A novel is a long work of narrative fiction written in prose form, and, published as a book. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the Italian novella for "new", "news", or "short story of something new", itself from the Latin novella, a singular noun use of the neuter plural of novellus, diminutive of novus, meaning "new". Walter Scott made a distinction between the novel, in which "events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society" and the romance, which he defined as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse. However, many such romances, including the historical romances of Scott, Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, are frequently called novels, Scott describes romance as a "kindred term"; this sort of romance is in turn different from the genre fiction love romance novel. Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel: "a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo, en roman."
Most European languages use the word "romance" for extended narratives. The novel constitutes "a continuous and comprehensive history of about two thousand years", with its origins in classical Greece and Rome, in medieval and early modern romance, in the tradition of the Italian renaissance novella. Murasaki Shikibu's Tale of Genji, an early 11th-century Japanese text, has sometimes been described as the world's first novel, but there is considerable debate over this — there were long fictional works much earlier. Spread of printed books in China led to the appearance of classical Chinese novels by the Ming dynasty. Parallel European developments occurred after the invention of the printing press. Miguel de Cervantes, author of Don Quixote, is cited as the first significant European novelist of the modern era. Ian Watt, in The Rise of the Novel, suggested that the modern novel was born in the early 18th century. A novel is a fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences; the novel in the modern era makes use of a literary prose style.
The development of the prose novel at this time was encouraged by innovations in printing, the introduction of cheap paper in the 15th century. A fictional narrativeFictionality is most cited as distinguishing novels from historiography; however this can be a problematic criterion. Throughout the early modern period authors of historical narratives would include inventions rooted in traditional beliefs in order to embellish a passage of text or add credibility to an opinion. Historians would invent and compose speeches for didactic purposes. Novels can, on the other hand, depict the social and personal realities of a place and period with clarity and detail not found in works of history. Literary proseWhile prose rather than verse became the standard of the modern novel, the ancestors of the modern European novel include verse epics in the Romance language of southern France those by Chrétien de Troyes, in Middle English. In the 19th century, fictional narratives in verse, such as Lord Byron's Don Juan, Alexander Pushkin's Yevgeniy Onegin, Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Aurora Leigh, competed with prose novels.
Vikram Seth's The Golden Gate, composed of 590 Onegin stanzas, is a more recent example of the verse novel. Content: intimate experienceBoth in 12th-century Japan and 15th-century Europe, prose fiction created intimate reading situations. On the other hand, verse epics, including the Odyssey and Aeneid, had been recited to a select audiences, though this was a more intimate experience than the performance of plays in theaters. A new world of individualistic fashion, personal views, intimate feelings, secret anxieties, "conduct", "gallantry" spread with novels and the associated prose-romance. LengthThe novel is today the longest genre of narrative prose fiction, followed by the novella. However, in the 17th century, critics saw the romance as of epic length and the novel as its short rival. A precise definition of the differences in length between these types of fiction, is, not possible; the requirement of length has been traditionally connected with the notion that a novel should encompass the "totality of life."
Although early forms of the novel are to be found in a number of places, including classical Rome, 10th– and 11th-century Japan, Elizabethan England, the European novel is said to have begun with Don Quixote in 1605. Early novels include works in Greek such as the Life of Aesop, Lucian's A True Story, the Alexander Romance and novels Chariton's Callirhoe, Achilles Tatius' Leucippe and Clitophon, Longus' Daphnis and Chloe, Xenophon of Ephesus' Ephesian Tale, Heliodorus of Emesa's Aethiopica, which inspire writers of medieval novels such Hysimine and Hysimines by Eustathios Makrembolites and Dosikles by Theodore Prodromos and Drosilla and Charikles by Niketas Eugenianos and Arístandros and Kallithéa by Constantine Manasses.
Hubert Prior "Rudy" Vallée was an American singer and radio host. He was one of the first modern pop stars of the teen idol type; the son of Charles Alphonse Vallée and Catherine Lynch, Rudy Vallée was born Hubert Prior Vallée in Island Pond, Vermont. His parents were born and raised in Vermont; the Vallées were Francophone Canadians from Quebec. Vallée grew up in Maine. In 1917, he enlisted for World War I but was discharged when United States Navy authorities discovered he was only 15 years old, he enlisted in Portland, Maine, on March 29, 1917, under the false birthdate of July 28, 1899. He was discharged at the Naval Training Station, Rhode Island, on May 17, 1917, with 41 days of active service. After playing drums in his high school band, Vallée played clarinet and saxophone in bands around New England as a teenager. From 1924 through 1925, he played with the Savoy Havana Band at the Savoy Hotel in London, where band members discouraged his attempts to become a vocalist, he returned to the United States attending the University of Maine.
He received a degree in philosophy from Yale University, where he played in the Yale Collegians with Peter Arno, who became a cartoonist for The New Yorker magazine. After graduation, he formed Rudy Vallée and the Connecticut Yankees, having named himself after saxophonist Rudy Wiedoeft. With this band, which included two violins, two saxophones, a piano, a banjo, drums, he started singing, he seemed more at home singing sweet ballads than jazz songs. But his singing, suave manner, boyish good looks attracted attention from young women. Vallée was given a recording contract, in 1928 he started performing on the radio, he became one of the first crooners. Singers needed strong voices to fill theaters in the days before microphones. Crooners had soft voices. Vallée's trombone-like vocal phrasing on "Deep Night" would inspire Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra, Perry Como to model their voices on jazz instruments. Vallée was one of the first celebrity pop stars. Flappers pursued him, his live appearances were sold out.
Among screaming female fans, his voice failed to project in venues without microphones and amplification, so he sang through a megaphone. A caricature of him singing this way was depicted in the Betty Boop cartoon Poor Cinderella. Another caricature is in Crosby and Vallee, which parodies him, Bing Crosby, Russ Columbo. In the words of a magazine writer in 1929, At the microphone he is a romantic figure. Faultlessly attired in evening dress, he pours into the radio's delicate ear a stream of mellifluous melody, he appears to be coaxing, pleading and at the same time adoring the invisible one to whom his song is attuned. Vallée had his share of detractors as well as fans. Radio Revue, a radio fan magazine, held a contest in which people wrote letters explaining his success; the winning letter, written by a man who disliked Vallee's music, said, "Rudy Vallee is reaping the harvest of a seed, sown this day and age: LOVE. The good-looking little son-of-a-gun and LOVES his audience and his art, he LOVES to please listeners—LOVES it more than he does his name in the big lights, his mug in the papers.
He loved all those unseen women as passionately as a voice can love, long before they began to purr and to caress him with two-cent stamps."Vallée made his first records in 1928 for Columbia's low-priced labels Harmony, Velvet Tone, Diva. He signed to RCA Victor in February 1929 and remained with the company through 1931, leaving after a heated dispute with executives over title selections, he recorded for the short-lived Hit of the Week label which sold records laminated onto cardboard. In August 1932, he signed with Columbia and stayed with the label through 1933, his records were issued on Victor's low-priced Bluebird label until November 1933, when he was back on the Victor label. He remained with Victor until signing with ARC in 1936. ARC issued his records on the Perfect, Melotone and Romeo labels until 1937, when he again returned to Victor. With his group the Connecticut Yankees, Vallée's best-known recordings include "The Stein Song" in 1929 and "Vieni, Vieni" in the latter 1930s, his last hit record was a reissue of "As Time Goes By", popularized in the 1942 film Casablanca.
Due to the mid-1940s recording ban, RCA Victor reissued the version he had recorded in 1931. During World War II, he enlisted in the United States Coast Guard to help direct the 11th district Coast Guard band as a Chief Petty Officer, he was led the 40 piece band to great success. In 1944 he was returned to radio. According to George P. Oslin, Vallée on July 28, 1933 was the recipient of the first singing telegram. A fan telegraphed birthday greeting, Oslin had the operator sing "Happy Birthday to You". In 1995, a Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs, Walk of Stars was dedicated to him. In 1929, Vallée began hosting The Fleischmann's Yeast Hour, a popular radio show with guests such as Fay Wray and Richard Cromwell in dramatic skits. Vallée continued hosting radio shows such as the Royal Gelatin Hour, Vallee Varieties, The Rudy Vallee Show through the 1930s and 1940s; when Vallée took his contractual vacations from his national radio show in 1937, he insisted his sponsor hire Louis Armstrong as his substitute This was the first instance of an African-American hosting a national radio program.
Vallée wrote the in
Mitra Tabrizian is a British-Iranian photographer and film director. She is a professor of photography at the University of London. Mitra Tabrizian has exhibited and published and in major international museums and galleries, including her solo exhibition at the Tate Britain in 2008, her books Another Country, with texts by Homi Bhabha, David Green, Hamid Naficy, is published by Hatje Cantz in 2012. Born in Tehran, Tabrizian studied at the Polytechnic of Central London in the 1980s. Tabrizian published her first monograph, Correct Distance, in 1990. In 1992, she was included in a survey edition of Ten.8 magazine "Critical decade: Black British photography in the 80s". Her book of photographs, Beyond the Limits, is a critique of corporate culture and is inspired by the works of Jean Baudrillard and Jean-François Lyotard, her films include Journey of No Return, The Third Woman, The Predator. Tabrizian has exhibited her work at the Tate, Modern Art Oxford, Gallery Lelong, New York, the Architectural Association and numerous film festivals.
In January 2018, she exhibited at London Art Fair with Arte Globale. Correct Distance. Manchester: Cornerhouse, 1990. With a text by Griselda Pollock. Beyond the limits. Göttingen, Germany: Steidl, 2004. With texts by Stuart Hall, Christopher Williams, Francette Pacteau and a contribution from Homi K. Bhabha; this is That Place. London: Tate, 2008. Catalogue. With a text by T. J. Demos. Another Country. Berlin: Hatje Cantz, 2012. With texts by Bhabha, David Green, Hamid Naficy; the Third Woman – writer and director, 16 mm, 20 mins Journey of No Return – writer and director, 16 mm, 23 mins The Predator – writer and director, 35 mm, 28 mins Gholam – writer and director, 94 mins Museum of Folkwang, Germany, 2003 Jenseits der Grenzen, Kunstlerhaus Bethanien, Germany, 2004 BBK, Spain, 2004 Moderna Mussset Stockholm, Sweden, 2006 Tate Britain, London, 2008 Caprice Horn Gallery, Berlin, 2008 Albion gallery, London, 2009'Project B, Contemporary Art', Milan, 2011 The Selectors' Show, London, UK, 1984 Mitra Tabriziam, Victor Burgin, Mari Mahr, The Photographers Gallery, London, UK,1986 Shocks to the System: Social and Political Issues in Recent British Art from the Arts Council Collection, South Bank Centre, London, UK, 1991 Fine Material for a Dream...?
A Reappraisal of Orientalism, Harris Museum & Art Gallery, Preston, UK, 1992 2005. Arts & Humanities Research Center Research Leave Grant 2005; the Arts Council, UK 2004. Arts & Humanities Research Center Grants in the Creative & Performing Arts 2004; the Arts Council, UK 2003. Arts & Humanities Research Board Innovation Awards 1996. London Arts Board 1993. British Film Institute 1993. Greater London Arts, film award British Film Institute 1993. Photographers' Gallery Trust Fund 1987. Metro Billboard Project, Newcastle, UK 1987. Greater London Arts, Photography award 1985. National Museum of Photography, Film & Television, photography award UK 1985. Greater London Arts, photography award 1985. Arts Council photography award, UK Brighton Photo Biennial 2006. Artists, Mitra Tabrizian. Accessed 18 December 2007. University of Westminster. Centre for Research and Education in Art and Media, Research Staff, s.v. "Prof. Mitra Tabrizian". Accessed 18 December 2007. Steidl. Artists, "Mitra Tabrizian". Accessed 18 December 2007.
Official site Mitra Tabrizian auf culturebase.net