Ivan Shadr, pseudonym of Ivan Dmitriyevich Ivanov was a Russian/Soviet sculptor and medalist who took his pseudonym after his hometown of Shadrinsk. Shadr studied at the Artistic Industrial School in Yekaterinburg from 1903 to 1907, from 1907 to 1908 at the Drawing School of the Imperial Society for the Encouragement of the Arts in St Petersburg where the famous Nicholas Roerich was his teacher, he furthered his education under Auguste Rodin and Emile-Antoine Bourdelle in Paris, in Rome. Shadr's early works, such as the project for the Monument to the World's Suffering, were designed according to the principles of Art Nouveau. After the 1917 Revolution he was an active participant in the execution of the Monumental Propaganda Plan, in particular, he sculptured reliefs depicting the Socialist ideological leaders Karl Marx, Karl Liebknecht, Rosa Luxemburg, as well as some sixteen separate monuments to Vladimir Lenin. In these years the characteristics of Shadr’s style were consolidated: an elevated, romantic organization of the figures and an emotional, dynamic composition.
Among his most famous and characteristic works are sculptures The Cobblestone Is the Weapon of the Proletariat and Girl with an Oar. In the 1920s, Shadr together with sculptor Piotr Tayozhny came up with one of the first designs of the Order of Lenin, the highest Soviet award. Shadr worked for Goznak, including on designing new Soviet money that included the symbols of that time: a worker, a peasant and a Red Army soldier; those sculptures remarkable for their vigorous and dynamic typical characters can be seen nowadays in the Russian Museum and in the Tretyakov Gallery. Shadr died in Moscow and in 1952 was awarded the Stalin Prize posthumously, he is buried in Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow, where his sculptural work can been seen at the grave of Nadezhda Alliluyeva, the second wife of Stalin, the grave of theater director Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko. The Cobblestone Is the Weapon of the Proletariat, bronze, 1927, multiple versions A colossal statue of Lenin at the Zemo-Avchaly Hydroelectric Power Station, near Tbilisi, 1927, removed 1991 Girl with an Oar, multiple versions created in 1935 and 1936 List of Russian artists Ivan Shadr, Russian Sculptor and Artist
Mytishchi is a city and the administrative center of Mytishchinsky District in Moscow Oblast, which lies to the northeast of Russia's capital Moscow, on the Yauza River and the Moscow–Yaroslavl railway. Population: 173,160. Mytishchi has humid continental climate, same as Moscow, but few degrees colder due to lesser impact of urban heat island; the city features long, cold winters, short, warm to hot summers. January daily mean: −10 °C. In the 8th–9th centuries, first Slavic tribes began settling here. In and around Mytishchinsky District about a dozen of such settlements from the 11th–13th centuries have been discovered; the modern settlement has been known since 1460 and since the 19th century it has been known as Bolshiye Mytishchi. Its history is linked to the Yauzsky port. Mytishchi was an important place on the trade ship route. Through this site commercial ships had been hauled across on wheels, rollers, or skids from the Yauza River to the Klyazma River. Merchants had to pay a duty for this.
The settlement got its name thanks to the duty, known as myt. In the mid-19th century, the population was 389. Town status was granted to Mytishchi in 1925. Population was 60,000. Population-211 606 people. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Mytishchi serves as the administrative center of Mytishchinsky District; as an administrative division, it is, together with twenty-four rural localities, incorporated within Mytishchinsky District as the Town of Mytishchi. As a municipal division, the Town of Mytishchi is incorporated within Mytishchinsky Municipal District as Mytishchi Urban Settlement; the city is the oblast's largest center for education. Mytishchi is famous for its aqueduct, built in the 18th century by the order of Catherine the Great, it was the first water supply constructed in Russia to provide the Kremlin with pure water. Mytishchi is twinned with: Mass Media There are three local TV channels: "Our Mytishchi" - the channel that belongs to the town, "The first Mytishchinsky", "TV Mytishchi" - district television.
There is Ognivo puppet theatre, FEST comedy theatre and youth theater Domoy. Губернатор Московской области. Постановление №123-ПГ от 28 сентября 2010 г. «Об учётных данных административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области», в ред. Постановления №252-ПГ от 26 июня 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в учётные данные административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области». Опубликован: "Информационный вестник Правительства МО", №10, 30 октября 2010 г.. Московская областная Дума. Закон №198/2004-ОЗ от 29 декабря 2004 г. «О статусе и границах Мытищинского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований», в ред. Закона №73/2015-ОЗ от 5 мая 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "О статусе и границах Мытищинского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований" и Закон Московской области "О статусе и границах Пушкинского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований"».
Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №13, 26 января 2005 г.. Official website of Mytishchi Unofficial website of Mytishchi
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was a Georgian revolutionary and Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from the mid–1920s until 1953 as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Premier. While presiding over a collective leadership as first among equals, he consolidated enough power to become the country's de facto dictator by the 1930s. A communist ideologically committed to the Leninist interpretation of Marxism, Stalin helped to formalise these ideas as Marxism–Leninism, while his own policies became known as Stalinism. Born to a poor family in Gori, Russian Empire, Stalin joined the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party as a youth, he edited the party's newspaper and raised funds for Vladimir Lenin's Bolshevik faction via robberies and protection rackets. Arrested, he underwent several internal exiles. After the Bolsheviks seized power during the 1917 October Revolution and created a one-party state under Lenin's newly renamed Communist Party, Stalin joined its governing Politburo.
Serving in the Russian Civil War before overseeing the Soviet Union's establishment in 1922, Stalin assumed leadership over the country following Lenin's 1924 death. During Stalin's rule, "Socialism in One Country" became a central tenet of the party's dogma. Under the Five-Year Plans, the country underwent agricultural collectivisation and rapid industrialization, creating a centralized command economy; this led to significant disruptions in food production that contributed to the famine of 1932–33. To eradicate accused "enemies of the working class", Stalin instituted the "Great Purge", in which over a million were imprisoned and at least 700,000 executed between 1934 and 1939. By 1937, he had complete personal control over the state. Stalin's government promoted Marxism–Leninism abroad through the Communist International and supported anti-fascist movements throughout Europe during the 1930s in the Spanish Civil War. In 1939, it signed a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, resulting in the Soviet invasion of Poland.
Germany ended the pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941. Despite initial setbacks, the Soviet Red Army repelled the German incursion and captured Berlin in 1945, ending World War II in Europe; the Soviets annexed the Baltic states and helped establish Soviet-aligned governments throughout Central and Eastern Europe and North Korea. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged from the war as the two world superpowers. Tensions arose between the Soviet-backed Eastern Bloc and U. S.-backed Western Bloc which became known as the Cold War. Stalin led his country through its post-war reconstruction, during which it developed a nuclear weapon in 1949. In these years, the country experienced another major famine and an anti-semitic campaign peaking in the Doctors' plot. Stalin died in 1953. Considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Stalin was the subject of a pervasive personality cult within the international Marxist–Leninist movement which revered him as a champion of the working class and socialism.
Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Stalin has retained popularity in Russia and Georgia as a victorious wartime leader who established the Soviet Union as a major world power. Conversely, his totalitarian government has been condemned for overseeing mass repressions, ethnic cleansing, hundreds of thousands of executions, famines which killed millions. Stalin was born in the Georgian town of Gori on 18 December 1878, he was the son of Besarion "Beso" Jughashvili and Ekaterine "Keke" Geladze, who had married in May 1872, had lost two sons in infancy prior to Stalin's birth. They were ethnically Georgian, Stalin grew up speaking the Georgian language. Gori was part of the Russian Empire, was home to a population of 20,000, the majority of whom were Georgian but with Armenian and Jewish minorities. Stalin was baptised on 29 December, he was nicknamed "Soso", a diminutive of "Ioseb". Besarion owned his own workshop; the family found themselves living in poverty, moving through nine different rented rooms in ten years.
Besarion became an alcoholic, drunkenly beat his wife and son. To escape the abusive relationship, Keke took Stalin and moved into the house of a family friend, Fr. Christopher Charkviani, she worked as launderer for local families sympathetic to her plight. Keke was determined to send her son to school, something that none of the family had achieved. In late 1888, aged 10 Stalin enrolled at the Gori Church School; this was reserved for the children of clergy, although Charkviani ensured that the boy received a place. Stalin excelled academically, displaying talent in painting and drama classes, writing his own poetry, singing as a choirboy, he got into many fights, a childhood friend noted that Stalin "was the best but the naughtiest pupil" in the class. Stalin faced several severe health problems. Aged 12, he was injured after being hit by a phaeton, the cause of a lifelong disability to his left arm. At his teachers' recommendation, Stalin proceeded to the Spiritual Seminary in Tiflis, he enrolled at the school in August 1894, enabled by a scholarship that allowed him to study at a reduced rate.
Here he joined 600 trainee priests who boarded at the semina
Simonov Monastery in Moscow was established in 1370 by monk Feodor, a nephew and disciple of St Sergius of Radonezh. The monastery land belonged to Simeon Khovrin, a boyar of Greek extraction and progenitor of the great clan of Golovins, he took monastic vows in the cloister under the name Simon. In 1379, the monastery was moved half a mile to the east, its original location, where bodies of the warriors killed in the Battle of Kulikovo had been buried, is still commemorated by the old Simonov church. During the 15th century, the cloister was the richest in Moscow. Among the learned monks who lived and worked there were Maximus the Greek. A white stone cathedral was erected in 1405; as the monastery defended southern approaches to Moscow, it was fortified in the 1640s. The last addition to the complex was a huge multi-storied bell-tower, modelled after Ivan the Great Bell Tower of Moscow Kremlin; the monastery was abolished by the Bolsheviks in 1923, soon thereafter most of its buildings were demolished to make way for an automobile plant.
Surviving structures all date back to the 17th century and include three towers of cannon-like appearance and auxiliary buildings in the Naryshkin baroque style. The Moscow government announced plans for a full-scale reconstruction of the famous cloister. According to several sources, part of the former monastery buildings was transferred in 1990 from the Ministry of Culture of the USSR to Russian Orthodox Church and Orthodox community of deaf people, who began the works on restoration and reconstruction of its facilities; the first service here after the restoration was held in 1992
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
President of Russia
The President of Russia the President of the Russian Federation, is the head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces. In 1991, the office was known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power. In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister of Russia, who becomes Acting President of Russia; the Chairman of the Federation Council is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.
The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances; the president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation. The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term; the law prohibits anyone from being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. In May 2012, Vladimir Putin became the fourth president. A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation, at least 35 years old and has "permanently resided" in Russia for at least 10 years; the Constitution of Russia limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms.
Since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term. The election of the President is regulated by the Presidential Election Law and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights; the Federation Council calls the presidential elections. If it does not call a presidential election, due, the Central Election Commission will call the presidential election; the Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the presidential electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation as a whole. Each faction in the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections; the minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a political party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000, down from 2 million before amendments to the law. Terms were extended from four during Dmitry Medvedev's administration.
The President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation. If no candidate wins by an absolute majority in the first round, a second election round is held between two candidates with the most votes; the last presidential election was in 2018, the next is expected in 2024. Inauguration of the President of Russia is conducted six years after the previous inauguration. If the President was elected in early elections, he takes the oath, thirty days after the announcement of the results. Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people. Vacancies in the office of President may arise under several possible circumstances: death and removal from office.
In all cases when the President is unable to perform his duties, his powers are temporarily transferred to the Prime Minister until the new President takes office. After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president; these devices are used on special occasions. The first insignia, issued is the chain of office with an emblem; the central emblem is the red cross of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", with arms in equal size, charged with the Russian coat of arms. On the reverse of the cross, the words "Benefit and Glory" appear in the form of a circle. A golden wreath is used to connect the cross with the rest of the chain. There are 17 "links" in the emblem, with nine consisting of the Russian coat of arms; the other eight consist of a rosette bearing the motto "Benefit and Glory." At the inauguration of Vladimir Putin, the emblem was placed on a red pillow, positioned on the left side of the podium. According to the Presidential website, the emblem is placed inside the Kremlin and is used only on certain occasions.
The standard is a square version of the Russian flag, charged in the center with the Russian coat of arms. Golden fringe is added to the standard. Copies of the stan
Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov was a Russian writer, medical doctor and playwright active in the first half of the 20th century. He is best known for his novel The Master and Margarita, published posthumously, called one of the masterpieces of the 20th century. Mikhail Bulgakov was born on 15 May 1891 in Kiev, Kiev Governorate of the Russian Empire, into a Russian family, he was one of the seven children of Afanasiy Ivanovich Bulgakov — a state councilor, an assistant professor at the Kiev Theological Academy, as well as a prominent Russian Orthodox essayist and translator of religious texts. His mother was a former teacher. Both of his grandfathers were clergymen in the Russian Orthodox Church. Afanasiy Bulgakov was born in Bryansk Oblast, where his father was a priest, he moved to Kiev to study in the academy. Varvara Bulgakova was born in Russia. According to Edythe C. Haber, in his "autobiographical remarks" Bulgakov stated that she was a descendant of Tartar hordes, which influenced some of his works.
However, there is no mention of it in Bulgakov's collection of works, so the source of the claims is unclear. From childhood Bulgakov was drawn to theater. At home, he wrote comedies, which his sisters acted out. In 1901 Bulgakov joined the First Kiev Gymnasium, where he developed an interest in Russian and European literature and opera; the teachers of the Gymnasium exerted a great influence on the formation of his literary taste. After the death of his father in 1907, Mikhail's mother, a well-educated and extraordinarily diligent person, assumed responsibility for his education. After graduation from the Gymnasium in 1909, Bulgakov entered the Medical Faculty of Kiev University, which he finished with special commendation, he took a position as a physician at the Kiev Military Hospital. In 1913, Bulgakov married Tatiana Lappa. At the outbreak of the First World War, he volunteered with the Red Cross as a medical doctor and was sent directly to the front, where he was badly injured at least twice.
Bulgakov's suffering from these wounds had deleterious long-term effects. To suppress chronic pain in the abdomen, he injected himself with morphine. Over the next year his addiction grew stronger. In 1918, he abandoned morphine and never used it again. Morphine, a book released in 1926, is his account of that trying period. In 1916, Bulgakov graduated from the Medical Department of Kiev University and after serving as a surgeon at Chernovitsy hospital, was appointed provincial physician to Smolensk province, his life in those days is reflected in his A Country Doctor's Notebook. In September 1917 Bulgakov was moved to the hospital near Smolensk. In February 1918, he returned to Kiev, where he opened a private practice at his home at Andreyevsky Descent, 13. Here he witnessed ten coups. Successive governments drafted the young doctor into their service while two of his brothers were serving in the White Army against the Bolsheviks. In February 1919 he was mobilised as an army physician by the Ukrainian People's Army and assigned to the Northern Caucasus.
There, he became ill with typhus and survived. In the Caucasus he started working as a journalist, but when he and others were invited to return as doctors by the French and German governments, Bulgakov was refused permission to leave Russia because of the typhus; that was. After his illness, Bulgakov abandoned his medical practice to pursue writing. In his autobiography, he recalled how he began: "Once in 1919 when I was traveling at night by train I wrote a short story. In the town where the train stopped, I took the story to the publisher of the newspaper who published the story", his first book was an almanac of feuilletons called Future Perspectives and published the same year. In December 1919 Bulgakov moved to Vladikavkaz, he wrote and saw his first two plays, Self Defence and The Turbin Brothers, being produced for the city theater stage with great success. After travelling through the Caucasus, Bulgakov headed for Moscow, intending "to remain here forever", it was difficult to find work in the capital, but he was appointed secretary to the literary section of Glavpolitprosvet.
In September 1921 Bulgakov and his wife settled near Patriarch's Ponds, on Bolshaya Sadovaya street, 10. To make a living, he started working as a correspondent and feuilletons writer for the newspapers Gudok, Krasnaia Panorama and Nakanune, based in Berlin. For the almanac Nedra, he wrote Diaboliad, The Fatal Eggs, Heart of a Dog, works that combined bitter satire and elements of science fiction and were concerned with the fate of a scientist and the misuse of his discovery; the most significant features of Bulgakov's satire, such as a skillful blending of fantastic and realistic elements, grotesque situations, a concern with important ethical issues, had taken shape. Between 1922 and 1926 Bulgakov wrote several plays, none of which were allowed production at the time; the Run, treating the horrors of a fratricidal war, was banned by Joseph Stalin after the Glavrepertkom decided that it "glorifie