2001: A Space Odyssey (novel)
2001: A Space Odyssey is a 1968 science fiction novel by British writer Arthur C. Clarke, it was developed concurrently with Stanley Kubrick's film version and published after the release of the film. Clarke and Kubrick worked on the book together, but only Clarke ended up as the official author; the story is based in part on various short stories by Clarke, including "The Sentinel". By 1992, the novel had sold three million copies worldwide. An elaboration of Clarke and Kubrick's collaborative work on this project was made in The Lost Worlds of 2001; the first part of the novel, in which aliens influence the primitive ancestors of humans, is similar to the plot of an earlier Clarke story, "Encounter in the Dawn". An ancient and unseen alien race uses a device with the appearance of a large crystalline monolith to investigate worlds across the galaxy and, if possible, to encourage the development of intelligent life; the book shows one such monolith appearing in ancient Africa, 3 million years B.
C. where it inspires a starving group of hominids to develop tools. The ape-men use their tools ending their starvation, they use the tools to kill a leopard preying on them. The book suggests. In AD 1999, Dr. Heywood Floyd travels to the Moon's Clavius Base, where a scientist explains that they have found a magnetic disturbance, designated Tycho Magnetic Anomaly One, in the crater Tycho. Excavation has revealed a large black slab fashioned to a ratio of 1:4:9 and therefore believed the work of intelligence. Visiting TMA-1, Floyd and others arrive just as sunlight falls upon it for the first time since it was uncovered. A mission, Discovery One, is dispatched to Saturn. En route, Dr. David Bowman and Dr. Frank Poole are the only conscious humans aboard; the HAL 9000, an artificially intelligent computer, addressed as "Hal", maintains the ship. While Poole is receiving a birthday message from his family on Earth, Hal tells Bowman that the AE-35 communication unit of the ship is going to malfunction.
Poole swaps the AE-35 unit. Poole and Bowman become suspicious at Hal's refusal to admit. In communicating with Earth and Bowman are directed to disconnect Hal for analysis; these instructions are interrupted as the signal is broken, Hal informs them that the AE-35 unit has malfunctioned. As Poole is removing the unit he is killed. Bowman, uncertain of Hal's role therein, decides to wake the other three astronauts, therefore quarrels with Hal, with Hal refusing to obey his orders. Bowman threatens to disconnect him if his orders are not obeyed, Hal relents; as Bowman begins to awaken his colleagues, he hears Hal open both airlocks into space, releasing the ship's internal atmosphere. From a sealed emergency shelter, Bowman gains a spacesuit and re-enters the ship, where he shuts down Hal's consciousness, leaving intact only his autonomic functions, manually re-establishes contact with Earth, he learns that his mission is to explore Iapetus, in the hope of contacting the society that buried the monolith on the Moon.
Bowman learns that Hal had begun to feel guilty at keeping the purpose of the mission from him and Poole, against his stated mission of gathering information and reporting it fully. Bowman spends months on the ship alone approaching Iapetus. During his approach, he notices a small black spot on the surface of Iapetus, finds it identical in shape to TMA-1, only much larger; the scientists on Earth name this monolith "TMA-2", which Bowman identifies as a double misnomer because it is not in the Tycho crater and gives off no magnetic anomaly. When Bowman approaches the monolith, it pulls in Bowman's pod. Before he vanishes, Mission Control hears him proclaim: "The thing's hollow — it goes on forever — and — oh my God! — it's full of stars!"Bowman is transported via the monolith to an unknown star system, through a large interstellar switching station, sees other species' spaceships going on other routes. Bowman is given a wide variety of sights, from the wreckage of ancient civilizations to what appear to be life-forms, living on the surfaces of a binary star system's planet.
He is brought to what appears a pleasant hotel suite designed to make him feel at ease, falls asleep, whereupon he becomes an immortal'Star Child' that can live and travel in space. The Star Child returns to Earth, where he detonates an orbiting nuclear warhead; this is not discussed again until the sequel to 2010: Odyssey Two. Perils of technology2001: A Space Odyssey explores technological advancement: its promise and its danger; the HAL 9000 computer puts forward the troubles that can crop up when man builds machines, the inner workings of which he does not comprehend and therefore cannot control. Perils of nuclear warThe book explores the perils related to the atomic age. In thi
A screenplay, or script, is a written work by screenwriters for a film, television program or video game. These screenplays can be original adaptations from existing pieces of writing. In them, the movement, actions and dialogues of the characters are narrated. A screenplay written for television is known as a teleplay; the format is structured so that one page equates to one minute of screen time, though this is only used as a ballpark estimate and bears little resemblance to the running time of the final movie. The standard font is 10 pitch Courier Typeface; the major components are dialogue. The action is written in the present tense and is limited to what can be heard or seen by the audience, for example descriptions of settings, character movements, or sound effects; the dialogue is the words the characters speak, is written in a center column. Unique to the screenplay is the use of slug lines. A slug line called a master scene heading, occurs at the start of every scene and contains three pieces of information: whether the scene is set inside or outside, the specific location, the time of day.
Each slug line begins a new scene. In a "shooting script" the slug lines are numbered consecutively for ease of reference. American screenplays are printed single-sided on three-hole-punched paper using the standard American letter size, they are held together with two brass brads in the top and bottom hole. The middle hole is left empty as it would otherwise make it harder to read the script. In the United Kingdom, double-hole-punched A4 paper is used, taller and narrower than US letter size; some UK writers format the scripts for use in the US letter size when their scripts are to be read by American producers, since the pages would otherwise be cropped when printed on US paper. Because each country's standard paper size is difficult to obtain in the other country, British writers send an electronic copy to American producers, or crop the A4 size to US letter. A British script may be bound by a single brad at the top left hand side of the page, making flicking through the paper easier during script meetings.
Screenplays are bound with a light card stock cover and back page showing the logo of the production company or agency submitting the script, covers are there to protect the script during handling which can reduce the strength of the paper. This is important if the script is to pass through the hands of several people or through the post. Reading copies of screenplays are distributed printed on both sides of the paper to reduce paper waste, they are reduced to half-size to make a small book, convenient to read or put in a pocket. Although most writing contracts continue to stipulate physical delivery of three or more copies of a finished script, it is common for scripts to be delivered electronically via email. Screenplays and teleplays use a set of standardizations, beginning with proper formatting; these rules are in part to serve the practical purpose of making scripts uniformly readable "blueprints" of movies, to serve as a way of distinguishing a professional from an amateur. Motion picture screenplays intended for submission to mainstream studios, whether in the US or elsewhere in the world, are expected to conform to a standard typographical style known as the studio format which stipulates how elements of the screenplay such as scene headings, transitions, character names and parenthetical matter should be presented on the page, as well as font size and line spacing.
One reason for this is that, when rendered in studio format, most screenplays will transfer onto the screen at the rate of one page per minute. This rule of thumb is contested — a page of dialogue occupies less screen time than a page of action, for example, it depends enormously on the literary style of the writer — and yet it continues to hold sway in modern Hollywood. There is no single standard for studio format; some studios have definitions of the required format written into the rubric of their writer's contract. The Nicholl Fellowship, a screenwriting competition run under the auspices of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, has a guide to screenplay format. A more detailed reference is The Complete Guide to Standard Script Formats. A "spec script" or speculative screenplay is a script written to be sold on the open market with no upfront payment, or promise of payment; the content is invented by the screenwriter, though spec screenplays can be based on established works, or real people and events.
For American TV shows, the format rules for hour-long dramas and single-camera sitcoms are the same as for motion pictures. The main difference is. Multi-camera sitcoms use a specialized format that derives from stage plays and radio. In this format, dialogue is double-spaced, action lines are capitalized, scene headings, character entrances and exits, sound effects are capitalized and underlined. Drama series and sitcoms are no longer the only formats. With reality-based programming crossing genres to create various hybrid programs, many of the so-called "reality" programs are in a large part scripted in format; that is, the overall skeleton of the show and its episodes are written to di
Alien is a 1979 science-fiction horror film directed by Ridley Scott and written by Dan O'Bannon. Based on a story by O'Bannon and Ronald Shusett, it follows the crew of the commercial space tug Nostromo who encounter the eponymous Alien, a deadly and aggressive extraterrestrial set loose on the ship; the film stars Tom Skerritt, Sigourney Weaver, Veronica Cartwright, Harry Dean Stanton, John Hurt, Ian Holm, Yaphet Kotto. It was produced by Gordon Carroll, David Giler and Walter Hill through their company Brandywine Productions, was distributed by 20th Century Fox. Giler and Hill made additions to the script; the Alien and its accompanying artifacts were designed by the Swiss artist H. R. Giger, while concept artists Ron Cobb and Chris Foss designed the more human settings. Alien was released on September 6 in the United Kingdom, it was met with critical acclaim and box office success, winning the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects, three Saturn Awards, a Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, along with numerous other nominations.
It has been praised in the years since its release, is considered one of the greatest films of all time. In 2002, Alien was deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" by the Library of Congress and was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry. In 2008, it was ranked by the American Film Institute as the seventh-best film in the science fiction genre, as the thirty-third greatest film of all time by Empire magazine; the success of Alien spawned a media franchise of films, comic books, video games, toys. It launched Weaver's acting career, providing her with her first lead role; the story of her character's encounters with the Alien creatures became the thematic and narrative core of the sequels Aliens, Alien 3 and Alien Resurrection. A crossover with the Predator franchise produced the Alien vs. Predator films, which includes Alien vs. Predator and Aliens vs. Predator: Requiem. A prequel series includes Alien: Covenant; the commercial space tug Nostromo is on a return trip to Earth with a seven-member crew in stasis, Captain Dallas, Executive Officer Kane, Warrant Officer Ripley, Navigator Lambert, Science Officer Ash and two Engineers and Brett.
Detecting a transmission from nearby moon LV-426, the ship's computer, awakens the crew. Company policy requires any potential distress signal be investigated, so they land on the moon, sustaining damage from its atmosphere and rocky landscape. Parker and Brett repair the ship while Dallas and Lambert head out to investigate, they discover the signal comes from a derelict alien ship and enter it, losing communication with the Nostromo. Ripley deciphers part of the transmission, determining it to be a warning, but cannot relay this information to those on the derelict ship. Meanwhile, Kane discovers a chamber containing hundreds of large egg-like objects; when he touches one, a creature springs out, breaks through his helmet, attaches itself to his face. Dallas and Lambert carry the unconscious Kane back to the Nostromo; as acting senior officer, Ripley refuses to let them aboard, citing quarantine regulations, but Ash overrides her decision and lets them inside. Ash attempts to remove the creature from Kane's face but stops when he discovers that its blood is an corrosive acid.
It detaches on its own and is found dead. The ship is repaired, the crew lifts off. Kane is otherwise unharmed. During a final crew meal before returning to stasis, he convulses. A small alien creature bursts from Kane's chest, killing him, escapes into the ship; the crew attempts to locate it with tracking devices and capture or kill it with nets, electric prods and flamethrowers. Brett follows the crew's cat Jones into a huge supply room, where the now fully-grown alien attacks and disappears with his body. After heated discussion, the crew decide. Dallas enters the ducts, intending to force the alien into an airlock, but it ambushes and kills him. Lambert implores the others to escape in its small shuttle. Now in command, Ripley explains it will not support four people and pursues the plan of flushing out the alien. Now with access to Mother, Ripley discovers Ash has been secretly ordered by the company to bring the alien back, with the crew deemed expendable, she confronts Ash. Parker intervenes and clubs Ash, revealing him to be an android.
Ash's head is reactivated, they learn he was assigned to ensure the creature's survival. He expresses admiration for the creature's psychology, unhindered by conscience or morality, taunts them about their chances of survival. Ripley cuts off his power; the remaining crew decides to escape in the shuttle. Parker and Lambert are killed by the creature. Ripley initiates the self-destruct sequence, but finds the alien blocking her path to the shuttle, she attempts unsuccessfully to abort the self-destruct. With no further options, she makes her way to the shuttle and escapes as the Nostromo explodes; as Ripley prepares for stasis, she discovers that the alien is aboard, having wedged itself into a narrow space. She uses gas to flush the creature out, it approaches Ripley, but be
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker
Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker is the original title of the novelization of the 1977 film Star Wars. Ghostwritten by Alan Dean Foster, but credited to George Lucas, it was first published on November 12, 1976, by Ballantine Books. In years, it was republished under the title Star Wars: A New Hope to reflect the retroactive addition of a subtitle to the film in 1981. Although the book contains some differences from the film, it includes references to Palpatine and his rise to power in the prologue, setting up the backstory for future films; the book was based upon Lucas's screenplay for the first Star Wars film. On how he got the job, Foster said: "My agent got a call from Lucas's lawyer of the time, Tom Pollock. Someone had read a book of mine, knew that I had done novelizations, thought I might be the writer to do the novelization of Lucas' new film. I knew his work through THX 1138 and American Graffiti. I accepted the offer to meet with George, did so at Industrial Light and Magic in a small warehouse in Van Nuys, California.
We hit it off well, I got the assignment, that's how it happened." Foster not only adapted the film's events, but fleshed out the backstory of time, physics, races, languages and technology. When asked whether it was difficult for him to see Lucas get all the credit for the novelization, Foster said: "Not at all, it was George's story idea. I was expanding upon it. Not having my name on the cover didn't bother me in the least, it would be akin to a contractor demanding to have his name on a Frank Lloyd Wright house." Lucas, for his part, has been open about the fact that Foster ghostwrote the novel, noting this fact in his introduction to editions of the book. The paperback book was first published in the US as Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker in December 1976 by Ballantine Books, six months before the theatrical release of the film; the cover art was by Star Wars conceptual artist Ralph McQuarrie, commissioned by Ballantine Books executive Judy Lynn Del Rey while he was working on visualization work for Lucas's forthcoming film.
The cover depicted Luke Skywalker, Chewbacca, C-3PO, R2-D2 standing in front of an enlarged head of Darth Vader. On the back of the book was written, "Soon to be a spectacular motion picture from Twentieth Century Fox". In the United Kingdom, the novelization was published by Sphere Books, featured cover art by John Berkey. Sphere paid $225,000 for the British publishing rights. By February 1977, still three months before the film was released, the novelization sold out its initial print run of 125,000 copies. In the next three months, Ballantine had sold 3.5 million copies. Some editions contain sixteen pages of full-color photos from the motion picture. Editions of the novelization were published under altered titles to reflect the retitling of the film, such as Star Wars: A New Hope, Star Wars IV: A New Hope; the words that open each Star Wars film, "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away...." are absent from the novelization, substituted by the similar "Another galaxy, another time."In place of the opening crawl describing the events just preceding the film, the novelization includes a prologue explaining the political backstory "From the First Saga: Journal of the Whills".
It contains the first reference to the Emperor's name, though his description is somewhat at odds with his depiction as a Sith Master in The Empire Strikes Back, Return of the Jedi, the prequel trilogy. Lucas explained that the first film was written in the era of Richard Nixon, when the story was intended to explore "how a democracy turns itself over to a dictator—not how a dictator takes over a democracy." The book's introduction reads: Aided and abetted by restless, power-hungry individuals within the government, the massive organs of commerce, the ambitious Senator Palpatine caused himself to be elected President of the Republic. He promised to reunite the disaffected among the people and to restore the remembered glory of the Republic. Once secure in office he declared shutting himself away from the populace. Soon he was controlled by the assistants and boot-lickers he had appointed to high office, the cries of the people for justice did not reach his ears. Several other portions of the novel deviate from the film, including scenes that were filmed but not inserted into the final cut of the movie.
Most notable of these are his friends at Tosche Station on Tatooine. Included is the scene with Jabba the Hutt, re-inserted in the Special Edition of the film; this differs both from the script's version of Jabba, the giant slug creature that appeared in Return of the Jedi. There are various small details throughout, such as Luke's squadron in the Death Star assault being Blue Squadron, thus Luke's call sign is "Blue Five" instead of "Red Five"; the official term for "droid" in the novelization is "mechanical", it is implied that "droid" is a slang term, spelled with an apostrophe preceding it as a contraction of the word "android". Additionally, the word "rebel" is never capitalized, unlike its appearance when describing the Rebel Alliance in the film's opening crawl; the novel and various merchandising tie-ins also
A feature film or theatrical film is a film with a running time long enough to be considered the principal or sole film to fill a program. The term feature film referred to the main, full-length film in a cinema program that included a short film and a newsreel; the notion of how long a feature film should be has varied according to place. According to the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the American Film Institute and the British Film Institute, a feature film runs for at least 45 minutes, while the Screen Actors Guild asserts that a feature's running time is 75 minutes or longer. Most feature films are between 210 minutes long; the first narrative feature film was the 60-minute The Story of the Kelly Gang. The first -feature-length adaptation was Les Misérables. Other early feature films include The Inferno, Defence of Sevastopol, Quo Vadis?, Oliver Twist, Richard III, From the Manger to the Cross and Cleopatra. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the American Film Institute, the British Film Institute all define a feature as a film with a running time of 2,700 seconds or longer.
The Centre National de la Cinématographie in France defines it as a 35 mm film longer than 1,600 metres, 58 minutes and 29 seconds for sound films, the Screen Actors Guild gives a minimum running time of at least 75 minutes. The term feature film came into use to refer to the main film presented in a cinema and the one, promoted or advertised; the term was used to distinguish the longer film from the short films presented before the main film, such as newsreels, animated cartoons, live-action comedies, documentaries. There was no sudden increase in the running times of films to the present-day definitions of feature-length. Early features had been produced in the United States and France, but were released in individual scenes; this left exhibitors the option of playing them alone, to view an incomplete combination of some films, or to run them all together as a short film series. Early features were documentary-style films of noteworthy events; some of the earliest feature-length productions were films of boxing matches, such as The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight, Reproduction Of The Corbett-Jeffries Fight, The Jeffries-Sharkey Fight.
Some consider the 100-minute The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight to be the first documentary feature film, but it is more characterized as a sports program as it included the full unedited boxing match. In 1900, the documentary film In the Army was made, it was about the training techniques of the British soldier. Inauguration of the Australian Commonwealth ran for 35 minutes, "six times longer than any previous Australian film", has been called "possibly the first feature-length documentary made in Australia"; the American company S. Lubin released a Passion Play titled Lubin's Passion Play in January 1903 in 31 parts, totaling about 60 minutes; the French company Pathé Frères released a different Passion Play, The Life and Passion of Jesus Christ, in May 1903 in 32 parts running about 44 minutes. Defined by length, the first dramatic feature film was the Australian 70-minute film The Story of the Kelly Gang; the first European feature was the 90-minute film L'Enfant prodigue, although, an unmodified record of a stage play.
The first Russian feature was Defence of Sevastopol in 1911. Early Italian features were The Inferno, Quo Vadis?, The Last Days of Pompeii, Cabiria. The first UK features were the documentary With Our King and Queen Through India, filmed in Kinemacolor and Oliver Twist; the first American features were adaptations of Oliver Twist, From the Manger to the Cross and Richard III. The latter starring actor Frederick Warde starred in some of these movie adaptations; the first Asian feature was Japan's The Life Story of Tasuke Shiobara, the first Indian feature was Raja Harishchandra, the first South American feature was Brazil's O Crime dos Banhados, the first African feature was South Africa's Die Voortrekkers. 1913 saw China's first feature film, Zhang Shichuan's Nan Fu Nan Qi. By 1915 over 600 feature films were produced annually in the United States, it is incorrectly cited that The Birth of a Nation was the first American feature film. The most prolific year of U. S. feature production was 1921, with 682 releases.
Between 1922 and 1970, the U. S. and Japan alternated as leaders in the quantity of feature film production. Since 1971, the country with the highest feature output has been India, which produces a thousand films in more than twelve Indian languages each year. In 1927, Warner Bros. released the first feature-length film with sound, The Jazz Singer, whose audio track was recorded with a proprietary technology called Vitaphone. The film's success persuaded other studios to go to the considerable expense of adding microphones to their sets, scramble to start producing their own "talkies". One of the next major advancements made in movie production was color film. Before color was a possibility in movies, early film makers were interested in how color could enhance their stories. Early technique
Gladiator (2000 film)
Gladiator is a 2000 epic historical drama film directed by Ridley Scott and written by David Franzoni, John Logan, William Nicholson. The film was jointly released by DreamWorks Pictures and Universal Pictures, it stars Russell Crowe, Joaquin Phoenix, Connie Nielsen, Ralf Möller, Oliver Reed, Djimon Hounsou, Derek Jacobi, John Shrapnel, Richard Harris. Crowe portrays Hispano-Roman general Maximus Decimus Meridius, betrayed when Commodus, the ambitious son of Emperor Marcus Aurelius, murders his father and seizes the throne. Reduced to slavery, Maximus rises through the ranks of the gladiatorial arena to avenge the murders of his family and his emperor. Inspired by Daniel P. Mannix's 1958 novel Those About to Die, the film's script written by Franzoni, was acquired by DreamWorks and Ridley Scott signed on to direct the film. Principal photography began in January 1999, before the script was completed, wrapped up in May of that year, with the scenes of Ancient Rome shot over a period of nineteen weeks in Fort Ricasoli, Malta.
The film's computer-generated imagery effects were created by British post-production company The Mill, who created digital body double for the remaining scenes involving of Reed's character Proximo due to Reed dying of a heart attack during production. Gladiator was released in the United States on May 5, 2000 and received favorable reviews from critics; the film solidified Crowe's. The film was a box office success, grossing $187.7 million in the United States, making it the fourth highest-grossing film of 2000 domestically, grossed $457 million worldwide, making it the second highest-grossing film of 2000. The film won multiple awards, including five Academy Awards at the 73rd Academy Awards: Best Picture, Best Actor for Crowe, Best Costume Design, Best Sound, Best Visual Effects, it has been credited with rekindling interest in entertainment centered around ancient Greek and Roman culture, such as the TV series Rome. In AD 180, Hispano-Roman General Maximus Decimus Meridius intends to return to his home after he leads the Roman army to victory against the Germanic tribes near Vindobona on the Limes Germanicus.
Emperor Marcus Aurelius tells Maximus that his own son, Commodus, is unfit to rule, that he wishes Maximus to succeed him, as regent, to help save Rome from corruption. Commodus, upon hearing this, murders his father. Commodus announces he is the new Emperor and asks Maximus for his loyalty. Maximus is told that he and his family will die, he kills his rides for his home near Trujillo, where he finds his family murdered. Maximus buries his son, he is found by slavers who take him to the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis to the city of Zucchabar, where he is sold to a gladiator trainer named Proximo. Although reluctant at first, Maximus fights in local tournaments and befriends two other gladiators: Juba, a Numidian, his military skills help him win gain recognition from other gladiators and the crowd. Proximo reveals that he was once a gladiator, advises Maximus that he must "win the crowd" to win his freedom. Proximo takes his gladiators to fight in Rome's Colosseum, because Commodus has organized 150 days of games.
Disguised by a masked helmet, Maximus debuts in gladiatorial combat in the Colosseum as a Carthaginian in a re-enactment of the Battle of Zama. Unexpectedly, Maximus leads his side to victory, Commodus enters the Colosseum to offer his congratulations, he orders the disguised Maximus, as leader of the gladiators, to give his name. Commodus is compelled by the crowd to let the gladiators live, his guards are held back from striking them down. Maximus's next fight is against a legendary undefeated gladiator named Tigris of Gaul. Commodus has arranged for several tigers to be set upon Maximus during the duel. Commodus orders Maximus to kill Tigris. Angered at this outcome, Commodus taunts Maximus about his family's deaths, but Maximus turns and walks away. Maximus discovers from his ex-orderly, that his former legions remain loyal. Lucilla, Commodus's sister. Maximus will escape Rome, join his soldiers, topple Commodus by force, hand power back to the Roman Senate. Commodus learns of the plot by threatening Lucilla, has the Praetorian Guard arrest Gracchus and attack the gladiators' barracks.
Proximo and his men, including Hagen, sacrifice themselves to enable Maximus to escape. Maximus is captured at the rendezvous with Cicero. In an effort to win back the people's approval, Commodus challenges Maximus to a duel in the Colosseum, he stabs Maximus before the match to gain an advantage. Despite his injuries, Maximus disarms Commodus. Commodus produces a hidden knife, which Maximus drives into his throat, killing him. Maximus succumbs to his wounds. Before he dies, he asks for political reforms, for his gladiator allies to be freed, for Senator Gracchus to be reinstated. Maximus's friends and allies honor him as "a soldier of Rome", at Lucilla's behest, carry his body out of the arena, leaving the dead Commodus behind. Juba visits the Colosseum at night and buries the figurines of Maximus's wife and son at the spot where he died. Juba promises to se