is a river in eastern Italy. In ancient times it was known as the Ariminus, from the Greek Ariminos, Αρίμινος; the source of the river is near Monte dei Frati, east of Pieve Santo Stefano and southwest of Badia Tedalda in the province of Arezzo in Tuscany. It flows northeast into the province of Pesaro and Urbino in the Marche and is the only river that runs through Montefeltro. While flowing through Montefeltro, the river flows through the exclave Santa Sofia Marecchia, which belongs to Badia Tedalda; the river flows past Sant'Agata Feltria and Novafeltria before crossing into the province of Rimini in Emilia–Romagna. At Torello, part of the commune of San Leo, it flows 1 km west of the Sammarinese territory Acquaviva and the San Marino River flows into it, but the Marecchia does not touch the San Marino border; the river flows past Verucchio and Santarcangelo di Romagna before flowing into the Adriatic Sea near Rimini. While on his way to fight the Gothic army, the Byzantine general Narses crossed the Marecchia on a pontoon after the leader of the Goths contesting his passage of the river was killed in a skirmish.
The mouth of the Marecchia is the legendary site where Anthony of Padua preached to the fish
Province of Pesaro and Urbino
The Province of Pesaro and Urbino is a province in the Marche region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Pesaro, it borders the state of San Marino. The province is surrounded by San Marino and Emilia Romagna in the north and Tuscany in the west, Ancona in the south and the Adriatic Sea on the east; the province has an enclave of the Umbrian commune of Citta' di Castello named Monte Ruperto. The province is known as "Riviera of Hills", it is covered by hills and is popular for its beaches. The ceramics museum and the Biblioteca Oliveriana are located in the capital city; the County Council is based in Pesaro while the headquarters of the provincial administration are in Urbino. The coat of arms of the province consists of a shield divided into two parts, each part is given the coat of arms of the two capitals, it has a robust economy with low unemployment, based on craft and small and medium industries, tourism and cultural center. It has a low per capita energy consumption; the art and craft industry contributes to 22% of the province's GDP.
Tourism in the province plays a primary role in the local economy. The beaches of Gabicce Mare, Pesaro and Marotta are the most famous ones. Just outside Pesaro, in the little hamlet of Santa Venerada, close by the chapel Chiostro di Santo Gaetano is the Lucus Pisaurensis, the Sacred Grove of Pisaurum, ancient Pesaro. Earliest sources of reference indicate a pre-Estruscan settlement in Pesaro; the city was founded as Pisaurum by the Romans in 184 BC as a colony of the Picentes, an early Italic people who lived on the northeast coast of Italy during the Iron Age. However, in 1737, 13 ancient votive stones were unearthed in a local Pesaro farm field, each bearing the inscription of a semone or Roman god. After the fall of Western Roman Empire, it was included in the Exarchate of Ravenna. In late mediaval times and early Renaissance it was the core of the county of Urbino, the Duchy of Montefeltro, it was part of the Papal States and, from the late 19th century, of Kingdom of Italy. After the referendum of 2006, seven municipalities of Montefeltro were detached from the Province to join the Province of Rimini on 15 August 2009.
The municipalities are Casteldelci, Novafeltria, San Leo, Sant'Agata Feltria and Talamello. There are 59 comunes in the province; as of May 31, 2005, the main comuni by population are: History of Pesaro, Italy Pesaro and Urbino travel guide from Wikivoyage
Saludecio is a comune in the Province of Rimini in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 130 kilometres southeast of Bologna and about 20 kilometres southeast of Rimini. Saludecio borders the following municipalities: Mondaino, Montefiore Conca, Morciano di Romagna, San Giovanni in Marignano, Tavullia. Porta Marina, the fortified gate built by Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta. Torre Civica. Church of San Biagio, housing 17th-century paintings by Claudio Ridolfi, Guido Cagnacci and others, as well as the body of Saint Amato Ronconi. Palazzo Albini. Porta Montanara, another entrance gate. Town Hall, built on the ruins of the old castle. Castle of Cerreto, one of the most outstanding rural burgs in the Rimini territory
Morciano di Romagna
Morciano di Romagna is a comune in the Province of Rimini in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna. It is about 15 kilometres southeast of Rimini; the Conca flows past the town. Official website
Mondaino is a comune in the Province of Rimini in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 130 kilometres southeast of Bologna and 25 kilometres southeast of Rimini. Mondaino borders the following municipalities: Montecalvo in Foglia, Montefiore Conca, Saludecio, Tavullia, Urbino. Official website
Montefiore Conca is a comune in the Province of Rimini in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 120 kilometres southeast of Bologna and about 20 kilometres south of Rimini. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 1,873 and an area of 22.4 square kilometres. The municipality of Montefiore Conca contains the frazioni san felice, serra di sopra, serra di sotto, la falda, borgo pedrosa, s. gaudenzio, levola. Montefiore Conca borders the following municipalities: Auditore, Mondaino, Morciano di Romagna, San Clemente, Tavoleto