Commissioners swear an oath at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg, pledging to respect the treaties and to be completely independent in carrying out their duties during their mandate. The Commission operates as a government, with 28 members of the Commission. There is one member per state, but members are bound by their oath of office to represent the general interest of the EU as a whole rather than their home state. One of the 28 is the Commission President proposed by the European Council, the current Commission is the Juncker Commission, which took office in late 2014. The procedural languages of the Commission are English and German, the Members of the Commission and their cabinets are based in the Berlaymont building in Brussels. The first Commission originated in 1951 as the nine-member High Authority under President Jean Monnet, the High Authority was the supranational administrative executive of the new European Coal and Steel Community. It took office first on 10 August 1952 in Luxembourg, in 1958 the Treaties of Rome had established two new communities alongside the ECSC, the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community.
However their executives were called Commissions rather than High Authorities, the reason for the change in name was the new relationship between the executives and the Council. Some states such as France expressed reservations over the power of the High Authority, louis Armand led the first Commission of Euratom. Walter Hallstein led the first Commission of the EEC, holding the first formal meeting on 16 January 1958 at the Château of Val-Duchesse, Hallstein notably began the consolidation of European law and started to have a notable impact on national legislation. The three bodies, collectively named the European Executives, co-existed until 1 July 1967 when, under the Merger Treaty, the Rey Commission completed the Communitys customs union in 1968 and campaigned for a more powerful, European Parliament. Despite Rey being the first President of the communities, Hallstein is seen as the first President of the modern Commission. The Malfatti and Mansholt Commissions followed with work on monetary co-operation, with that enlargement the Commissions membership increased to thirteen under the Ortoli Commission, which dealt with the enlarged community during economic and international instability at that time.
Following the Jenkins Commission, Gaston Thorns Commission oversaw the Communitys enlargement to the south, the Commission headed by Jacques Delors was seen as giving the Community a sense of direction and dynamism. Delors and his team are considered as the founding fathers of the euro. The International Herald Tribune noted the work of Delors at the end of his term in 1992. He arrived when Europessimism was at its worst, although he was a little-known former French finance minister, he breathed life and hope into the EC and into the dispirited Brussels Commission. The successor to Delors was Jacques Santer, the entire Santer Commission was forced to resign in 1999 by the Parliament as result of a fraud and corruption scandal, with a central role played by Édith Cresson
King's Health Partners
Kings Health Partners is an academic health science centre located in London, United Kingdom. It comprises Kings College London, Guys and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust, Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust. Kings Health Partners member organisations have an annual turnover of around £2 billion. It forms one of the largest centres for healthcare education in Europe, the four partners announced their intention to form an academic health science centre in April 2008. On 9 March 2009 the UK Department of Health announced that Kings Health Partners would be one of five academic health science centres established in England, a strategic outline case for the merger was published in July 2012. Kings Health Partners collaborate with training and provide education for other allied health professionals from other institutions. Kings Health Partners chief calls for academic health groups protection, Kings Health Partners Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust Kings College London South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group. The chair presides over meetings of the group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. When the group is not in session, the officers duties include acting as its head, its representative to the outside world. In some organizations, this position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator, the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is often called the speaker. The term chair is used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U. S, president George H. W. Bush used chairman for men and chair for women. A1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as chairman, the Chronicle of Higher Education uses chairman for men and chairperson for women.
An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times, the National Association of Parliamentarians does not approve using chairperson. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called Mr. Chairman, the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using chair or chairperson, rather than chairman. The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the forms are gaining ground. It advocates using chair to refer both to men and to women, the word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be in the chair and is referred to as the chair. Major dictionaries state that the word derives from chair and man, some authorities, including Riddicks Rules of Procedure, suggest that the second part of chairman derives from the Latin manus, and thus claim gender-neutrality for the word.
Vladimir Lenin, for example, officially functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president, note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong, Chairman Mao. In the absence of the chairman and vice chairman, groups sometimes elect a chairman pro tempore to fill the role for a single meeting. In some organizations that have titles, deputy chairman ranks higher than vice chairman, as there are often multiple vice chairs
Growth hormone, known as somatotropin, is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals. It is thus important in human development and it is a type of mitogen which is specific only to certain kinds of cells. Growth hormone is a 191-amino acid, single-chain polypeptide that is synthesized, stored, GH is a stress hormone that raises the concentration of glucose and free fatty acids. It stimulates production of IGF-1, a recombinant form of hGH called somatropin is used as a prescription drug to treat childrens growth disorders and adult growth hormone deficiency. In the United States, it is available legally from pharmacies. In recent years in the United States, some doctors have started to prescribe growth hormone in GH-deficient older patients to increase vitality, while legal, the efficacy and safety of this use for HGH has not been tested in a clinical trial. At this time, HGH is still considered a very complex hormone, in its role as an anabolic agent, HGH has been used by competitors in sports since at least 1982, and has been banned by the IOC and NCAA.
Blood tests conducted by WADA at the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, use of the drug for performance enhancement is not currently approved by the FDA. GH has been studied for use in raising livestock more efficiently in industrial agriculture, in the United States, the only FDA-approved use of GH for livestock is the use of a cow-specific form of GH called bovine somatotropin for increasing milk production in dairy cows. Retailers are permitted to label containers of milk as produced with or without bovine somatotropin, the names somatotropin or somatotropic hormone refer to the growth hormone produced naturally in animals and extracted from carcasses. Hormone extracted from human cadavers is abbreviated hGH, the main growth hormone produced by recombinant DNA technology has the approved generic name somatropin and the brand name Humatrope, and is properly abbreviated rhGH in the scientific literature. Since its introduction in 1992 Humatrope has been a banned sports doping agent, genes for human growth hormone, known as growth hormone 1 and growth hormone 2, are localized in the q22-24 region of chromosome 17 and are closely related to human chorionic somatomammotropin genes. GH, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin belong to a group of hormones with growth-promoting.
The major isoform of the growth hormone is a protein of 191 amino acids. The structure includes four helices necessary for interaction with the GH receptor. It appears that, in structure, GH is evolutionarily homologous to prolactin, despite marked structural similarities between growth hormone from different species, only human and Old World monkey growth hormones have significant effects on the human growth hormone receptor. Several molecular isoforms of GH exist in the gland and are released to blood. This variant has not been identified, but it has suggested to coincide with a 22 kDa glycosylated variant of 23 kDa identified in the pituitary gland
New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange, is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York. It is by far the worlds largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its companies at US$19.3 trillion as of June 2016. The average daily trading value was approximately US$169 billion in 2013, the NYSE trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street and is composed of 21 rooms used for the facilitation of trading. A fifth trading room, located at 30 Broad Street, was closed in February 2007, the main building and the 11 Wall Street building were designated National Historic Landmarks in 1978. The NYSE is owned by Intercontinental Exchange, an American holding company that it lists, previously, it was part of NYSE Euronext, which was formed by the NYSEs 2007 merger with Euronext. NYSE and Euronext now operate as divisions of Intercontinental Exchange, the NYSE has been the subject of several lawsuits regarding fraud or breach of duty and in 2004 was sued by its former CEO for breach of contract and defamation.
The earliest recorded organization of securities trading in New York among brokers directly dealing with each other can be traced to the Buttonwood Agreement, previously securities exchange had been intermediated by the auctioneers who conducted more mundane auctions of commodities such as wheat and tobacco. In 1817 the stockbrokers of New York operating under the Buttonwood Agreement instituted new reforms, after sending a delegation to Philadelphia to observe the organization of their board of brokers, restrictions on manipulative trading were adopted as well as formal organs of governance. Several locations were used between 1817 and 1865, when the present location was adopted, the invention of the electrical telegraph consolidated markets, and New Yorks market rose to dominance over Philadelphia after weathering some market panics better than other alternatives. The Civil War greatly stimulated speculative securities trading in New York, by 1869 membership had to be capped, and has been sporadically increased since.
The latter half of the century saw rapid growth in securities trading. Securities trade in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was prone to panics. The Stock Exchange Luncheon Club was situated on the floor from 1898 until its closure in 2006. The main building, located at 18 Broad Street, between the corners of Wall Street and Exchange Place, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978, as was the 11 Wall Street building. The NYSE announced its plans to merge with Archipelago on April 21,2005, NYSEs governing board voted to merge with rival Archipelago on December 6,2005, and became a for-profit, public company. It began trading under the name NYSE Group on March 8,2006, Wall Street is the leading US money center for international financial activities and the foremost US location for the conduct of wholesale financial services. It comprises a matrix of wholesale financial sectors, financial markets, financial institutions, the principal sectors are securities industry, commercial banking, asset management, and insurance.
Prior to the acquisition of NYSE Euronext by the ICE in 2013, Marsh Carter was the Chairman of the NYSE, the chairman is Jeffrey Sprecher
The pharmaceutical industry discovers, develops and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as medications. Pharmaceutical companies may deal in generic or brand medications and medical devices and they are subject to a variety of laws and regulations that govern the patenting, safety and marketing of drugs. The modern pharmaceutical industry traces its roots to two sources, the first of these were local apothecaries that expanded from their traditional role distributing botanical drugs such as morphine and quinine to wholesale manufacture in the mid 1800s. Multinational corporations including Merck, Hoffman-La Roche, Burroughs-Wellcome, Abbott Laboratories, Eli Lilly, in 1897, John Abel of Johns Hopkins University identified the active principle as epinephrine, which he isolated in an impure state as the sulfate salt. Industrial chemist Jokichi Takamine developed a method for obtaining epinephrine in a pure state, Parke Davis marketed epinephrine under the trade name Adrenalin. Injected epinephrine proved to be efficacious for the acute treatment of asthma attacks.
By 1929 epinephrine had been formulated into an inhaler for use in the treatment of nasal congestion, while highly effective, the requirement for injection limited the use of norepinephrine and orally active derivatives were sought. A structurally similar compound, was identified by Japanese chemists in the Ma Huang plant, following the work of Henry Dale and George Barger at Burroughs-Wellcome, academic chemist Gordon Alles synthesized amphetamine and tested it in asthma patients in 1929. The drug proved to have only modest anti-asthma effects, but produced sensations of exhilaration, amphetamine was developed by Smith and French as a nasal decongestant under the trade name Benzedrine Inhaler. Amphetamine was eventually developed for the treatment of narcolepsy, post-encepheletic parkinsonism, the discovery was patented and licensed to Bayer pharmaceuticals, which marketed the compound under the trade name Veronal as a sleep aid beginning in 1904. Phenobarbital was among the most widely used drugs for the treatment of epilepsy through the 1970s, amphetamine is largely restricted to use in the treatment of attention deficit disorder and phenobarbital in the treatment of epilepsy. A series of experiments performed from the late 1800s to the early 1900s revealed that diabetes is caused by the absence of a substance produced by the pancreas.
In 1869, Oskar Minkowski and Joseph von Mering found that diabetes could be induced in dogs by surgical removal of the pancreas. In 1921, Canadian professor Frederick Banting and his student Charles Best repeated this study, the researchers sought assistance from industrial collaborators at Eli Lilly and Co. based on the companys experience with large scale purification of biological materials. Chemist George Walden of Eli Lilly and Company found that careful adjustment of the pH of the extract allowed a relatively pure grade of insulin to be produced, prior to the discovery and widespread availability of insulin therapy the life expectancy of diabetics was only a few months. In 1911 arsphenamine, the first synthetic drug, was developed by Paul Ehrlich. The drug was given the commercial name Salvarsan, arsphenamine was prepared as part of a campaign to synthesize a series of such compounds, and found to exhibit partially selective toxicity. Arsphenamine proved to be the first effective treatment for syphilis, a disease which prior to time was incurable and led inexorably to severe skin ulceration, neurological damage
The main goals of pre-clinical studies are to determine the safe dose for first-in-man study and assess a products safety profile. Products may include new medical devices, gene therapy solutions, on average, only one in every 5,000 compounds that enters drug discovery to the stage of preclinical development becomes an approved drug. Each class of product may undergo different types of preclinical research, for instance, drugs may undergo pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, ADME, and toxicology testing. This data allows researchers to estimate a safe starting dose of the drug for clinical trials in humans. Medical devices that do not have drug attached will not undergo these additional tests and may go directly to good laboratory practices testing for safety of the device and its components. Some medical devices will undergo biocompatibility testing which helps to show whether a component of the device or all components are sustainable in a living model. Most preclinical studies must adhere to GLPs in ICH Guidelines to be acceptable for submission to regulatory agencies such as the Food & Drug Administration in the United States, both in vitro and in vivo tests will be performed.
Studies of a drugs toxicity include which organs are targeted by that drug, the information collected from these studies is vital so that safe human testing can begin. Typically, in development studies animal testing involves two species. The most commonly used models are murine and canine, although primate, the choice of species is based on which will give the best correlation to human trials. Differences in the gut, enzyme activity, circulatory system, or other considerations make certain models more appropriate based on the form, site of activity. Also, rodents can not act as models for antibiotic drugs because the resulting alteration to their intestinal flora causes significant adverse effects, depending on a drugs functional groups, it may be metabolized in similar or different ways between species, which will affect both efficacy and toxicology. Medical device studies use this basic premise, most studies are performed in larger species such as dogs and sheep which allow for testing in a similar sized model as that of a human.
In addition, some species are used for similarity in specific organs or organ system physiology, animal testing in the research-based pharmaceutical industry has been reduced in recent years both for ethical and cost reasons. However, most research will still involve animal based testing for the need of similarity in anatomy, generally a 1/100 uncertainty factor or safety margin is included to account for interspecies and inter-individual differences. Drug development Preclinical imaging Phases of clinical research
In Egyptian mythology, Apis or Hapis is a sacred bull worshipped in the Memphis region. Identified as the son of Hathor, a deity in the pantheon of Ancient Egypt. Initially, he was assigned a significant role in her worship, being sacrificed, Apis served as an intermediary between humans and other powerful deities. Apis was very important among all of the animals in Egypt, and, as with the others. Auguste Mariettes excavation of the Serapeum of Saqqara revealed the tombs of more than sixty animals, at first, each animal was buried in a separate tomb with a chapel built above it. The current available historical documentary and archaeological evidence suggests the Apis was the first god of Egypt, worship of an Apis bull began during the First Dynasty, which is after the year 2686 BCE. The Apis as a bull experienced by ancient Egyptians as holy, was worshipped at Memphis, worship of the Apis as a god seems to belong to ancient culture of Egypt during the Second Dynasty. According to Manetho, worship of the Apis was instituted by Kaiechos of the Second Dynasty, Apis is named on very early monuments, but little is known of the divine animal before the New Kingdom.
This Osorapis was identified with Serapis of the late Hellenistic period, creating parallels to their own religious beliefs, ancient Greek writers identified Apis as an incarnation of Osiris, ignoring the connection with Ptah. During the start of the Hellenistic period, Ptolemy Soter, who ruled for the period 323-283 BCE, Apis was the most popular of three great bull cults of ancient Egypt, the others being the cults of Mnevis and Buchis. All are related to the worship of Hathor or Bat, similar primary goddesses separated by region until unification that eventually merged as Hathor, the worship of Apis was continued by the Greeks and after them by the Romans, and lasted until almost 400 CE. This animal was chosen because it symbolized the heart, great strength. Apis came to being considered a manifestation of the king, as bulls were symbols of strength and fertility, strong bull of his mother Hathor was a common title for Egyptian gods and male kings, being unused for women serving as king, such as Hatshepsut.
As early as the time of the Narmer Palette, the king is depicted with a tail on one side. Occasionally, Apis was pictured with the symbol of his mother, Hathor. When the disk was depicted on his head with his horns below and the marking on his forehead. That symbol always was associated with Hathor. Early on, Apis was the herald of Ptah, the deity in the area around Memphis
Innovative Medicines Initiative
The Innovative Medicines Initiative is a European initiative to improve the competitive situation of the European Union in the field of pharmaceutical research. The IMI is a joint initiative of the DG Research of the European Commission, representing the European Communities, IMI is laid out as a Joint Technology Initiative within the Seventh Framework Programme. Michel Goldman was the first executive director, from September 2009 until December 2014, the Innovative Medicines Initiative is aimed towards removing research bottlenecks in the current drug development process. The IMI Joint Technology Initiative, to be implemented by the IMI Joint Undertaking is meant to address these research bottlenecks and its €2bn budget makes it the largest biomedical public-private partnership in the world. The funding scheme has been criticised, requiring universities to invest more money than with EU FP7 programs, besides the non-competitive financial aspects of participation in IMI projects for academia, this criticism discusses that intellectual property is freely flowing to industry.
The Sixth Framework Programmes research projects InnoMed AddNeuroMed and InnoMed PredTox acted as pilot projects establishing the feasibility of this particular public-private partnership, since then, the IMI has had four funding rounds, the first call had the topic Safety, while the second call was about Efficacy. Projects for these two calls are ongoing, the IMI2 started in 2014 and will run until 2024, while the IMI1 is still running. Overall budget is €3.276 billion, taken for half from the European Horizon 2020 program, goals of that second calls are to improve clinical trials success rate, deliver clinical proof of concept and new medicines. In September 2014 IMI-TRAIN, an IMI/ENSO-funded education and training collaboration to support biomedical scientists and professionals, has been launched
Academic health science centre
An academic health science centre is a partnership between one or more universities and healthcare providers focusing on research, clinical services and training. AHSCs are intended to ensure that medical research breakthroughs lead to direct benefits for patients. The organisational structures that comprise an AHSC can take a variety of forms, ranging from simple partnerships to, AHSCs currently in operation in Canada include, Hamilton Health Sciences Health Sciences North Only trauma center in Northern Ontario and the neighbouring province of Manitoba. Four more AHSCs have subsequently been established in the UK and one is planned, funding mainly comes from NHS and work was already in hand to identify the funding when expressions of interest were solicited. When contracts were signed with NHS in 2013, AHSCs shared among themselves around £60 million of funding
A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market. A stock symbol may consist of letters, numbers or a combination of both, ticker symbol refers to the symbols that were printed on the ticker tape of a ticker tape machine. Stock symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market, for example, AAPL is for Apple Inc. OODH is for Orion DHC, Inc. and HD is for Home Depot, a stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, and is a way to uniquely identify that stock. The symbols were kept as short as possible to reduce the number of characters that had to be printed on the ticker tape, the allocation of symbols and formatting convention is specific to each stock exchange. In the US, for example, stock tickers are typically between 1 and 4 letters and represent the name where possible. In Europe, most exchanges use three-letter codes, for example Dutch consumer goods company Unilever traded on the Amsterdam Euronext exchange has the symbol UNA, while in Asia, numbers are often used as stock tickers to avoid issues for international investors when using non-Latin scripts.
For example, the bank HSBCs stock traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange has the ticker symbol 0005, symbols sometimes change to reflect mergers. Prior to the 1999 merger with Mobil Oil, Exxon used a spelling of the company XON as its ticker symbol. The symbol of the firm after the merger was XOM, symbols are sometimes reused, in the US the single-letter symbols are particularly sought after as vanity symbols. For example, since Mar 2008 Visa Inc. has used the symbol V that had previously used by Vivendi which had delisted. To fully qualify a stock, both the ticker and the exchange or country of listing needs to be known, on many systems both must be specified to uniquely identify the security. This is often done by appending the location or exchange code to the ticker, although stock tickers identify a security, they are exchange dependent, generally limited to stocks and can change. These limitations have led to the development of other codes in financial markets to identify securities for settlement purposes, the most prevalent of these is the International Securities Identifying Number.
An ISIN uniquely identifies a security and its structure is defined in ISO6166, Securities for which ISINs are issued include bonds, commercial paper and warrants. The ISIN identifies the security, not the exchange on which it trades, for instance, Daimler AG stock trades on twenty-two different stock exchanges worldwide, and is priced in five different currencies, it has the same ISIN on each, though not the same ticker symbol. ISIN cannot specify a particular trade in this case, and another identifier, following the introduction of the Sequence trading platform in 1996, EPICs were renamed Tradable Instrument Display Mnemonics, but they are still widely referred to as EPICs. Stocks can be identified using their SEDOL number or their ISIN, in the United States, modern letter-only ticker symbols were developed by Standard & Poors to bring a national standard to investing
Hemostasis or haemostasis is a process which causes bleeding to stop, meaning to keep blood within a damaged blood vessel. It is the first stage of wound healing and this involves coagulation, blood changing from a liquid to a gel. Intact blood vessels are central to moderating bloods tendency to form clots, the endothelial cells of intact vessels prevent blood clotting with a heparin-like molecule and thrombomodulin and prevent platelet aggregation with nitric oxide and prostacyclin. Hemostasis has three steps, 1) vasoconstriction, 2) temporary blockage of a break by a platelet plug. These processes seal the hole until tissues are repaired, the word hemostasis uses the combining forms hemo- and -stasis, New Latin from Ancient Greek αἱμο- haimo-, and στάσις stásis, yielding motionlessness or stopping of blood. Hemostasis occurs when blood is present outside of the body or blood vessels and it is the instinctive response for the body to stop bleeding and loss of blood. During hemostasis three steps occur in a rapid sequence, Vascular spasm is the first response as the blood vessels constrict to allow less blood to be lost.
In the second step, platelet plug formation, platelets stick together to form a seal to cover the break in the vessel wall. The third and last step is called coagulation or blood clotting, coagulation reinforces the platelet plug with fibrin threads that act as a molecular glue. Platelets are a factor in the hemostatic process. They allow for the creation of the plug that forms almost directly after a blood vessel has been ruptured. Within seconds of a blood vessels epithelial wall being disrupted platelets begin to adhere to the sub-endothelium surface and it takes approximately sixty seconds until the first fibrin strands begin to intersperse among the wound. After several minutes the platelet plug is formed by fibrin. Hemostasis is maintained in the body via three mechanisms, Vascular spasm - Vasoconstriction is produced by smooth muscle cells, and is the blood vessels first response to injury. The smooth muscle cells are controlled by vascular endothelium, which releases intravascular signals to control the contracting properties, when a blood vessel is damaged, there is an immediate reflex, initiated by local sympathetic pain receptors, which helps promote vasoconstriction.
The damaged vessels will constrict which reduces the amount of flow through the area. Collagen is exposed at the site of injury, the collagen promotes platelets to adhere to the injury site, Platelets release cytoplasmic granules which contain serotonin, ADP and thromboxane A2, all of which, increase the effect of vasoconstriction. The spasm response becomes more effective as the amount of damage is increased, Vascular spasm is much more effective in smaller blood vessels