SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

November 2015 Paris attacks

The November 2015 Paris attacks were a series of co-ordinated terrorist attacks that took place on 13 November 2015 in Paris and the city's northern suburb, Saint-Denis. Beginning at 21:16 CET, three suicide bombers struck outside the Stade de France in Saint-Denis, during a football match; this was followed at cafés and restaurants. Gunmen carried out another mass shooting and took hostages at an Eagles of Death Metal concert in the Bataclan theatre, leading to a stand-off with police; the attackers blew themselves up when police raided the theatre. The attackers killed 130 people, including 90 at the Bataclan theatre. Another 413 people were injured 100 seriously. Seven of the attackers died while the authorities continued to search for accomplices; the attacks were the deadliest in France since the Second World War, the deadliest in the European Union since the Madrid train bombings in 2004. France had been on high alert since the January 2015 attacks on Charlie Hebdo offices and a Jewish supermarket in Paris that killed 17 people and wounded 22, including civilians and police officers.

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant claimed responsibility for the attacks, saying that it was retaliation for the French airstrikes on ISIL targets in Syria and Iraq. The President of France at the time, François Hollande, said the attacks were an act of war by ISIL; the attacks were organised by a terrorist cell based in Belgium. Most of the Paris attackers had French or Belgian citizenship, two were Iraqis, some had fought in Syria; some of them had entered Europe among the flow of refugees. In response to the attacks, a three-month state of emergency was declared across the country to help fight terrorism, which involved the banning of public demonstrations, allowing the police to carry out searches without a warrant, put anyone under house arrest without trial and block websites that encouraged acts of terrorism. On 15 November, France launched the biggest airstrike of Opération Chammal, its contribution to the anti-ISIL bombing campaign, striking ISIL targets in Raqqa. On 18 November, the suspected lead operative of the attacks, Abdelhamid Abaaoud, was killed in a police raid in Saint-Denis, along with two others.

France had been on high alert for terrorism since the Charlie Hebdo shooting and a series of related attacks in January by militants belonging to Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, had increased security in anticipation of the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, scheduled to be held in Paris at the beginning of December, as well as reinstating border checks a week before the attacks. Throughout 2015, France witnessed smaller attacks: the February stabbing of three soldiers guarding a Jewish community centre in Nice, the June attempt to blow up a factory in Saint-Quentin Fallavier, the August shooting and stabbing attack on a passenger train; the Bataclan theatre had been threatened a number of times because of its public support for Israel. Two Jewish brothers, Pascal and Joël Laloux, owned the Bataclan for more than 40 years before selling it in September 2015. In 2011, a group calling itself Army of Islam told French security services they had planned an attack on the Bataclan because its owners were Jewish.

In the weeks leading up to the Paris attacks, ISIL and its branches had claimed responsibility for several other attacks: the downing of Metrojet Flight 9268 on 31 October and the suicide bombings in Beirut on 12 November. Intelligence agencies in Turkey and Iraq had warned of an imminent attack on France months beforehand, but were ignored by the French authorities. According to The Irish Times, a senior French security official said they receive this kind of correspondence "every day"; this was one of two terrorist cells sent to Europe by the Islamic State in 2015, the other cell consisting of three Syrians was apprehended by German special forces in Schleswig-Holstein in mid September 2016. Three groups of men launched six distinct attacks: three suicide bombings in one attack, a fourth suicide bombing in another attack, shootings at four locations in four separate attacks. Shootings were reported in the vicinity of the rue Alibert, the rue de la Fontaine-au-Roi, the rue de Charonne, the Bataclan theatre, avenue de la République.

Three explosions occurred near the Stade de France, another on boulevard Voltaire, two of the Bataclan shooters detonated their suicide vests as police ended the stand-off. According to the Paris prosecutor, the attackers wore suicide vests that used acetone peroxide as an explosive. Three explosions occurred near the country's national sports stadium, the Stade de France, in the suburb of Saint-Denis, resulting in four deaths, including the three suicide bombers; the explosions happened at 21:16, 21:19, 21:53. The first explosion near the stadium was about 20 minutes after the start of an international friendly football match between France and Germany, which President Hollande was attending; the first bomber was prevented from entering the stadium after a security guard patted him down and discovered the suicide vest. Investigators surmised that the first suicide bomber had planned to detonate his vest within the stadium, triggering the crowd's panicked exit onto the streets where two other bombers were lying in wait.

Ten minutes after the first bombing, the second bomber blew himself up near the stadium. Another 23 minutes after that, the third bomber's vest detonated nearby. Hollande was evacuated from the stadium

Outskirts Press

Outskirts Press is a Denver, Colorado-based book publisher which caters to self-publishing authors. Outskirts Press is based in Parker and focuses on print on demand self-publishing services, wholesale digital distribution to Ingram Content Group and Baker & Taylor, online-order fulfillment. Around 150 contractors throughout the United States are used to assist authors with production issues such as editing, formatting and cover design. In 2004, Outskirts Press and F+W Publications reached a sponsorship agreement whereby Outskirts Press would publish the annual Writer's Digest Writing Competition Collection; as of 2008 the arrangement continued for the fifth year running. The company was founded by an author, Brent Sampson, as a result of his frustration in trying to get his own work published, incorporated in 2003. Between 2004 and 2007 revenue increased from $95,000 to $3.2 million and in 2007 the Denver Business Journal called it the third fastest-growing held company in the state. In 2009, Outskirts Press was recognized by Inc. 500 as the fastest-growing self publishing company.

In 2016, the company claimed it was duped by convicted serial killer Robert Pickton into agreeing to publish a book about him. Outskirts Press said it would cease publication of the book and asked Amazon.com to remove the book from its website. Official website

Maa Tanuvasa

Maa Tanuvasa is a former American football defensive end for the Denver Broncos. He played nine years in the National Football League, winning two Super Bowl championships as a main component of the Broncos defense. Tanuvasa was an Interscholatic All-Star in football and track and field at Mililani High School in Mililani, Hawai'i, he moved on to the University of Hawaii, where he starred for three years, amassing 190 tackles and 10 sacks and helping Hawaii to the 1992 Western Athletic Conference championship. He was drafted in the eighth round by the Los Angeles Rams in the 1993 NFL Draft and spent his rookie year with them. In 1994, he was cut by the Rams and spent a part of the season on the Pittsburgh Steelers' practice squad, his first NFL season was with the Broncos in 1995. He worked his way into the rotation by the 1996 season, by 1998, was a regular starter, he led the Broncos in sacks in the 1999 seasons. He was on the Bronco teams which won the 1998 Super Bowl championships. After the 2000 season with the Broncos, he joined the San Diego Chargers for one year, the Atlanta Falcons for the next.

He has not been in the NFL since, having returned to his native Hawai'i, where he served as an assistant football coach at his alma mater, Mililani High School. He was inducted into the Hawai'i Sports Hall of Fame in 2006. Hawai'i Sports Hall of Fame NFL player page